系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第10講 我們如何從事神學研究之屬靈動力

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

我們學校的名字是“清教徒改革宗神學院(seminary)”,
Probably the most common slip of any word that I have ever heard mispronounced
但是我常常聽到人們口誤,
is that often people say when they
將它說成“清教徒改革宗墓地(cemetery)”。
speak about our seminary, Puritan Reformed cemetery.
我也不知道為什麼,
I don’t know where it comes from,
可能就是當我們說神學院”(seminary)這個詞的時候,
but it’s just when you say the word “seminary”,
比較容易口誤,把它說成“墓地(cemetery)”。
it’s easy to slip and say “cemetery”.
但是可悲的是,有些人似乎真的認為
And sadly, some people seem to think
神學教育確實會葬送一個人的屬靈生命。
that theological education is indeed a place to bury your spiritual life.
確實,神學生可能會因為忙著研究神學,
It’s true that students may be tempted to neglect daily devotions, daily prayer
而忽略每日讀經、禱告的屬靈操練,
in the midst of all the business of doing theology
試圖用研究神學來代替讀經、禱告。
and try to substitute the one for the other.
當然,如果我們真的以正確的方式來研究神學,
It’s true also of course, that when you’re studying rightly,
我們的整個神學研究經歷也是敬拜式的。
your whole study experience is a devotional.
關鍵是,研究神學確實是一種深刻的屬靈操練。
The point is that doing theology truly is a profound spiritual exercise.
但我們若正確地研究神學,神學一定會使我們謙卑,
And when we do theology rightly, that theology must humble us
因為一不註意,我們的神學知識就很快會超越我們的敬虔度。
for our knowledge can rapidly outgrow our godliness if we are not careful.
最後我們就像穿著大人衣服的孩子一樣。
And we can end up like children wearing adult clothing.
所以,要麼是假裝成熟,
So we must choose whether to pretend to be more mature than we are,
要麼是在神學上謙卑自己、比以往更加追求基督,
or to humble ourselves in our theology.
我們必須在這兩者間做出一個選擇。
And pursue Christ more than ever before.
這就是為什麼巴刻會說:“所有的神學都是屬靈的。”
And this is why J. I. Packer says, “All theology is also spirituality.”
這是巴刻的《重尋聖潔》。
He goes on to say, “If our theology,”
他在第15頁中接著說,
this is from Quest for Godliness, by the way, page 15,
“如果我們的神學不能喚醒良心並使內心柔軟,
“if our theology does not quicken the conscience and soften the heart,
那麼它實際上會使這兩者都變得更加剛硬;
it actually hardens both;
如果它沒有能夠鼓勵人投身於信仰,
if it does not encourage the commitment of faith,
那麼它反而會加強人不信的冷漠;
it reinforces the detachment of unbelief;
如果它不能使人更加謙卑,那麼它就不可避免地使人更加驕傲。”
if it fails to promote humility, then it inevitably feeds pride.”
透過這一分鐘的介紹,
So in this one minute intro,
我們既看到神學的機會,也看到它的危險。
you see both the opportunity and the danger of theology.
那麼,神學對我們有什麼要求呢?
So what does theology require of you?
首先是屬靈上的要求,
First of all spiritually,
我想要帶著大家一起從屬靈動力上來探討;
I want to look at the spiritual dynamics,
其次便是學術上的要求。
and then second academically,
希望今天我們能把這兩點講完,至少講完這兩點的大部分。
and hopefully we can get through both today, or at least most of both today.
在這兩點中,我們都會講到幾件事情。
Number one, I am gonna give you several things in both categories.
第一,要做一名基督的門徒。
Number one, be a disciple of Christ, be a disciple of Christ.
我們若與基督毫無關聯,我們就不可能研究好神學。
You can’t do good theology without a relationship with Jesus.
我們與基督的關係是絕對不可或缺的。
Relationship with Christ is absolutely indispensable.
基督也對基督徒神學家們說,“來跟從我”。
“Follow me,” he says also to Christian theologians.
“門徒”這個詞的意思是做一個“學生”,
The word “disciple” means to be a “student”,
成為一名“學習者”,或一個“被教導的人”。
to be a “learner,” “one who is taught.”
但是,作基督門徒的含義,遠比聽他的教導更為廣泛。
Being a disciple of Christ, however, is far broader than listening to his teachings.
“門徒”一詞,
The term “disciple” “always implies
“指的是一種能夠塑造人整個生命的個人性的連接。”
“the existence of a personal attachment which shapes the whole life.”
它是指一個人立志要領受師傅的塑造性影響。
It’s a commitment to receive the formative influence of a master.
因此,門徒訓練的目標是通過順服師傅之道、模仿師傅的行為
So the goal of discipleship is to assimilate the mind and character of one’s master
來透徹理解師傅的思想與品格。
through submission to his words and through imitation of his conduct.
這就是為什麼主耶穌收了七十個門徒、
That’s why Jesus takes the twelve, and the 70 for that matter,
對他們進行訓練、花時間與他們在一起,並讓他們為他作見證,
and trains them and spends time with them, and speaks with them
他這樣做,是為了讓他們能夠明白他的言行舉止。
and has them witness what he’s doing, so they can understand his conduct.
這就是為什麼神學院的遠程培訓是一種退而求其次的選擇,
That’s why long distance seminary training is only a last case possibility,
因為如果是遠程學習的話,我們就不能在這個學習的環境中學習,
cause you are not in the environment, you are not learning from the teachers
不能在課堂上向老師們學習,不能圍繞在他們周圍,
the way you can learn when you are actually in the classroom
不能去他們的辦公室找他們、與他們探討問題,等等。
and around them, and can visit with them, and so on.
所以,作為一名神學生,
So the first thing you need to ask yourself as a student,
你首先應該問自己的問題就是:我是不是一名耶穌基督的信徒?
a theological student, is am I a student, am I a disciple of Jesus Christ?
我現在要強調的就是:
And what I am saying to you right now
做基督的門徒絕不是可有可無的,它是一個必須。
is discipleship is never an option.
若我們不是基督的門徒,那唯一的可能就是我們並不忠於基督。
The only alternative to being a disciple is unfaithfulness to Christ.
如果我們首先連基督徒也不是,
How will you ever be a Christian theologian
那我們怎麼可能成為基督徒神學家呢?
if you are not first a Christian?
約翰·歐文說,
John Owen says,
“愛比克泰德不會將一個不是大師的人稱作‘哲學家’。
“Epictetus would deny the title of philosopher to any man who was not a master of himself.
我們也絕不能妥協,
Let us never concede
去將一個不是基督的門徒的人稱作‘神學家’。”
the title of theologian to any who is not a disciple of Christ.”
因此,我今天要講的所有內容都是基於這個出發點的。
So everything else I am going to say today flows out of this fundamental point.
第二,我們必須要倚靠基督的中保工作。
Number two, we must depend upon Christ’s mediatorial work.
保羅在歌羅西書2章6至8節中說,
Paul makes that clear in Colossians 2:6 through 8,
“你們既然接受了主基督耶穌,
“As ye have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord,
就當遵他而行,在他裡面生根建造,信心堅固,
so walk ye in him: rooted and built up in him, and established in the faith,
正如你們所領的教訓,感謝的心也更增長了。
as ye have been taught, abounding therein with thanksgiving.
你們要謹慎,恐怕有人用他的理學和虛空的妄言,
Beware lest any man spoil you with philosophy and vain deceit,
不照著基督,乃照人間的遺傳和世上的小學,就把你們擄去。”
after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.”
我們要知道,
You see, human teachings beguile us
人的教導若不符合基督的教導,它們就是迷惑我們的。
when they are not in line with Christ’s teachings.
而當它們與基督的教導不一致的時候,即使它們談論的是基督,
And when they are not in lined with Christ’s teaching,
它們所做的也是在將我們的註意力從基督身上分散出去。
they distract us from Christ. Even if they speak about Christ.
因為它們所談論並非聖經中傳講的那位基督。
Because it’s not the Christ of the Bible.
於是,我們藉著繼續操練對他的中保工作的信心,在他裡面前行.
So in this walk in Him by continuing to exercise faith in his mediatorial work,
因此,一位神學家的工作自始至終就是操練在基督裡面的信心。
so the labor of a theologian is to be always exercising faith in Christ.
而這是十分有必要的,因為基督自己就說,
And that of course is necessary because Jesus himself said
整本舊約聖經都是在為他作見證。
the Old Testament Scriptures, and of course
而當然,新約聖經是更加明確地為他作見證。
the New even more explicitly, are they which speak of me.
因此,如果我們沒有操練在基督里的信心,
So if you are not exercising faith in Christ, well,
沒有倚靠他的中保工作,我們就失去了一切神學研究的意義。
not dependent on his mediatorial work, you are missing the very heart of all theology.
上帝在基督里將真理啟示給我們,他就是那活潑的道,
And through Christ, the truth is revealed to us, he’s the living Word
是藉著祂的聖靈賜給我們的上帝的道。
who makes known by his Holy Spirit, the Word of God to us.
所以基督說,法利賽人喜歡被人稱為“拉比”,
So Jesus said, the Pharisees loved to be called “Rabbi”,
“拉比”在希腊語里的意思就是“老師”,但是耶穌說,
which means “teacher” in Greek, but Jesus said,
“但你們不要受拉比的稱呼,因為只有一位是你們的夫子,
“Be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master,” one is your teacher, “even Christ;
你們都是弟兄”,馬太福音23章8節。
and all ye are brethren,” Matthew 23:8.
第三,我們必須通過禱告持續地尋求上帝的光照。
Number three, we must seek continual divine illumination by prayer.
當我們在研究神學的時候,我們總是要尋求進一步的光照。
When we do theology, we are always looking for further illumination.
我們因擁有一些神學知識而產生的驕傲和自給自足感,
Our intellectual pride and our self-sufficiency
仍在不斷地使我們陷入曲解神學的危險。
are a continual threat to distort our theology.
要抵擋這樣的危險,我們需要不住地禱告。
And the way to combat this is to get down on our knees again and again.
沒有比禱告更重要的了。即使是我們現在寫論文,也是一樣。
And there’s no better way to do that than even now when you are doing papers.
要知道,我們不僅是在寫講章的時候才禱告,
Not just sermons, but papers as well,
就連我們寫論文的時候也要禱告。
as you are struggling to get into the depth of your subject,
當我們需要深入地去探究我們所寫的主題,
and you come to an inpath
當我們遇到錯綜複雜的問題,苦思冥想,
and you’re struggling how to grasp it, how to put it into words,
只為了要理解它、將它表述出來的時候,我們需要停下來。
just take a two minute break, it’s not really a break,
而停下來的關鍵,就是要向上帝哭求、禱告,
it’s really the essence of it, get down on your knees
請求祂賜下幫助與清晰的思路。
and cry to God for help and clarity,
當我們用禱告貫穿了我們整個的研究時,
and you’ll be amazed at how your whole study
就會驚異地發現,我們的研究會轉而充滿活力。
comes alive when you marinate it all in prayer.
我可以這樣說(相信許多的傳道人都有同感),就是:
And I can say this, I am sure many ministers can say this, the best sermons I have ever preached,
那些我曾經講過的最好的道、寫過的最好的文章、最好的書,
the best articles I have ever written, the best books I have ever written,
一直是那些我為之禱告最為迫切、最為殷勤的講章與文章,
have always been those that had been prayed over the most,
也是那些我全心全意、不斷懇求上帝賜下光照的講章與文章。
and those that my soul has entered into it and I have begged for illumination.
當我寫《與基督同為後嗣》這本書時,
When I wrote the book Heirs with Christ:
就是關於清教徒對”立嗣“這一教義的研究,
The Puritans on Adoption, I really struggled at the beginning,
我在最開始真的舉步維艱,我覺得我肯定找不到什麼資料,
and I didn’t think I could find material, and then when I found it…
我也從來沒有研究過”立嗣“這個教義,
I had not worked much in my life with the doctrine of adoption,
也不明白這一教義的美好之處。
hadn’t seen much of its beauty,
但是在我為此禱告、尋求上帝的光照時,
and it just opened up for me
我看到了這個教義的珍貴之處,後來也找到了資料。
as I prayed and besought God for illumination.
我熱淚盈眶地寫著這本書,
I mean I was moved to tears writing,
這整個教義在我眼中活了過來,生機勃勃。
and the whole thing came alive to me,
我在寫這本書的時候,真的覺得自己是在研究神學。
I felt as I was doing it, that I was really doing theology.
而且,我當時所發現的這個寶藏,還從未有人發現過,
And I was discovering something no one had ever discovered before,
因為還沒有人寫過任何清教徒對”立嗣“這一教義的教導的書。
because no one had ever written before on the Puritans on adoption at any length.
我發現,它是這樣的美好、這樣的精辟、這樣的偉大,
And it was just beautiful, it was just insightful, it was just overwhelming,
我的整個人都被它深深地吸引著。
and it took up my whole being,
而在整個研究過程中,我一直不停地在祈求上帝,
but it was all marinated in prayer,
主啊,求你幫助我,求你幫助我。
Lord, help me, help me, help me.
這才是一位神學家應該做的:向上帝哭求。
That’s the task of a theologian, to cry out to God,
不是去重覆別人說過的話,
not just to repeat what other books have said
不是將那些話稍稍改變一下說法,然後將之機械地複製一遍。
and you type it in mechanically, and you say it a little bit different.
神學要我們不斷地祈求上帝的光照。
Theology involves needing illumination.
因此,我們在研究神學時,要與詩篇作者一同這樣禱告:
And so we pray with the psalmist as we do theology,
”求你開我的眼睛,使我看出你律法中的奇妙“。
“Open thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of thy law,”
詩篇119篇18節。
Psalm 119:18.
其實整個詩篇119篇都是這樣的祈求。
And the whole psalm really, verse 27,
比如27節,”求你使我明白你的訓詞,我就思想你的奇事“。
“Make me to understand the way of thy precepts: so shall I talk and meditate on thy wondrous works.”
還有33節,
Verse 33,
”耶和華啊,求你將你的律例指教我,我必遵守到底“。
“Teach me, O Lord, the way of thy statutes; and I shall keep it unto the end.”
當然,我們可以祈求上帝賜給我們自己光照,
Of course, we can pray for God to illuminate us,
但是我們同時也需要為那些聽我們教導的人祈求光照、
but we would be fools not also to pray for Him to illuminate those
讓真理能夠進入他們的靈魂深處,
who hear our teaching.
若不這樣祈求,我們便是愚昧的。
So that the truth penetrates their souls.
你們都知道,保羅·斯莫利是我的助教,
One of those beautiful things, you know Paul Smalley is my TA,
有時候我們也會一起合著寫書。
and sometimes we co-author things, we work together on things,
我們每天都會一起禱告。
and when we accomplish something, and we pray everyday,
每一天,他和我都會為我們的服侍禱告。
he prays, I pray, everyday for blessing on our work.
而這段禱告時間中最美好的事情是(他在這上面做得比我好),
And one of the things that’s most beautiful about those prayer times is,
每當我們完成一項工作時,他都會祈求上帝,
and he does it even more than I do, which is great,
在我們將這些文字發出去的時候,
he prays that as we send something out,
求聖靈能夠光照讀者。
the Spirit will illuminate the reader
我們在講道和教導中也需要這樣。
and that’s what we need to do in preaching as well,
無論我們做什麼,都要祈求聖靈,不僅求祂光照我們自己,
or teaching, whatever we do, don’t just illuminate me, Spirit of God,
也求祂光照那些我們要去服侍的人群。
but illuminate all of those people that I am reaching.
無論是在油管(Youtube, 視頻網站)、
Be it over Youtube or
在講道網站(Sermon Audio,講道視頻音頻網站)、
Sermon Audio or
是面對面,還是在教室裡面。就像今天,就像此刻。
in person, or in the classroom, today, right now,
主啊,賜給學生們光照吧!
illuminate the students, Lord.
這樣為別人祈求光照的神學家,也是一位好的神學家。
That’s a good theologian as well.
他想要做有益處的事情,
He wants to do good,
他想要的不是寫一本印上自己名字的書、再將它出版,
he doesn’t just want to write a book and have his name on it and publish something,
因為這些都是無關緊要的事情,都是會消失不見的。
that’s trivial stuff, that will fade away.
他所渴望的,是在上帝之道的光照大能下,
But he wants his people’s lives changed
人們的生命能夠得到改變、得到更新。
to the transforming illuminating power of the Word of God.
華腓德說:
B. B. Warfield said, “If we face
“當作為神學家的我們看到擺在面前的工作是如此艱巨時,
the tremendous difficulty of the work before us as theologians,
我們一定會跪下來祈求上帝;
it will certainly throw us back upon our knees;
而如果我們正確地估量了上帝賜給我們的福音的大能時,
and if we worthily gauge the power of the gospel committed to us,
我們也一定會持續地禱告。“
that will certainly help keep us on our knees.”
因此,神學是“跪下來禱告的神學”。
So theology is “knee theology”.
如果我們要正確地研究神學,第四個屬靈動力就是,
Number four, we study the Word of God with trembling,
我們要懷著敬畏的心來學習上帝的話語。
that’s a fourth spiritual dynamic if we are gonna do theology rightly.
我們決不能將聖經視為“人的道,乃以為是上帝的道。
We never treat it “as the word of men,” like we heard in chapel this morning, “but as it is in truth,
這道實在是上帝的,並且運行在你們信主的人心中。”
the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe,”
帖撒羅尼迦前書2章13節。
因此,當我們研究神學的時候,
So when we do theology,
我們需要對這位向我們說話的上帝存有深深的敬畏。
we have profound reverence for the God who has spoken.
你們還記得,約雅敬王割破並焚毀了上帝先知所寫的書卷,
You know, King Jehoiakim, you remember that he cut up and he burned
因為這些書卷使他不悅。
the writings of God’s prophet because it displeased him.
於是,我們在耶利米書36章讀到,他將上帝的憤怒引至自己身上。
In Jeremiah 36 we are told, he brought the wrath of God upon him.
作為一名神學家,我最擔心的事情之一就是踐踏聖經的教導,
One of the things I would fear the most as a theologian is to mangle the Bible
因而將上帝的憤怒引到自己身上。
and bring the wrath of God upon me.
試想一下,
Imagine being a liberal theologian
有一位想把聖經中所有神聖元素都去除的自由派神學家,
who seeks to take the divine element out of Scripture,
在審判日那天,站在上帝面前,
and standing before God on the judgment day,
心裡很清楚他影響了別人,讓他們更不尊敬聖經,
knowing you have influenced people to become more irreverent
讓他們把聖經視為一本與其他書籍無異的普通的書。
and to see the Bible as just another ordinary book.
試想一下,像那樣站在上帝面前,這多麼可怕。
Imagine standing before God that way, that would be dreadful.
上帝向那些敬畏祂話語的人應許,祂會賜給他們憐憫。
So God promises mercy to those who fear His Word.
祂在以賽亞書66章2節中說,
He says and this includes the theologian,
“但我所看顧的就是虛心、痛悔、因我話而戰兢的人”,
“To this man will I look,” Isaiah 66:2, “even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit,
這裡面所說的人中也包括神學家們。
and trembleth at my word.”
接著在以賽亞書66章5節中,
And three verses later, Isaiah 66:5,
上帝又向那些因祂的道而戰兢的人應許他們會有喜樂。
God promises joy to the person who trembles at His Word.
因此,當我們研讀聖經時,無論我們是在預備講教理問答課,
And so as you are studying the sacred page, whether you are preparing for catechism class,
還是在境外宣教中給一些孩子們講課,
or that you are teaching some children in a foreign mission field,
無論我們在做什麼,永遠記得,
whatever you are doing, whatever you are doing,
我們要存溫柔的心來領受上帝的話語。
receive the Word with meekness
我們需要不斷地提醒自己,
and keep talking to yourself,
“我研讀可是上帝的道,這是上帝的道,是神聖的。
I’m handling the Word of God, the Word of God, it’s sacred,
我必須要十分謹慎。”
I must be careful what I do with it.
詩篇25篇9節這樣說,“他必按公平引領謙卑人,
“The meek will he guide in judgment: and the meek
將他的道教訓他們”。
will he teach his way,” Psalm 25:9.
如果我們想培養一種態度,
Now a key factor in cultivating this holy reverence
即對上帝和上帝的話語有一種神聖的敬畏、孩子般的敬畏,
for God and for His Word, this childlike fear of God is remembering that
那麼我們需要記住,上帝在我們的神學研究中始終與我們同在。
God is always present with us in our theological studies.
祂與我們同在。
He’s present.
所以我們不能以一種好像上帝很遙遠的心態來研究神學。
So we don’t do theology as if God is far off,
我擔心的事情是,我們生活好像被劃分得十分零碎,
that’s one of the concerns I have about a bifurcation of our lives
有時候人們會說,
where people say things like this,
在我靈修了兩個小時以後,我就去研究我的神學了。
well, I’ve got my two hours of daily devotional time with God, and then I go and do my theology.
當然,不要誤解我的意思,
Now it’s good to have your private time with God, don’t get me wrong,
我也認為我們這樣與上帝獨處的時間是很好的,也是很必要的,
and you need that, where you just do nothing
我們在這樣的時間里讀經、默想、以及禱告,
but read the Word for yourself, meditate and pray,
不需要分心去想寫作的事、出版的事,或者任何事情。
and don’t think about writing or publishing or anything.
但是在理想狀況下,我不是說事情總是這麼理想,
But ideally, I am not saying it is always this way,
但是在理想狀態下,當我們在寫一篇文章的時候、
but ideally when you’re writing an article,
預備一篇講道的時候、寫一本書的時候,
when you are preparing for a sermon, when you are writing a book,
這些都是一體的,都是一個整體。
it’s all one piece, that’s all one piece.
如果我們一天要工作12個小時,
You are having prolonged, if you work 12 hours a day,
那麼,我們就多出了12個小時的靈修時間,
you are having a 12 hour devotional period
我們的思想和靈魂都投入到了這項工作中。
where your mind and your soul is engaged in doing this work.
我們都知道,
And you know what that’s like
如果一個人心不在焉地為一門神學課程寫一篇論文,
when you do a paper for a seminary class if your heart isn’t in it,
他的目的只是交差,
and you are just doing to get the assignment done,
這與一個完全沉浸在神學中的人是完全不同的。
it’s all together different than if you are really immersed in it
後者敬畏上帝的話語,
and you are reverencing the Word
他會在預備講章與課件的時候,在上帝之道面前戰兢。
and you are trembling before it as you prepare that sermon or that lecture.
因此,我們無論如何
So we must avoid at all cost
也必須要避免以一種好像上帝很遙遠的心態來研究神學。
the doing of theology as if God were far away.
華腓德提醒說,“人有可能帶著一種完全世俗的心態來做研究,
B. B. Warfield warned, “It is possible to study— even to study theology—
甚至是神學研究。
in an entirely secular spirit.
對他們而言,那些向人講述上帝令人敬畏的威嚴的話語,
The words which tell you of God’s terrible majesty or of his glorious goodness
可能也只不過是文字而已。”
may become mere words to you.”
我有一次聽了一位名叫約翰的浸信會牧師的講道,
There was a baptist preacher by name of John,
我只聽了開始的部分。
and basically what he said,
我至今對那頁筆記還有印象,
I am putting my own words now,
因為他當時所說的話讓我印象深刻。
I sat at the beginning of one of his sermons.
現在我手邊並沒有他說的原話,
Well first page I can see it on the page,
所以我只能用我自己的話來複述一下他的基本意思。
but I don’t have it in front of me, cause it really impressed me at the time.
他說,“做一個牧師既可以是一個重大的福分,
He said, being a minister can be a great blessing
也可以是一個巨大的咒詛。
and can be a great curse.
它是重大的福分,因為我們每天都可以研讀上帝的話語,
The great blessing is that you get to handle the Word of God everyday,
思想有關上帝的神聖事情,可以集中精力、全心全意地查考這些事情。
sacred things of God, you get to traffic in the sacred things of God.
它可能是巨大的咒詛,也是因為我們每天都在面對上帝的話語,
The curse is that you get to handle the Word of God everyday,
我們也許會將它視為理所當然,
and you can take it for granted,
因此,上帝神聖的話語在我們眼中便變得平庸普通。
so the holy becomes banal and common.
這是多麼危險的一件事!”
And what a danger that is, what a danger that is.
因此,至關重要的是,在我們的一生中,
And it’s absolutely critical that all your life,
在每一次教導機會、講道機會、寫作機會中,
every teaching opportunity, every preaching opportunity, every writing opportunity,
我們不僅要祈求上帝的賜福,
you are not only praying for God’s blessing,
也要深刻意識到我們所做之事的偉大之處,
but you realize the greatness of what you are doing
好讓我們對上帝的話語有極大的尊重,
so you’ll have this tremendous reverence
對上帝的臨在有極大的敬畏。
for the Word of God and for the presence of God.
我十分欣賞約翰·歐文寫的這句話,
I love this quote by John Owen,
他說,“每個致力於研究聖經文學的人,
“Everyone who devotes himself to the study of holy literature
甚至在他還沒有動筆寫作之前,
should keep it firmly before his mind,
都應該在他閱讀和默想的時候牢牢記住:
in all of his reading and meditation,” that’s even before the writing,
至聖的上帝就已經在以一種很特別的方式親近他。”
“that the all-holy God is, in a special manner, close to him as he works.”
歐文的意思是,當我們在研讀上帝的話語、
Not just in any old manner, when you are dealing with the Word of God,
研究與上帝有關的神聖事物、研究上帝的真理時,
the sacred things of God, the truth of God,
上帝在與我們親近,並且是以一種新的、特別的方式與我們親近。
God is close to you as you work, says Owen.
這是不是非常美好?
Isn’t that great?
《聖經神學》,第六捲,第九章。
Biblical Theology, 6.9.
即使在我們研究上帝的時候, 上帝的眼睛也在註視著我們。
Even while we study, while we study God, God’s eyes are upon us.
第五,我們要讓自己的理智臣服在上帝的權威話語之下。
Now number five, submit your mind to God’s authoritative Word.
我要再次引用歐文的話:
I am gonna quote Owen again here,“The student of theology
“一個神學生,必須用他的生命來證明聖經的絕對權威性,
must demonstrate by his life the absolute authority of the Scriptures,
表明自己的意志和意見在一切事上
and show himself devoutly submitting his own will and judgment
都誠心誠意地順服於聖經的權威。”
to the authority of the Bible in all matters.”
這句話同樣來自《聖經神學》,第六捲,第九章,第700頁。
It’s also Biblical Theology, 6.9, that’s a great section,
這一部分寫得特別好。我再讀一遍。
page 700. I’ll read it again. “The student of theology
“一個神學生,必須用他的生命來證明聖經的絕對權威性,
must demonstrate by his life the absolute authority of the Scriptures,
表明自己的意志和意見在一切事上
and show himself devoutly submitting his own will and judgment
都誠心誠意地順服於聖經的權威。”
to the authority of the Bible in all matters.”
這其實正是詩篇作者所做的,對不對?
Well, it’s exactly what the psalmist did, right?
詩篇19章7至9節,這幾節是廣為人知的經文。
Psalm 19:7 through 9, those famous verses.
“耶和華的律法全備……”
The law of the Lord is perfect.
“耶和華的法度確定……”
The testimony of the Lord is sure.
“耶和華的訓詞正直……”
The statutes of the Lord are right.
“耶和華的命令清潔……”
The commandment of the Lord is pure.
“耶和華的道理潔凈……”
The fear of the Lord is clean.
“耶和華的典章真實,全然公義。”
The judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether, completely.
在這篇詩篇中,作者用了六種不同的方式來表達同一個信念,
The psalmist is saying in six different ways,
即我要完全順從、信服上帝的話語。
I am submitting, I am laying myself down completely to the Word of God,
因此,當我們寫作、學習、研究神學、教導的時候,
so we write, we study, we do theology,
我們必須要有這個堅定的信念:上帝的話語是全備而真實的。
we teach out of a solid conviction that God’s Word is perfect and true.
因此,我們這門課程的第二部分特別重要,
Hence the incredible importance of what we are going to see in the second half of this course,
即聖經無誤性的這一教義,因為若沒有這一教義,
the doctrine of infallibility and inerrancy, because without it,
聖經就會失了它的權柄。
the Scripture will lose its authority.
而如果沒有了聖經的權柄,我們就沒有什麼可說的。
And without that authority, you’ve got nothing to say.
我們可以把神學擺弄來、擺弄去,
You can tinker and toil and play with theology,
就像孩子們在街上踢足球一樣與它玩耍,
like children play ball out on the street,
但是我們所傳講的卻一文不值,沒有什麼價值。
but you’ve got nothing worthwile, nothing to say that should abide.
主告訴我們,我們必須要相信聖經的權柄。
You’ve got to believe in the authority, thus saith the Lord.
司布真說,“聖經沒有被任何謬誤玷污,
Spurgeon says, “No mixture of error defiles the Scripture,
也沒有被任何罪惡的污漬污染”。
no stain of sin pollutes it.”
而一個傳道人的言行必須標明他是堅信這一點的。
And the preacher must act like he believes that.
所以,我們在研究神學的時候,
So we dare not do theology
斷不敢讓上帝臣服於我們有限而墮落的思想;
by subjecting God to our finite and fallen minds,
相反,我們必須要讓自己的理性順服於上帝的話語。
but we subject our minds to God’s Word.
坎特伯雷的安塞姆有句話說得很好,這句話流傳甚廣:
Anselm said it so well, you know his famous statement,
“主啊,我不敢妄想自己能透徹地明白你的崇高,
“I am not trying, O Lord, to penetrate thy loftiness,
因我的理解力實在無法企及那樣的高度;
for I cannot begin to match my understanding with it,
但我渴望,自己能在某種程度上明白你的真理,
but I do desire in some measure to understand thy truth,
這是我心所相信、所喜樂的。
which my heart believes and loves.
因為我並非明白才相信;相反,我相信,是為了使我能明白。”
For I do not seek to understand in order to believe, but I believe in order to understand.”
安塞姆的這句話非常有名。
Those are very famous words by Anselm.
“因為我並非明白才相信;相反,我相信,是為了使我能明白。”
“I do not seek to understand in order to believe, but I believe in order to understand.”
第六,我們要為上帝話語的緣故忍受苦難。
Number six, endure suffering for the sake of God’s Word.
我們需要知道,神學家這一職業是一個受苦的呼召。
You know, the vocation of the theologian is a calling to suffer.
這是一個受苦的呼召,因為在我們研究神學的時候,
It’s a calling to suffer because as you do theology,
總是會出現與真理鬥爭的假教師。
there will always be false teachers who strive against the truth.
提摩太后書2章14節至26節。
有意思的是,
Isn’t it interesting
當我們研究像約翰·加爾文、撒加利亞·烏爾西努這樣的人時,
that when you study people like John Calvin, or Zacharias Ursinus,
我們會發現,他們非常喜歡做研究,真的特別熱愛。
who really really love to study, I mean they just love to study.
他們可以從早上七點一直研究到晚上十點,可以研究一整天。
And they can go from 7 in the morning to 10 at night every day, study the whole day.
加爾文很明確地表示:“我只想去斯特拉斯堡,
Now Calvin expressly said, didn’t he, I just wanted to go to Strausberg
窩在一個角落裡,靜靜地研究神學。”
and put myself in some corner and I just want to study theology. And he meant that
他的動機是好的,因為他希望為著基督的緣故來影響全世界,
out of a good motive, because he wanted to impact the whole world for Christ,
他這樣說並非出於自私。
it wasn’t just a selfish thing.
因此,我們在這裡需要善意地來判斷加爾文,
So give Calvin here the judgement of charity,
這也是他經常提到的,所以我們也要這樣來善意地判斷他。
that’s one of his favorite expressions, so give it to him.
他不是為自己賺得名聲,而是去全世界傳揚真理。
He’s not just out to make a name for himself, he’s out to spread the truth around the world.
但是結果如何呢?
But what happens?
我們在教會歷史中一再看到,
Again and again and again in church history,
那些最有恩賜的神學家往往會被卷入戰鬥中,
the most gifted theologians are drawn into the fray,
他們需要去辯惑、去護教,需要去捍衛真理。
into polemics, into apologetics, into defending the truth.
他們常常遭受巨大的苦楚,
And often they suffer greatly,
也常常因為他們所寫的書籍和文章而經受苦難。
also from their books and their writings.
一個象牙塔上的神學家是不可能很有影響力的,
You just cannot be an influential ivory tower theologian
因為他從不為著教會所受的呼召而去做打地基的準備工作,
who can walk around always with clean hands and you never get yourself dirty
他走來走去,卻不願承擔任何艱苦的工作。
with a spade work that the church is called to do.
這樣的神學家是不可能有影響力的。
It just doesn’t happen. And because you love the truth, you love the people of God,
並且因為你熱愛真理、熱愛上帝的子民、熱愛教會,
you love the church, you are out there, you’ve got your helmet on,
你就出來艱苦作工,你帶著頭盔、穿著靴子來為建造教會出力,
you’ve got your boots on and you are helping build the church in the midst of the water,
此時教會的周圍還到處擺放著水、磚、稻草、穀殼和繩子。
and the bricks and the straw and the chaff that’s laying about it and the strings.
你爬上腳手架,看到此時的教會還並不美觀,建造也尚未完善,
And you are climbing up on the scaffolding and the church does not look beautiful yet,
它還在建造的過程中,你也在建造它的過程中,
it’s not perfected yet, it’s in process, you are in process,
大家都在建設教會中,你也是其中的一員。
the people are in process, and you are involved.
教會工作與神學工作相關,
Church work, theology work are inseparable,
有時它會使我們痛苦、煩惱,也會使我們感受到壓力與張力。
and sometimes it causes you pain and agony and pressure and tension.
但是我們要為著上帝話語的緣故來忍受這些苦難。
But you are to endure suffering for the sake of God’s Word.
因此,忠於上帝話語的教導者,在他們生命的各個階段,
So faithful teachers of God’s Word will always, at various points in their lives,
都會首當其衝地遭到人們對上帝的敵意的衝擊,
sometimes more intensely, sometimes less intensely,
雖然有時候十分激烈,有時候不那麼激烈。
but they will bear the brunt of man’s hostility against God.
保羅在提摩太后書4章3節中這樣說,
Paul puts it this way, 2 Timothy 4:3,
因為不信的人“必厭煩純正的道理,耳朵發癢,
for they “will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts
就隨從自己的情欲,增添好些師傅”。這裡當然指的是假教師。
they shall heep up for themselves teachers,” false teachers of course, “having itching ears,”
提摩太后書4章3節。
因此,這些研究神學的、屬上帝的弟兄姐妹,
So the man of God, or the woman of God,
無論他們是在思想聖經真理,
who does theology, who thinks through biblical truth,
還是在非洲某個國家的叢林里教導宣教士的孩子們,
who’s out teaching missionary kids in the jungles of some African country,
還是在一間建造與治理都比較良好的教會中擔任牧師,
or as a preacher in a well-established church,
或在某個城市的中心做植堂的工作,
or a church planter in some inner city.
無論他們做的是什麼工作,
It doesn’t matter, that person,
屬上帝的人必須要充滿信心地牢牢抓住聖經,
that man of God must cling confidently to the Bible
並願意為基督的緣故而受苦。
and be willing to suffer for Christ’s sake.
大衛說,我是”在地上作寄居的“人,
David said I am “a stranger in the earth,” a stranger in the earth,
是基督的使者。
as an ambassador of Christ.
那麼,對於一位使者而言,如果他與他所居住的異國同化,
For an ambassador to assimilate to the nation where he dwells
並效忠於這個異國,那麼他實際上就背叛了他的使命。
and give it his allegiance would be a betrayal of his commission.
我們可以看到,
You see, one of the challenging things
神學研究中一個很有挑戰的地方就是它會帶來一些後果。
about theology is that theology has consequences.
如果我們一生一事無成、如果我們只是按著人的心意來為人處事、
And if you do nothing with your life, if you do nothing but what people want you to do,
如果我們沒有骨氣,或許我們可以在不經歷太多難處的情況下、
and you have no backbone, you may be able to get through a regular routine ministry
例行公事一般地做完我們的事工,但我們不會成就任何事情。
without too many agonizing moments, but you won’t be accomplishing anything.
就像以前荷蘭的一句俗語所說(別人告訴我說這是荷蘭的俗語):
As an old Dutch saying, at least I’m told it’s Dutch,
那站在最前面的人會被後面的人踢。
he who stands up in the front gets kicked in the rear.
當我們處於帶領者的角色時,
You know, when you are leading,
我們就必須要預料到一定會有反對的聲音。
you’ve got to expect opposition.
我們必須要預料到這一點。
You’ve got to.
約翰·衛斯理曾在他的日記中這樣寫道:
John Wesley once wrote in his diary,
“主啊,今天一整天都沒有人批判我,這是怎麼回事呢?”
Lord I have had no criticism all day long, what’s wrong?
因為遭遇批判實乃家常便飯。
I mean, it’s like a daily thing.
所以,如果我們是神學上的帶領者,人們會非常重視我們的言論,
So when you are a leader, also theologically, people are gonna take very seriously
他們也會給我們寫信,坦陳他們所擔心的問題。
what you say, and they are gonna write you about concerns they have.
當然,不要誤解我的意思,我們也會收到一些積極的回應。
Well, you’ll get positive things too, don’t get me wrong,
特別是在當今這個電子郵件盛行的時代,
and a lot of people will send you little notes,
許多人會我們發一些簡短的郵件。
especially in our email day.
比如,“今天,我讀了您某本書的某一章,
You know I just read this chapter of your book today,
書的內容讓我深有同感,靈里有共鳴,非常感謝您寫這本書。”
and it just resonates in my soul, thank you so much for writing.
這當然是很棒的。
Great.
但是,緊隨這封郵件之後的,可能是另一封電子郵件,
But right behind it might be another email,
“您在某書的第44頁上是這樣寫的,……,
you know you said this on page 44,
您指的是什麼?因為我認為聖經是這樣說的,……”
and what do you mean by that? Because I think Scripture says this.
我們不能因為每次受到一點點批評而被刺激得不成樣子。
And you can’t get all jacked out of shape by every little criticism comes your way.
我們必須要嚴肅地對待這些批評。
You got to take them seriously,
如果我們確實錯了,我們就要承認錯誤,然後改正方向。
and if you are wrong, you got to admit it and go in the right direction.
我們一定要對別人的批評持開放的態度。
You got to be open about that.
我們不能指望做一名神學家,卻不被人批評。
But don’t expect to be a theologian and not get kickback.
批評實際上是一個好兆頭,
Actually kickback is a good sign,
因為這就意味著人們在認真對待你所說的話、所寫的文字,
it means that people are taking you seriously, taking what you’re writing seriously,
或者你所講的道。這其實是一件好事。
or what you’re preaching seriously. That’s a good thing.
當我還是一個神學生的時候,我有一次去加州,
When I was a theological student, I remember going to California,
我們宗派在那裡有一間很小的教會,教會裡有一位年邁的長老。
we had a little church there, and there was an old elder there.
那間小教會裡有大概15個人,
It was a church of maybe 15 people,
他們從不去傳福音,也不與任何人接觸。
they never evangelized, they never reached out to anybody.
在那間教會的歷史中,
They never had a minister for, oh they had one minister,
他們一共只有過一位在那裡牧養了兩年的牧師。
I think in their whole history if I remember it right, for two years.
年復一年的,每個主日,那位長老從座位上起身站上講臺,
But they just went on year after year after year every Sunday, the elder would stand up,
給這15個人讀一篇講道,其中的一小半人還在睡覺。
read a sermon to 15 people, half of them sleeping, and well, maybe not quite half.
就是一板一眼的。
But it just was methodical.
他告訴我,這間教會特別好,因為他們從沒有遇見過任何爭議。
And he is telling me what a wonderful church they had because there’s never any objections.
他說,每次開會員大會,年度的會員大會,
Every congregational meeting, annual congregational meeting,
大家連異議與問題都沒有,真是特別的好。
there’s not even questions, he said, it’s just so wonderful.
我心裡想的卻是,這是真的好嗎?
And I am thinking, wonderful?
在我看來,這間教會死氣沉沉,沒有一點生機。
Sounds dead to me, you know?
如果一間教會裡沒有任何問題,
A church without problems,
人們完全接受牧師所講的、從未有過疑義,
a church where people never challenge you as a minister, that accepts exactly what you said,
教會裡死氣沉沉,如一片墓地,這樣的教會根本就沒有在發展。
a church that seems like a cemetery is not living on the growing edge.
因此,我們作為神學家,必須要預料到人們會提出挑戰和質疑。
So you got to expect these challenges as a theologian.
要註意,我的意思並不是說每個來質疑的人都採用了正確的方式,
Now I am not saying that everybody who challenges you is doing it in the right way
也不是說他們說一定是對的。
or that their content is right,
但關於如何建設性地應對不公義的批評,是另外一個不同的話題。
that’s a whole other game about how to constructively confront unjust criticism.
我要說的是,我們必須要願意承受苦難。
But I am saying, you need to be willing to suffer.
第七,我們需要培養對上帝話語的屬靈胃口。
Number seven, cultivate a spiritual appetite for God’s Word.
如果一個人是一位優秀的、真正敬業的木匠,
You see, you can’t be a carpenter, a really good devoted excellent outstanding carpenter
他一定會考慮建下一座房子的事,
without thinking about building your next house
或者夢想以後將要建造的東西,等等。
or you are going to dream what you are doing or…
你們可能知道,我妻子的父親和我的父親都是建築承包商,
You know, my wife’s dad and my dad were both contractors,
他們心中有著他們想建造的房屋的樣式,也會與別人溝通。
and so they had houses in mind they wanted to build, they had contacts with people.
雖然我從來沒有和我的父親討論過這件事,
And I never talk to my dad about this, but I know,
但是從他的生活方式,我知道他一直在想著下一座他想建的房子,
I know that from his whole way of life, he was thinking about the next house he’s gonna build,
他在夢想著這件事。
he was dreaming about this.
如果我們是神學家,是真正的神學家,
When you are a theologian, a real theologian,
我們就會對上帝的話語有屬靈的胃口,
you got an appetite for the Word of God,
而且,我們夢想著要做許許多多的事情,
and you want to do so many more things
甚至多到我們用盡一生也不可能完成。
than you can ever possibly do.
我要承認,我在這方面已經”病入膏肓“了。
Well I got a really bad disease of this, I confess.
每天晚上,我的床邊都放了一張紙和一支筆。
I have a paper next to my bed every night, and there’s a pen there,
按筆的這一端,另一端就會有一點光出來。
and you click the one end of the pen and a little light comes on the other end.
所以這樣我就可以在不吵醒我妻子的情況下,在半夜寫點東西。
So I can write in the middle of the night without waking up my wife.
每周大概有兩三天的樣子,我會在半夜醒來。
And I wake up in the middle of the night, two, three nights a week,
特別是在我完成了某個寫作項目之後,更是如此。
especially when I finish something.
在我剛剛完成一個寫作項目之後的那天晚上,尤其嚴重。
When I finish something, the next night is horrific.
我有各種各樣的新想法不斷出現在腦海裡,
I get all kinds of ideas popped up in my mind,
這些都是我將來想要做的事情。
things I wanna do in the future.
我就把它們全部都寫下來,有時候我一個晚上甚至要醒八、九次,
And I write them all down, sometimes I wake up eight, nine times in one night,
雖然這是最誇張的一種情況,但確實發生過。
that’s an extreme, but that happens.
一般來說,一天晚上會醒一到兩次。
Typical night, once, twice.
等到早上,我會再看看我夜裡寫下的新主意,
In the morning I look at what I wrote
有時候我會說,這個想法真糟糕,我就將它棄之不用。
and I go, now that’s a lousy idea, throw away.
但無論如何,當我有一個新想法時,我需要把它記下來,
But I can’t get back to sleep until I at least write it down,
把它寫到紙上,然後我才能睡得著。
can get it out of my mind, on the paper.
當然,我會留下其中的一些想法。
Some ideas I keep, of course,
久而久之,我就有了這樣一張列表,
and so I got this list of things
上面羅列著我想寫的東西、或者想在講道時講的東西。
I wanna write about, or things I wanna preach about.
我記得現在這個列表已經有七、八頁紙這麼長了。
That’s like seven and a half, I think it is now, pages long.
你們也能想象,就算我活到瑪土撒拉的歲數,
I mean, if I live, you understand, if I live to be as old as Methuselah,
我也不可能實現所有的這些想法。
I wouldn’t get it all done.
實在是不可能。
There’s no way.
但是即便如此,我仍也要繼續這樣,因為它在我內心燃燒。
But it’s burning inside of me,
我實在是熱愛上帝的話語,熱愛神學。
I love the Word of God, I love theology.
我相信上帝的話語能改變人。
I think it transforms people,
我認為我們需要這個,也需要那個。
I think this is needed and that is needed,
我們所處的是最好的時代,也是最壞的時代。
we live in the best of times and the worst of times,
雖然人們仍在歧途上前行著,
people are going the wrong way,
但我們也有許多機會和可能性去接觸到不同的人。
but there are so many opportunities, so many possibilities of reaching out to people.
我們要對上帝的話語有屬靈胃口,
Have an appetite for the Word
也要渴望在世界上傳講上帝的話語!
and for the distribution of the Word around the world!
今天在中國、拉丁美洲和非洲有許許多多的機會。
I mean look at the opportunities today in China, and in Latin America, and Africa.
這真是令人無比興奮,各處的人們都需要教導。
It’s just so incredibly exciting and people need teaching everywhere.
因此,一位神學家是一個對上帝話語充滿熱情的人,
So a theologian is someone who is passionate about the Word,
他愛上帝的話語,它是他的喜樂。
he loves the Word, he delights in the Word.
他珍愛上帝的話語。
He treasures the Word.
在這一點上可引用的內容很多,比如詩篇119篇,
Herman Witsius, I think there’s all kinds of quotes I can give you here,
但是此刻我想引用一下赫爾曼·韋修斯的話:
again from Psalm 119, of course, but let me quote Herman Witsius a moment,
“讓神學家為上帝的諭旨而欣喜若狂,
“Let the theologian be ravished with the heavenly oracles of God—
讓他日夜專註於此、默想它們、活在它們裡面、從中汲取智慧,
let him be occupied with them day and night, let him meditate in them, let him live in them,
讓他將自己一切的所思所想都放在上帝的話語中查驗,
let him draw his wisdom from them, let him compare all his thoughts with them,
讓他唯獨欣然接受上帝話語中的真理。”
let him embrace nothing in religion which he does not find there.”
我們可以看到,這實際上成為了一種生活方式。
See it actually becomes a way of life. Doing theology is not just,
我們不能像這樣:我先靈修15分鐘,然後再開始研究神學。
oh well, I got to go ahead my 15 minute devotional time now with God when I am gonna think about theology.
不能這樣。我們真正研究神學時,
No, you can hardly take a shower
連洗澡的時候都會思想與神學有關的事情。
without thinking about something about theology.
因為這是上帝的真理,它在我們裡面燃燒著,
Because it’s God’s truth and it’s in you and it’s burning
而我們想要將它宣揚出去,充滿地面;
and you want to get it out and you want to have it fill the earth,
同時,我們關心人們的靈魂,而各個地方的人都正在走向滅亡,
and you care about the souls of men and women, people are perishing everywhere,
我們還有很多的事情需要做。
and things need to be built up.
因此,我們需要培養對上帝話語的屬靈胃口。
Cultivate a spiritual appetite for the Word of God.
當然,最終只有上帝才能賜給我們對祂話語的屬靈胃口。
Now ultimately of course, only God can do that in you.
但是我們可以使用祂賜下的蒙恩之道。
But you can use the means.
我們也可以使用屬靈操練來加強這種培養。
You can use the spiritual disciplines to quicken that.
我們可以讀最好的屬靈書籍、讀最經典的著作,
You can read the best books, the great classics,
我們也可以完全沉浸在上帝的話語之中,
you can be immersed in the Word of God,
有許許多多的事情都可以幫助我們來培養這種態度。
and you can do much to help foster that spirit along.
但是可悲的是,一位牧者甚至在服侍中也可能變得灰心喪氣,
And that’s a tragedy even in ministry when a minister gets down and discouraged and depressed,
可能會有屬靈上的倒退,還可能會逐漸變得心冷。
and starts to backslide perhaps, gets cold.
我很同情這些牧師,也為他們感到悲傷,
Oh I just, those ministers are just, I mean I feel for them, I grieve over them,
因為他們不再熱衷於神學。
because they just aren’t excited anymore about theology.
前幾天我正好在與別人分享,我對那個人說,“你知道嗎?
You know, I said to someone the other day, you know I feel more excited about theology,
我現在比以往的任何時候更熱衷於神學,更熱衷於講道了。
I feel more excited about preaching than I ever did.
我只祈求這份熱情會一直伴隨著我。”
You know, I am just praying that the excitement will stay with me my whole life.
因為我們年紀越老邁,就越容易開始走下坡路。
Because it’s easier as you get older to, you know, start going downhill.
傑夫·托馬斯是我的導師,他對我說,他一直向上帝祈禱,
I love, Geoff Thomas is my mentor here, he’s told me, he’s always been praying all his life,
“不要讓我變成那種枯萎的牧師,只是隨波逐流、按部就班地行事。
don’t let me get to be like one of those old dried up ministers
我渴望自己在屬靈事上能一直精力充沛,直到我生命的盡頭。”
who just are going through the motions anymore, I wanna stay fresh and new to the end.
你們知道嗎,幾天前托馬斯的妻子去世了,葬禮就安排在明天,
He just lost his wife a couple of days ago, you know, the funeral is actually tomorrow,
所以我們要記得為他禱告,現在的他正處於一段非常艱難的時期。
so pray for Geoff Thomas he is going through a very difficult time.
但是他把所有的情感和正在經歷的一切都寫在了信中,
But he’s writing letters about all his emotions,
他此時從所有事情中都能聯繫到神學。
what he’s going through, and his theology is just coming out everywhere, fresh.
因為他每周都研讀上帝的話語。
Cause he’s fresh in the Word every week.
這才是我們應有的生活方式,就是在上帝話語的研讀上“保鮮”,
That’s the way to live, stay fresh in the Word.
來激發我們對上帝話語的熱忱。
Stir up your zeal for the Word of God.
第八,我們要用充滿愛與順服的生命來追求正道。
Number eight, pursue sound theology through obedient life of love, through obedient life of love.
我們的神學中若沒有聖潔與愛的態度,就不能使上帝喜悅。
No theology can be pleasing to God which does not breathe a spirit of holiness and of love.
保羅提醒我們,“知識是叫人自高自大,唯有愛心能造就人”。
Paul warned, “Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth.”
你看,這其實就是我想說的。
You see, here is my point.
給你們舉個例子。
A minister called me up one day,
有一天,一位牧師給我打了一個電話,他那年61歲。
I just give you this example, he was 61 years old.
對於我而言,61歲正是人生的黃金時期。
Now, to me, I mean, I am from a different perspective than him I suppose,
但或許我的視角與他的有所不同。
to me 61 years old is like the prime of life.
因為我覺得,當一個牧師61歲的時候,他已經服侍了30多年,
Cause you’ve been in the ministry for 30 some years,
但願他在智慧上有所成長,也學了諸多的功課,
hopefully you’ve increased in wisdom and hopefully you’ve learned a lot lessons,
也在此過程中積累了很多的經驗;
had a lot of experience along the way,
雖然他在這個年紀的時候,頭腦可能不再那麼靈活;
now you are at your apex in terms of, maybe not the brilliance of your mind,
但是在明白應該做什麼、不應該做什麼的方面,
maybe that is receding a little bit, but in terms of knowing what to do
在將智慧運用到實際情況的方面,
and knowing what not to do,
這個年紀其實是一個牧師的黃金時期。
and bringing wisdom to bear on situations.
他給我打電話,他說,
He calls me up and he says,
“我剛剛被一個教會呼召,算下來,這將是我牧養的第九個教會。”
I just accepted a call to my ninth church,
沒記錯,是第九個教會。
yeah, ninth church.
他接著說,“我準備一到65歲就退休。
And he said, I am gonna retire the day I hit 65,
我在一間教會裡待過的最長的時間是七年,
and so I’ve got, my longest pastoral was like seven years,
所以我寫過的這些講章足夠我講七年的道了。
I’ve got seven years worth of sermons in my barrel of sermons,
現在要去的這間教會,將是我牧養的最後一間教會,
so as I am going to my last church, this is exactly what he said to me,
既然我已經有了足夠的講章,那我就不需要我的藏書了。
I won’t need my books anymore, because I’ve got the sermons I need,
你有興趣來買我的書嗎?”
would you come and buy my library?
我很驚訝,這位弟兄的意思是,
I was like, brother,
在他牧養最後一間教會時,他不准備再寫任何新的講章了?
you mean you are not gonna do any fresh sermons in your last pastoral?
我並不反對他講以前講過的道,但是這實在令我訝異,
I mean, I am not against him repeating some of his sermons, but
因為這位弟兄才61歲,他居然就要賣掉他的所有藏書。
you are gonna sell your library at 61 years old?
如果要我這樣做,就等於砍掉了我的左膀右臂似的。
To me it’s like I am gonna chop off my two arms or something,
他才61歲啊,這太不可思議了!
you know, at 61, this is crazy.
但是他堅持要賣。
But he insisted.
他對我說,“我準備去多接觸一下這間教會裡的人。”
And then he said this to me, I am gonna go press some flesh in my new church.
你們明白他的意思嗎?
You know he meant?
其實他是一位非常盡職盡責、非常認真的牧師,
And he is a very conscientious pastor, he is a serious man,
他每一年都在努力比上一年更多地去探訪他的會眾。
and every year he’s gonna try to do more visits than he did last year.
但是就神學而言、就活力充沛的思考而言,
But in terms of theology, fresh thinking,
他覺得自己已經61歲了,這件事不必再做了。
I am 61, I am done.
這其實是很可悲的。
That’s a tragedy,
我覺得,這樣的事情之所以會發生在老牧師身上,
and I think one of the reasons why this can happen with older ministers
是因為他們對上帝話語的那份順服與愛的精神正在逐漸消退。
is because the spirit of obedient love and submission to the Word of God is fading.
牧會的服侍變得更多是“取悅於人”,
And the ministry then becomes more of, I want to please man,
“我想看看我一年能探訪多少次”,
I want to see how many visits I can do,
“我想看看我在使教會和睦方面能做些什麼”。
I want to see what I can accomplish in terms of keeping the church in peace.
說句公平的話,他在那四年間確實去探訪了他的會眾,
And in fairness to him, you know, he did go out in those four years,
確實造就了他的教會,大家也都非常欣賞他,
he did really edify the church and everybody liked him,
而我認為他的講道也是挺不錯的。
and I think his sermons were pretty good.
但是,如果我們對上帝的話語有新鮮的順服和新鮮的愛,
But stay fresh through fresh obedience and fresh love
這將會激勵我們去做新鮮的神學研究。
will inspire you to do fresh theology.
如果我們能在講道臺上講屬靈生命充沛的道,
And there’s nothing like doing fresh work
這實在是無比美好的事情。
for the pulpit.
我記得艾伯特·馬丁說過,當我們牧養一間教會的時候
I remember Al Martin saying, people that really observe you closely as a minister,
(不是偶爾探訪某間教會,或參加周末會議,而是牧養一間教會),
not visiting minister, not just doing a conference for a weekend,
那些年復一年在主日看到我們、又仔細觀察我們的會眾,
but who see you year in year out, they will be able to tell spiritual matruness,
能夠看到講道臺上的我們是否在屬靈上逐漸成熟,
or they will be able to tell whether this past week
是否在過去一周中與上帝有過格外親密的交通,
you had special close communion with God in your pulpit delivery on Sunday.
是否像以色列派去以實各谷的12個探子一樣,
Whether you’ve come down from the mount, or you have been spies in the land
從山上下來的時候,給以色列民帶回了以實各谷的巨大的葡萄。
and come back with the great grapes of Eshcol to your people.
當我們因一顆活潑的心、充滿順服和愛的生命力充沛的生命,
Fresh sermons, fresh delivery, coming from a fresh heart
給人們帶去“新鮮出爐”的講道、充滿生命力的傳講時,
and a fresh life of obedience and love, gives authenticity
這會讓我們的神學與服侍更加真實、有力。
and power to theology and to ministry.
所以,那些主要從事腦力活動的人,
So as those who spend much time in intellectual exercises,
(從某種意義上來說)特別是神學家們,尤其需要警惕,
theologians, in a sense more than anyone else, must guard themselves
不要讓自己變成單單聽道、卻不行道的人。
from being hearers but not doers of the Word.
撒母耳·米勒說,“人們可以在自己不順服真理的情況下,
Samuel Miller said, “Men may hold the truth with intelligent accuracy,
仍舊依靠理性上的準確來掌握真理,
and contend for it with earnestness,
甚至可以真誠地為真理而戰。”
without submitting themselves to its power.”
我們必須要將我們的神學應用到我們的靈魂上。
Theology must be applied to our souls.
神學若沒有應用,就如馬沒有腿一般。
Theology without application is like a horse without legs.
我們將寸步難行。
You are not gonna go anywhere.
實際上,若敬虔與神學分離,這將對我們的教義產生致命性的傷害.
In fact, to sever godliness from theology is to inflict a fatal wound upon our doctrine.
查爾斯·賀智這樣說,“如果異端是喪失敬虔的後果而非起因,
Charles Hodge said, “If heterodoxy be the consequence rather than the cause of the loss of piety,
那麼‘你要保守你心,勝過保守一切,
then ‘keep your hearts with all diligence,
因為一生的果效是由心發出’。”
for out of them are the issues of life.’”
所以,神學、實際的敬虔、愛上帝、愛人,以及滿足人的需要,
Now theology, practical godliness, loving God, loving people, meeting their needs,
所有這些事情,我們都不能將它們分別開來。
you don’t need to bifurcate those things.
它們是一個整體。
That’s all one package.
神學既能夠以上帝為中心、又同時能夠敏銳地關切到人的需求。
Theology can be both God-centered and man’s needs sensitive at the same time.
因為上帝在聖經中的啟示,總是帶著一種關註,
For the divine revelations of the Bible are always interwoven
關註人對此作出的反應。
with concerns about human responses.
第九,我們要成為忠於上帝教會的一名忠誠的會員。
Number nine, be a faithful member of a faithful church.
在我們研究神學的時候,有時候我們會很孤獨。
When you do theology, you can be lonely at times.
我以前參過一段時間的軍,
I was in the army for a while
在仍舊施行抽簽征兵法的最後一年被抽中了。
and I was drafted in the last year of the lottery.
他們很缺人,我不得不去。
They had a low number, I had to go in,
其實我並不想去,但是也沒關係了。
didn’t want to go in, but it was okay.
我順服了,記得我當時大概18、19歲。
I bowed under it, I was 19 years old at the time, or I think 18.
在完成基礎培訓後,他們就讓我做秘書打字員的工作,
And once I got through basic trainings, they gave me the job of a clerk typist,
但他們又沒有什麼文件需要打。
and they had nothing to type.
所以,你們也知道軍隊里是什麼樣的,
So you know how it is in the armies,
我就在那裡坐著,無所事事。
just sit around do nothing.
每天從早到晚,最多也就是打一封信,15分鐘,
So I had from morning to night, I mean if I had to type one letter a day
之後就沒有什麼事情了。
for 15 minutes, that was it.
我每天從早到晚就坐在那裡,我可以一整天都研究神學。
I sit around from morning to night, I could do theology all day long.
當時我已經接受呼召要去牧會了,
I was called to the ministry and I looked so forward to this time
我也特別期待能有這段可以整天研究神學的時間。
when I could just spent the whole day, I mean nobody calling me,
那時,基本上沒有人給我打電話,也少有人給我寫信,
nobody writing me hardly, the whole day,
一周六天,我都可以十分投入地去研究神學。
six days a week, I could just get myself to theology.
哇,這聽起來就像夢一樣的美好,對不對?
Wow, what a dream, Right?
但是我告訴你們,我當時很孤單,非常非常地孤單。
I tell you, I was lonely, I was very lonely.
實際上,我記得當時我的神學寫作量比現在要少。
And I think I worked less then than I do now on actually writing theology.
因為我們需要看到,一位神學家不是一座只有他自己的孤島,
Because you see, a theologian is not an island to himself,
他需要歸屬一間教會,他需要與別人有交通。
you need to belong to a church, you need to communion with people,
我們在與人交通的時候,也能夠學習到神學,
you also learn about theology through communion with people,
我們的神學學習不是僅僅靠讀聖經。
it’s not just through the Bible.
我們也需要瞭解人心,也需要認識人性。
You got to know men’s heart, you got to know people.
因此,我們一定不要試著自己一個人做一位獨行的神學家。
So don’t try to walk alone as a theologian.
保羅說得好,他說,“眼不能對手說:‘我用不著你。’
Paul puts it so well, doesn’t he, he says, “The eye cannot say unto the hand,
頭也不能對腳說:‘我用不著你’。”
I have no need of thee: nor can the head to the feet, say I have no need of you.”
上帝為了讓我們在神學上有所成長,專門設計了這樣一個”菜譜”:
God’s recipe for theological growth is this,
“與智慧人同行的必得智慧”,箴言13章20節。
“He that walketh with wise men shall be wise,” Proverbs 13:20.
而這正是神學院美好的地方之一,不是嗎?
That’s one of the beauties of seminary, right?
你們可以彼此提問,可以彼此鐵磨鐵。
You can question each other, you can iron sharpen iron among yourselves.
你們也可以去向教授請教。
You can go to professor.
我特別喜歡的、在神學院教書的”福利“之一,
It’s one of the blessings for being professor,
就是我可以去找某位教授,對他說,
I love being able to sit down with one of the faculty members and say,
“我最近一直在思考‘基督的代求’這一教義,
okay I have been thinking lately about the intercession of Christ,
你對我的這個想法有什麼意見?”
what do you think of this thought?
他們可以拓寬我的視野與想法。
They stretch me.
有時候,有人說一句話,會在我們的腦海中停留許久,
And sometimes somebody can make one comment, and it can last
我們也會常常去思想這句話。
and you can think about it.
它就這樣牢牢地停留在了我們的腦海中。
And you know, some days it sticks in your mind,
比如,希望你們還有印象,我剛剛對你們說,
like I just gave you a comment, I hope you remember this,
“沒有應用的神學就像沒有腿的馬一樣”。
that theology without application is like a horse without legs.
可能數年後你還能記住這句話。
You know, you might remember that for years.
因為這句話是別人對你說出來的。
Because it was spoken to you
你可能以前讀書時就讀過這句話,但你那時並沒有留意到它。
and you might have seen it in a book and you didn’t notice it.
我們說出來的話,我們在教會裡與信徒交通時所交流的內容,
What’s spoken, what you talk about together with fellow believers
能夠在我們的記憶里存留更長的時間。
in a church can last longer.
我的父親以前常常對我說,
My dad used to say to me,
“在教會裡,上帝給祂的子民以指示與安慰。”
“In church God gives instructions and comforts to His people.”
然後他會問我,“這兩者誰更重要?”
And he’d say, “Which is the most important?”
我知道答案,我說,“爸爸,是指示。”
And I got to know the answer, I’d say, ” instructions, dad.”
他又問,“為什麼?”
And he’d say, “Why?”
我就回答,“因為你以前告訴過我,
I’d say, “Well, because you told me before
安慰只能持續短暫的一段時間,但指示卻可以持續一生之久。”
that comforts last only a little while, but instructions last a lifetime.”
因此,我們可以從教會裡的朋友身上學到很多東西。
And so when you get friends you can learn from in the church.
也許教會裡有一位經歷了癌症病痛的老太太,她是醫院的常客。
Maybe some little old lady who’s been through cancer, who’s been in the hospital 45 times
雖然她在神學上的知識甚少,但是她能夠真心誠意地告訴你,
and doesn’t know theology very well, but can speak from the heart
上帝是如何做她的天父、如何帶領她走過所有的這些試煉。
how God has been her Father and brought her through all these trials.
你在她身上所學到的,也許比你讀巴文克學到的更多。
You can learn more from her than you could from cracking open Bavinck.
我的意思不是說,我們只需要與人交通,不需要讀神學書。
Now you don’t do one without doing the other,
我的意思是,如果我們要研究神學,我們一定要到人群中去,
but what I am saying to you is, if you want to be a theologian, you better mix among people,
我們需要歸屬一間本地的教會,我們需要喂養上帝的子民。
you better belong to a local church, you better be feeding the people of God,
我們不能只寫學問高深的神學,我們也要寫一些比較基礎的內容.
you better not just be writing heavy theology but do something also at a simple level.
這樣我們才能讓青少年和孩子們也能接觸到神學。
So you know how theology reaches teenagers and children.
我常常說,若一位牧師想要保持自己對神學有一生之久的熱情,
I always say that every minister should work at three levels
他的神學需要有三個層次。
if you wanna stay excited about theology all your life.
第一個層次是高於自己水平的層次,這樣我們才能成長。
Work at a level indeed above you that stretches you,
比如為期刊寫一些學術性的文章,
do something academic for a journal or something,
在我們自己感興趣的領域能夠真正遇到挑戰、有所成長。
that really stretches you in an area where you are interested.
第二層次是一般、正常的水平,
Then do your normal, regular, one to one type of teaching
比如一對一的輔導、或講道,或者是教導教會的會員課程。
, like you do in preaching, or you do in confession of faith class,
第三種是比較基礎的水平,我們可能不需要為此做太多準備,
but then have another class that’s simple, where you don’t need any notes,
比如學校敬拜時,去帶著孩子們敬拜,與他們交流。
you could just come in and talk to children like a school chapel.
這些事情能夠讓你有所操練,能夠讓你腳踏實地地研究神學。
These things will exercise you, they’ll keep your feet on the ground.
千萬不要做一位孤獨的”俠客“神學家。
Don’t be a lone ranger theology.
你知道那些孤獨的”俠客“神學家會怎麼樣嗎?
You know what happens to lone ranger theology?
他們最終便會去研究那些深奧難懂的事情。
They end up doing esoteric things.
他們最後就會去寫文章、做學術期刊,
Then end up doing articles and academic journals that,
會無聊地去討論那些無關緊要的話題。
I mean, it’s silly, on subjects that really don’t matter much.
你們可能也見過這樣的事情吧?
You’ve seen that, right?
你翻開一本期刊,讀了一段後說,這究竟講的是什麼呀?
You crack open a journal, what in the world is that?
我要說的是,為什麼會有人願意花費人生中40多個小時的時間,
I mean, why would you spend 40 hours of your life reading and researching and writing an article
去讀資料、去調研,然後寫一篇不會改變任何人、任何事的文章。
that’s not gonna change anybody on anything.
真的有這樣的書和文章,我知道,這樣的文章與書刊還不少。
They are there, I’ll tell you, a lot of them are there.
我並不是說,我們所寫的每一篇文章都必須要很重要、
And when you do that regularly,
要與人們所關心的事情聯繫緊密。
I am not saying, you know,
我的意思是,如果這是我們的研究常態,
you never do an article that isn’t too relevant. But
如果我們長期所寫的都是這些內容,那麼我們會看到,
when you do that fairly regularly,
自己的生命將會變得越來越沒有意義。
You realize how meaningless your life becomes.
你們知道在美國今天平均有多少人訂閱神學雜誌嗎?
You know how many people subscribe to the average theological journal in America today?
大約一千人。
About a thousand.
而你們知道,當這一千個學者翻閱這本神學雜誌時,
You know how many of those thousand scholars read
有多少人會停下來閱讀一篇毫不重要、與一切毫無關聯的文章?
an article that doesn’t seem very relevant when they page through it.
我都不敢想象真正的數據是怎樣的。
I’ll be scared to know the truth.
如果有人告訴我,有些文章的讀者不超過20人,
I wouldn’t be surprised if some of those articles,
我也不會驚訝。
there’s no more than 20 people that actually read it.
為什麼不寫一些能讓一萬個人讀到的內容?
Why not do something that reaches 10,000 people?
比如寫一些不要太學術化、但是更有意義的內容。
Maybe a little less academic, but more meaningful.
我們需要合理使用我們的時間。
Use your time wisely.
我想說的是,教會需要神學家,來使她保持精準、不偏離左右,
So what I am saying is, the church needs theologians to keep her on the straight and narrow,
但是神學家也同樣需要教會。
but theologians need the church as well.
約翰·歐文說,“除了學習之外,
John Owen says, “In addition to his studies,
神學生應該與那些按照福音書標準操練敬虔與真宗教的人
let the student keep up a regular and godly connection with those who practice holiness
保持定期的、敬虔的關係。”
and true religion as demonstrated by gospel standards.”
因此,對上帝話語的忠誠是一個群體的事情,
So faithfulness to God’s Word is a community project,
是神學家與平信徒都要一起參與的。
involving both theologians and lay people.
第十,神學讓我們更加火熱地贊美上帝。
Number ten, use theology as fuel for praise, as fuel for praise.
我們的神學研究應該常常激勵我們,讓我們去贊美上帝。
Our studies should regularly move us to praise the Lord.
我分享過,我寫的那本關於”立嗣“的書對我意義重大。
I told you about how that book on adoption meant so much to me.
我無數次地在靈魂深處贊美上帝,
I have praised the Lord
因為祂賜給我這個機會來寫這本書、來研究這個主題,
so many times in my soul for giving me the opportunity to write that book and study that subject,
這實在是於我的靈魂有益。
it’s done so much good for me.
我贊美主,因為祂是我的天父,
Praise the Lord that He is my Father,
祂在耶穌基督里將我收納為他的兒子。
that He’s adopted me through Jesus Christ.
我們要用我們的神學來贊美主。
Use theology to praise the Lord.
我們的神學應該是一首贊美主的榮耀頌。
Our theology should be doxological.
赫爾曼·韋修斯認為,贊美主是一位神學家工作的核心與本質,
Herman Witsius actually saw this as the essence of a theologian’s task,
他這樣寫道,“當我提到‘神學家’時,我指的這樣一個人:
he wrote, “By a theologian I mean one who, imbued with substantial knowledge
他的心中充滿了有關上帝的認識,這認識是上帝賜下並教導的。
of divine things derived from the teaching of God Himself, declares and extols,
並且,他不僅用他的言語贊美主,更是用他整個生命的過程
not in words only, but by the whole course of his life,
來宣揚、頌贊上帝美好的偉大。
the wonderful excellencies of God
他因此而完全為上帝的榮耀而活。”
and thus lives entirely for his glory.”
那麼,人的首要目標是什麼?
So, what’s the goal of man?
是認識上帝、榮耀上帝,並以祂為樂,直到永遠。
To know God, to glorify Him, to enjoy Him forever.
而一位神學家的首要目標又是什麼?
What’s the goal of a theologian?
是認識上帝、榮耀上帝,並以祂為樂,直到永遠。
To know God, to glorify Him, to enjoy Him forever.
因此,正如我們在詩篇中所看到的,
So as we see in the Psalms, the best theology is a song,
最好的神學是一首贊歌,而最好的敬拜也充滿著神學。
a song of worship, and the best worship is full of theology.
好,以上所講的是一個人若想成為好的神學家,
All right, so those are the spiritual dynamics
他所需要的在屬靈方面的動力;
involved in being a good theologian
那麼,這節課的第二部分要講的,
and the second half of this lecture
是一個人若想成為一位好的神學家,所需要的學術動力和典範。
looks at the academic points or models for being a good theologian.

24:37處RTV更正備註:「因此,我們在這裡需要善意地來判斷加爾文,這也是他經常提到的,所以我們也要這樣來善意地判斷他。」可翻譯為:「因此,我們在這裡需要依愛心判斷來判斷加爾文,這也是他經常提到的,所以我們也要這樣來善意地判斷他。」

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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