教會論與教會生活-林慈信(41集) - 14 - 《教會論與教會生活》林慈信博士 -第14講

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Living in Christ’s Church
session 14
Jesus says to Peter, “And I also
say unto thee, that thou art Peter,
and upon this rock I will build my church;
and the gates of Hades shall not
prevail against it” (Matt. 16:18).
耶穌是這樣向彼得說的
In those words Jesus recognizes
the foundational faith of the church
by appointing a foundational office
for the church.
耶穌透過講這句話
指定了教會一個建立基礎的
基礎性的職分
透過這個基礎性的職分 就是使徒
耶穌認定了教會基礎性的信仰
基要的職分帶來基要的信仰
The words of Jesus are inscribed in Latin
around the entablature just below the
great dome of Saint Peter’s in Rome.
在羅馬梵諦岡聖彼得教堂
那個圓拱下面的柱頂那一圈那裡
這些字是用拉丁文刻在柱頂上的
The Roman Catholic church
has used those words of Jesus
羅馬天主教用了這些耶穌的話
to claim for itself the authority
to bind men’s consciences
用這些話來聲稱自己有權柄
束縛、綑綁人的良心
by its interpretation of Scripture,
透過天主教會對聖經的解釋
來綑綁人的良心
to add new doctrines
not taught in Scripture
他教導一些
聖經裡面沒有教導的新的教義
透過這個來綑綁人的良心
and to reinterpret
the plain teaching of Scripture.
他們把聖經清楚的教導重新地解釋
用這個第三個方法來綑綁人的良心
It has done so by first separating
Peter from the other apostles,
他們這樣做第一步是先把彼得
和所有其他的使徒們分別出來
and then by claiming the continuation
of his authority in the Pope of Rome.
然後就宣稱在羅馬教宗的身上
就繼續了彼得的權柄
Not surprisingly,
Protestant interpretation of this verse
has been at pains to refute
the Roman Catholic claims.
宗教改革,基督新教如何解釋這節經文呢
是盡力地來駁斥天主教教會的聲稱
這個是不稀奇的
At times the intensity of
argument has led Protestants
to minimize what the text does say.
但是有的時候
基督新教,我們基督教的論點
有的時候講得太過強
以致於這段經文正面所講的
我們也把它削弱了
You may have heard the claim that
the foundation of the church is
in no sense Peter but only his confession.
你可能聽過這種聲稱說
教會的根基絕對不是彼得
而僅僅是彼得的宣告,他信仰的宣告
But that is to push a sound point too far.
但這個是正確的話,講得太強了
Only as the confessing apostle
is Peter made the
foundation rock of the church,
but we cannot separate
Peter from the rock foundation.
是的,就是因為彼得是那位認信
承認信仰的使徒
因此基督讓他作教會的基礎
教會的磐石
但是我們也不能把彼得其人
和磐石基礎
把它完全分割的
The name “Peter”
彼得這個名字
(Petros in Greek, Cephas in Aramaic)
希臘文是 Petros ,亞蘭文是 Cephas
意思就是磐石
To be sure, Petros is masculine:
誠然,Petros 這個自是陽性的
it is the name of a man.
是一個男人的名字
Petra, the word for “rock”
in this verse, is feminine.
在這節經文裡所用的「磐石」
這個字 Petra 是陰性的
It is the usual word for bedrock,
the rock on which a building
could be built (Matt. 7:24, 25).
這個字一般是用來作磐石
就是一個建築物所建造在的那個根基
那個磐石上
正如耶穌基督在馬太福音
第七章24~25節所說的
聰明人建造房子在磐石上
Petra
(The word petros in the masculine
is sometimes used in Greek to denote a rock,
在希臘文,有的時候
陽性的 petros 也是用來指一塊石頭
but it seems to indicate a free-standing
boulder rather than a stratum of rock.)
但一般是指一塊石頭
而不是指一層的磐石
Jesus emphatically repeats Peter’s name,
耶穌強調
耶穌重複彼得的名字
a name that Jesus had
himself given Peter
because of its significance (John 1:42).
這個名字是耶穌親自賜給彼得的
就是因為這個名字有它的重要性
Peter said to Jesus, “Thou art the Christ.”
彼得向耶穌說:你是基督
Jesus replied, “Thou are Peter.”
耶穌回答說:你是彼得
In the context the name
of Peter serves almost as a title.
從上下文來看
彼得這個名字差不多是像一個頭銜
Jesus stressed the parallel
between the two statements
by beginning, “And I also say unto thee . . . “
耶穌強調這兩句話之間的平行性
因為祂一開始說:我告訴你
Jesus named Peter “Rock,”
耶穌命名彼得為磐石
and Jesus will make Peter a rock of
foundation of the church he builds.
耶穌會使彼得成為
祂所建造的教會的磐石
教會的基礎
Of course, in a different context
God may be called the Rock (Deut. 32:4),
當然,在另外一個情況裡面
上帝也可以被稱為磐石
and Peter himself calls
Jesus the cornerstone (1 Pet. 2:4-8).
而彼得親自稱耶穌為房角石
The Bible uses many different figures
in many different ways.
聖經用不同的詞彙或是比喻
常常意思是不一樣的
The lordship of Jesus appears
even more clearly here
where he calls himself
the builder of his church
than where he describes himself as the
cornerstone, rejected of the builders (Matt. 21:42).
在這段經文
耶穌基督的主權是更加地明顯的
就是說在馬太福音第十六章
因為祂稱自己是建造教會的那一位
在其他經文
耶穌形容祂自己是房角石
是那些匠人所棄的
但是當耶穌說我必建造教會的時候
祂的主權就更明顯了
耶穌是房角石
但耶穌也是建造教會的那一位
But if we cannot make Peter’s
confession the rock apart from Peter,
neither can we make Peter the rock
apart from his confession.
假如我們不能離開彼得其人
來說彼得的認信就是磐石
那我們也不能夠離開彼得的認信
來說彼得其人就是磐石
It is as the recipient of revelation
from the Father that Peter is the rock.
彼得因為他是
領受父上帝的啟示的一位
所以他是磐石
This is dramatically shown
later in this same passage.
在這段經文後段
就很明顯地、很強烈地顯明了
Made bold perhaps by
Jesus’ words to him,
彼得可能因為耶穌對他講的話
就越來越膽大了
Peter dares to rebuke Jesus,
他竟然膽敢責備耶穌
warning him against going to
the cross (Matt. 16:22).
警告耶穌不要上十字架
馬太福音十六章22節
The response of Jesus is now
completely different (vs. 23).
現在耶穌的回應就完全不同了
When Peter said that Jesus was the
Son of God he spoke from the Father.
當彼得稱耶穌是神的兒子的時候
他是由父所領受而講的
When he told Jesus
not to go to the cross
當彼得告訴耶穌不要上十字架的時候
he was minding not
the things of God but of men.
彼得顧慮的不是上帝的事
乃是人的事
Worse than that,
不但如此,更糟糕的是
he spoke not for God but for the devil.
他不是代表上帝說話,他是代表魔鬼說話
Jesus does not now call him “Peter”
現在耶穌不稱他為彼得了
but “Satan”!
耶穌稱他為撒但
Jesus adds, “Thou art
a stumbling block unto me.”
耶穌在多加一句:你對我來說是絆腳石
The word stumbling block (standalon)
絆腳石這個字
in this context could better be
translated “stone of stumbling.”
可能翻譯得更好的是
絆跌的石
It refers to a trap,
它是指一個陷阱
or whatever might catch your foot
and cause you to trip and fall.
或者任何使你失足跌倒的東西
Anyone who has walked about in Israel knows
任何人只要去過以色列走路的話就知道
that it is stones and outcroppings
of rock that most often trip one up.
走路的時候會跌倒
往往是都是因為有些石頭在路中
Peter himself uses the full expression “stone of stumbling” (petra skandalou)
in 1 Peter 2:8
彼得自己就用了使人絆倒的石
在彼得前書二章8節
when he quotes from Isaiah 8:14.
在那裡他引用了以賽亞書八章14節
If Jesus was speaking Aramaic
he probably used the same words found
in the Aramaic translation of the Isaiah passage.
假如耶穌當時是用亞蘭文講話的話
祂可能就用了以賽亞書
亞蘭文翻譯本裡面的字
In that case
假如是如此的話
Jesus would have said that Peter was
now a Cephas ( Ceph) of stumbling to him.
耶穌會說
現在彼得就是一個使祂絆跌的磯法
What an astonishing reversal!
令人驚訝的翻轉
Peter is called a rock by Jesus
twice in this chapter.
在本章
耶穌稱彼得兩次是磐石
As the confessing apostle
作為宣告、承認信仰的使徒
he is the rock of foundation;
彼得是基礎的磐石
as the mouthpiece of Satan
但是作為撒但的出口
he is the rock of stumbling.
他是使人絆跌的石頭
It is not Peter the man
who is the rock foundation,
做為磐石、基礎磐石的,不是彼得其人
it is Peter the apostle inspired by the
Father to confess the deity of Christ.
乃是使徒彼得,由父神所默示
來宣告基督的神性的
We cannot separate Peter
from his confession
or from the other disciples.
我們不能把彼得其人和他的宣告分開
也不能把彼得和其他門徒分開
Peter speaks as their representative
彼得作為他們的代表來講話的
in answer to a question
addressed to them all.
回答耶穌向眾門徒所問的問題
In Matthew 18:18
在馬太福音第十八章18節
the same authority for
binding and loosing given to Peter
is given to all the disciples.
那個在地上綑綁釋放的權柄
給了彼得,也是同樣給了所有的門徒的
They too receive
the keys of the kingdom.
這些門徒同樣地領受了天國的鑰匙
Jesus does not single out Peter
in contrast to the others for whom he speaks
but in contrast to the scribes and Pharisees.
耶穌並不是把彼得分別出來
與那些祂所論到的其他門徒,不是的
耶穌把彼得分別出來
是與文士和法利賽人對照
They sit in Moses’s seat
他們坐在摩西的座位上
and claim to hold the key of knowledge,
他們也宣稱自己有知識的鑰匙
but they do not use their knowledge
to open the kingdom to others
但是他們沒有用他們的知識
來為別人打開天國的門
nor to enter themselves
(Luke 11:52, Matt. 23:1-4).
自己也沒有進到天國裡面
The keys of the kingdom
are taken from them
and given to unlearned fishermen.
天國的鑰匙,從法利賽人和文士被奪去了
要給那些沒有學問的漁夫們
Why this reversal?
為什麼有這樣的翻轉呢?
Because the twelve
are the disciples of Jesus;
因為這十二位是耶穌的門徒
they share with Peter the God-given
conviction that Jesus is Lord,
他們與彼得一樣,有上帝所給他們的信念
耶穌是主,the Messiah
耶穌是彌賽亞
and the Son of God.
耶穌是神的兒子
所以使徒們是建立教會的根基的
今天就沒有使徒了
Notice that Jesus says
“I will build my church.”
請注意耶穌說:我要建造我的教會
He will build it by his death and resurrection.
祂要藉著祂的死和復活建造教會
His shed blood builds the church-
祂所流出的寶血建立教會
he pays the price of sin to redeem
the people of God (1 Pet. 1:19; 2:24).
祂付了罪的代價,來買贖上帝的子民
His resurrection victory builds the church
for he has the keys of
death and of hell (Rev. 1:18).
耶穌基督復活的勝利,就建造了教會
因為祂手上有了死亡
和陰間或者地獄的鑰匙
The gates of hell cannot
prevail against the church.
陰間的門或者權勢,是不能勝過教會的
Death cannot hold captive Christ himself
死亡不能綑綁、擄去耶穌基督
or those who are
united to Christ their Savior.
或者綑綁那些
與他們救主基督聯合的人
死亡不能綑綁他們
In his ascended glory
Christ builds the church,
剛才在講耶穌透過祂的死
建立教會
耶穌透過祂的復活
建造教會
現在講耶穌在祂升天的榮耀中
建造祂的教會
for Jesus is exalted
as the prince of salvation,
因為耶穌被高舉
祂是救恩的元帥
and the Holy Spirit sent from his throne
is the architect of his church.
而從祂的寶座被差遣出去的聖靈
就是建造祂的教會的建築師,architect
The whole book of Acts shows us
整本使徒行傳向我們顯明
how Christ sets about building his church
in the power of his word and Spirit.
向我們顯明耶穌是怎麼透過
祂的話的大能
祂聖靈的大能
正在建造祂的教會
At the last, nothing can destroy
the church that Christ builds.
至終,沒有人能夠毀壞
基督所建造的教會的
In August 1969
hurricane Camille struck
the Gulf Coast of the United States
from Gulfport to Biloxi.
有一次旋風吹過美國東南的海岸
A wall of water thirty feet high driven
by winds of 200 miles an hour
smashed everything before it.
水有三十英尺這麼高
吹著水的風
有每小時二十英里那麼強
把所有在它前面的東西,都粉碎了
A group of foolish people were
celebrating at a hurricane party
in an apartment building on the coast.
有些很笨的人
在海岸的一個公寓裡
在玩耍、在慶祝旋風
在開旋風宴會
They trusted their shelter,
他們信靠他們的蔭避
but the hurricane destroyed it and them.
但是旋風粉碎了這棟房子,他們也滅亡了
Isaiah paints a similar picture
(Is. 28: 15-18).
以賽亞也描繪了一幅類似的圖畫
Sinful and self-confident Israel think
that they have a covenant with death,
以色列,有罪的以色列
自己有信心的以色列以為
他們與死亡已經立了一個約
that the storm of death
and destruction will not reach them.
所以死亡滅亡的風暴不會臨到他們
Their hope too will be in vain.
他們的盼望也是徒然的
But Jesus will build his church
to be hurricane-proof.
但耶穌建造的教會
是能夠防旋風的
Neither the storm of God’s judgment
nor the waters of death will sweep it away,
上帝審判的風暴或者死亡的大水
不會把它沖去
for it is built on the rock of
the apostolic confession of Jesus Christ
and God-given faith in him.
因為教會是建造在
使徒們宣告耶穌基督是神的兒子
也就是建立在上帝所給他們的
對基督的信心的基礎上
Jesus Christ builds his church,
耶穌基督建立祂的教會
God’s people are his people,
上帝的子民是耶穌基督的子民
and he is the tried Stone,
耶穌是試驗過的石頭
the precious cornerstone of sure
foundation (Is. 28:16; 1 Pet. 2:6).
是寶貝的石頭,是穩固的根基
以賽亞書二十八章16節
彼得前書二章6節
The church will not fail
教會永不會失敗的
because Christ will not fail.
因為基督永不失敗
Jesus Christ is the same yesterday,
today and forever;
耶穌基督昨日今日都永遠是一樣的
不變的
his kingdom will not be shaken,
祂的國度不會搖動
for it is established at God’s
right hand (Heb. 13:8; 12:28).
因為在上帝的右手那裡
祂的國度是在那裡建立的
希伯來書第十三章8節
希伯來書第十二章28節

林慈信


Living in Christ's church: Edmund P Clowney

林慈信博士在台灣錄製《教會論與教會生活》系列,這專題是林牧師特別為教會中的平信徒、長老、與執事預備的,是對教會的建造有益的。這專題是出於威敏斯特神學院,克羅尼院長的著作。克羅尼院長也曾是林牧師的老師。《教會論與教會生活》Living in Christ’s Church (Great Commission Publications)這本書是眾多成人主日學教科書之一,由PCA(美國改革宗長老會)與OPC(信正長老會)兩宗派合辦的主日學教材出版社所出版的書,也是專為平信徒而寫的書。


林慈信 Just Smile

林慈信博士,西敏神學院神學碩士,天普大學歷史系哲學博士,加州洛杉磯「中華展望 China Horizon」創辦人。致力於護教與神學信仰的工作,在神學、宣道學、及歷史學等都有相當的造詣。林牧師不僅著力於出版歸正信仰的書籍,並且發表至少500篇的論文。著重系統神學、護教學、清教徒的成聖神學與聖經輔導學等;同時任教於美國國際神學院、西敏神學院、聖約神學院等校。推動聖經輔導不遺餘力。

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