教會論與教會生活-林慈信(41集) - 21 - 《教會論與教會生活》林慈信博士 -第21講

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Living in Christ’s Church
session 21
引言
introduction
這個引言滿長的
Many figures are used for
the church in the New Testament.
新約聖經裡用各種的暗喻、比喻
來指教會
It is pictured as a bride,
新約描述教會是新婦、新娘
a flock,
羊群
a vine,
葡萄樹
a field,
田地
a temple.
聖殿
But in the letters of Pau
one figure is repeatedly used.
但是在保羅書信裡面
重複地使用另外一個暗喻
The apostle describes the church
as a body.
使徒保羅形容教會是一個身體
Now that may appear to be a
commonplace image
對我們來說好像很平凡的一個比喻
-we think of any organization
as a body of people.
我們一般認為任何的組織都是
一群或是一體人
a body of people
The term corporation means just that
corporation 這個字
香港是翻譯為有限公司
台灣是財團法人
這個字就是身體的意思
a group of people
一組人
who are joined as one body
by a legal fiction.
財團法人或者有限公司裡
只是用一個法律上虛構的概念
來連結一幫人成為一體
The state is a public body,
政府也是一個公眾體
having a corporate unity and identity.
有一個整體的合一性
和整體的身份
The New Testament figure for the church
is not simply that it is a body of people
新約聖經講到教會的時候
不僅僅是指教會是一體的人
a body of people
but that it is the body of Christ.
乃是基督的身體
這裡在英文是這樣
a body of people, the body of Christ.
不是「一組」人,是「那個」基督獨特的身體
Evidently that means more than that
the church is a Christian corporation.
很明顯地這個意思不僅僅是說
教會是一個基督徒的財團法人
或是一個群體
We should not be surprised that the body
figure for the church is related to Christ
我們不應該稀奇,教會這個作為身體
的這個比喻是與基督有關的
-all the figures for the church
are related to Christ.
聖經所用的關於教會所有的暗喻
都是與基督有關的
If the church is a bride
教會若是新娘
Christ is the Bridegroom;
基督就是新郎
if the church is a flock
教會若是羊群
Christ is the Shepherd;
基督是牧羊人
if the church is a temple
教會若是聖殿
Christ is the Builder,
the Foundation or the Cornerstone.
基督就是建造者、根基或者房角石
This linking of Christ with his church
is particularly clear in the figure
of the vine.
基督與教會的連結
透過葡萄樹這個比喻
是最清楚的
n the prophecy of Isaiah God describes
Israel as the vine he planted,
在以賽亞的預言裡
上帝形容以色列是祂所種植的葡萄樹
“the plant of his delight” (Is. 5:7).
祂所喜悅的葡萄樹
葡萄樹其實是指以色列
Christ said to his disciples, “I am the vine,
ye are the branches” (John 15:5).
基督對祂的門徒說
我就是葡萄樹,你們是枝子
約翰福音十五章5節
That union of Christ and his church
基督與教會的這個聯合
is also expressed in the
figure of the body.
也透過身體這個暗喻表達出來
Christians are joined together
by being joined to Christ.
基督徒與基督聯合
因此彼此連結
They are a body because
they are Christ’s body.
基督徒是一體
因為他是基督的身體
基督徒是一體
因為他們是基督的身體
But what does the figure
of the body of Christ really mean?
但是
基督的身體這個暗喻
究竟是什麼意思呢
It has always been the conviction
of the Christian church that
基督教教會一直以來的信念乃是
it expresses a high mystery.
身體是表達一個很崇高的奧秘
Yet the “mystical body of Christ”
但是基督奧秘的身體
has sometimes been made
so mysterious
有時候說到那麼地奧秘
that it has been vaporized
rather than exalted.
奧秘到不是被高舉,乃是好像蒸發掉了
Churchmen may be all too
ready to pay lip service
to the mystical body of Christ
教會領袖們可能都很願意
在口頭上承認
教會是基督奧秘的身體
so long as they are free to run the
earthly organization of the church
in their own way.
只要他們有自由在地上用他們的方法
隨意地來管理這個教會地上的組織
The apostle Paul, however, spoke of
the church as the body of Christ
to set straight church problems at
Corinth, in Asia Minor, at Rome.
可是,使徒保羅是因為
他要糾正在哥林多、亞西亞、
羅馬的教會一些的問題
所以他論到教會的時候
說教會是基督的身體
If we come to grips with what
Paul says about the body of Christ
假如我們掌握到保羅所說
基督的身體是什麼意思的時候
we will not escape
the practical consequences.
我們不能逃避在實際上的
一些推論、一些後果
What does Paul mean by
calling the church the body of Christ?
保羅稱教會為基督的身體
他的意思是什麼呢?
First we must understand
why the physical body of Christ
is so important for the apostle.
首先我們必須要瞭解
為什麼基督肉身的身體
對使徒保羅是那麼地重要
On the road to Damascus
去大馬色的路上
Saul the persecutor of the church
was confronted by the risen Lord and
became Paul the servant of Jesus Christ.
掃羅,那位逼迫教會的掃羅
有復活的主耶穌面對他、面責他
掃羅就成為耶穌基督的僕人保羅了
He never forgot the sight
that blinded him
他永遠不會忘記使他瞎眼的那幅景象
-the glory of the Lord
in his resurrection body.
就是耶穌基督在祂復活身體裡的
主耶穌基督的榮耀
Many years later he wrote to
the church at Philippi
很多年之後,他寫信給腓立比的教會
about the Savior who would
come again from heaven,
論到有一天要從天上再臨的救主
Much of his first letter to the Corinthians
is concerned with the temptation of these
Greeks to deny the resurrection of the body.
他所寫的哥林多前書很重要的篇幅
是談到這些講希臘語的基督徒
他們面對的試探就是不願意承認
我們的身體有一天會復活的
所以基督復活的身體很重要
It is not only the risen body of Christ
that is important for Paul.
對保羅來說
不單單是基督那個
復活的身體是那麼地重要
Even more frequently he speaks
about the crucified body of Christ.
保羅更多次的論到
基督釘十字架的身體
When Christ died on the cross
當基督在十字架上死的時候
he died as the representative
of his people.
祂是以祂的子民的代表的身份死的
We are therefore “dead to the law
through the body of Christ” (Rom. 7:4).
As Peter puts it,. Christ “bore our sins
in his own body on the tree” (1 Pet. 2:24).
正如彼得所說的
祂親身的在祂身體上
擔當了我們的罪
Our sins deserve the death penalty
我們的罪使我們配受死刑
but Christ bore that penalty,
但是基督承擔了那個刑罰
dying in our place.
代替了我們死了
In God’s judgment the death
of Christ’s body was our death
從上帝審判的角度來看
基督肉身的死就是我們的死
just as surely as if we had died
on his cross.
就等於我們在基督十字架上死
那麼地真,那麼地確實
Christ died and rose in one body,
基督是在同一個身體死了和復活的
and believers died with him and
rose with him in that one body.
信徒就是在基督
那一個身體裡與祂同死
就是在基督那一個身體裡
與祂同復活的
This representative union
between Christ and his people
耶穌基督和祂的子民
這種代表性的合一
has deep roots in the Old Testament.
是根植於舊約聖經
Paul’s summary of the gospel was
保羅是怎麼總結
他所宣講的福音的呢?
Much that the New Testament says
about Christ’s death in the place of sinners
uses the language of Isaiah 53.
新約聖經論到基督
代替罪人的死的教訓
都是用了以賽亞書第五十三章的用詞
hat prophecy tells us that
那一段的先知書告訴我們
the Servant of the Lord
bore the sin of many.
耶和華的僕人擔當了眾人的罪
He carried our griefs,
祂承擔了我們的憂傷
he was wounded for our transgressions,
因為我們的過犯,祂受傷
his soul was made an offering
for our sin.
祂的靈魂、祂的生命是作為
代替我們的罪所獻的祭
In that passage
在以賽亞書五十三章這段經文
the Servant represents
the people of God
上帝的僕人
耶和華的僕人代表了上帝的子民
and fulfills God’s covenant,
也實現了、成全了
也遵守了上帝的約
which requires that
his people serve him.
上帝的約要求祂的子民必須服事祂
He is the Lord of the covenant
上帝的僕人是盟約的主
and they are his servants.
祂的子民是祂的僕人們
你這裡看到又是僕人、又是主
彌賽亞又是僕人、又是主
In God’s covenant
the patriarchs represented the
generations to follow.
在上帝的約裡
列祖亞伯拉罕、以撒、雅各代表了
他們以後要來的
一代一代的人
God delivered Israel from Egypt
to keep his promises to
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
上帝搭救以色列出埃及
是為了要守住祂向亞伯拉罕、
以撒、雅各所給的應許
So also the prophets, priests and kings
represented the people of the covenant.
同樣地,先知們、祭司們、君王們
就是代表約民的
They bore reproach for the sake
of God and the people (Ps. 69:9).
他們是為了上帝的緣故
也是為了上帝的子民的緣故
受到辱罵
順便一提,在約翰福音第二章
門徒們就想到這段經文
當主耶穌把買賣的人趕出聖殿的時候
耶穌基督為聖殿大發熱心
因為世界上的辱罵都落在耶穌基督
我們的先知、祭司、君王的身上
But neither the nation as God’s servant
nor any individual servant could keep
God’s covenant and fulfill his calling
但是,不論是以色列國身為上帝的僕人
或者任何一個個別的
猶太人上帝的僕人
都不可能遵守上帝的約
實現上帝的約在他身上的呼召
不可能的
-only the Messiah can do that.
唯有彌賽亞才做得到
He is not only God’s chosen Servant,
彌賽亞不單單是上帝所揀選的僕人
he is God’s beloved Son.
祂是上帝所愛的愛子
The body of Christ offered on the cross
is the body of the Servant
耶穌基督在十字架上所獻上的身體
是那僕人的身體
who bears the sin of many as the representative
head of the New Covenant.
這位僕人是新的約的代表
新的約的頭
擔當了多人的罪
In Ephesians 2:11 ff.
在以弗所書第二章
從11節起那一段
Paul writes that the Gentiles were
“separate from Christ,
alienated from the commonwealth of Israel,
and strangers from the covenants of promise.”
保羅說,外邦人以前是
外邦人沒有受割禮
是與基督無關的
在以色列國民以外
在所應許的各種的約上
都是局外人
沒有盼望,沒有上帝的
To be separated from Christ is to be
excluded from God’s covenant.
在基督以外,就是在上帝的約以外
這句話很重要
所以在恩典之約裡面
就是在基督裡
與基督無關就是在上帝的約之外
被排除的
But in the blood of Christ-
the blood of the New Covenant
但是藉著基督的寶血
就是新約的血
those who were afar off
are made nigh.
那些遠方的人,現在就變成鄰近了
“Through him we both
[Jews and Gentiles]
have our access in one Spirit
unto the Father” (Eph. 2:18).
Gentiles are no longer
strangers and sojourners
外邦人現在不再是陌生人
不再是流浪課
but are fellow citizens with the saints
現在是與眾聖徒同作國民的
and of the household of God.
與眾聖徒同作上帝家裡的人
Believing Jews and Gentiles are built
together in one holy temple
for God’s dwelling in the Spirit.
相信主耶穌的猶太人和外邦人
現在是同被建造
成為上帝的靈所居住的
一個的,同一個聖殿
There is one commonwealth,
只有一個共和體
one household,
一個家
one temple
一個聖殿
and also one body.
一個身體
Christ made Jews and Gentiles to be one
基督使猶太人、外邦人成為一體
我們下一講繼續講
教會是基督的身體
講完這段後
後面要講的
一個餅,一個身體
又要講到教會作為基督的身體
是聖靈的殿
再講到一個身體卻有不同的肢體

林慈信


Living in Christ's church: Edmund P Clowney

林慈信博士在台灣錄製《教會論與教會生活》系列,這專題是林牧師特別為教會中的平信徒、長老、與執事預備的,是對教會的建造有益的。這專題是出於威敏斯特神學院,克羅尼院長的著作。克羅尼院長也曾是林牧師的老師。《教會論與教會生活》Living in Christ’s Church (Great Commission Publications)這本書是眾多成人主日學教科書之一,由PCA(美國改革宗長老會)與OPC(信正長老會)兩宗派合辦的主日學教材出版社所出版的書,也是專為平信徒而寫的書。


林慈信 Just Smile

林慈信博士,西敏神學院神學碩士,天普大學歷史系哲學博士,加州洛杉磯「中華展望 China Horizon」創辦人。致力於護教與神學信仰的工作,在神學、宣道學、及歷史學等都有相當的造詣。林牧師不僅著力於出版歸正信仰的書籍,並且發表至少500篇的論文。著重系統神學、護教學、清教徒的成聖神學與聖經輔導學等;同時任教於美國國際神學院、西敏神學院、聖約神學院等校。推動聖經輔導不遺餘力。

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