系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第06講 我們從事哪一種神學研究(上)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

有一次,副總統邁克·彭斯做了一次講話。
Vice President Mike Pence gave a speech.
他的聽眾很可能有幾百萬人,他的講話是這樣開頭的,
The very first thing he said, probably in front of millions of people, was,
(我不確定我說的是完全準確的,你們可以糾正我)
you can correct me, I am not sure I got it right,
他說,非常感謝你們,我希望你們知道,
but he said, well, thank you thank you thank you, I want you to know,
我首先是一名基督徒,其次,我是一名父親,
first of all that I am first of all a Christian, and secondly I’m a father
第三,我屬於共和黨派。
and thirdly I’m a republican.
他實際上是一位保守的福音派基督徒,
He actually is a conservative evangelical Christian,
而且據我所知,他在信仰上十分堅定。
and as far as I know, quite remarkable on his convictions.
“拉比” 約翰·鄧肯也說過類似的話。
“Rabbi” John Duncan said something similar.
他是19世紀蘇格蘭的一位長老會學者、傳教士,
He was a Presbyterian scholar, missionary in 19th century in Scotland,
因為精通希伯來語,而被人們昵稱為“拉比”。
so well versed in his Hebrew, that he was nicknamed “Rabbi”.
鄧肯說,“首先,我是一名基督徒,
And Duncan said this, “first of all, I am a Christian,
其次,我是一名大公教會基督徒,
next I am a catholic,” meaning with universal believers,
再者,我是一個加爾文主義者,第四,我支持嬰兒洗禮,
“then thirdly a Calvinist, fourth a Paedobaptist,
第五,我支持長老會的教會體制。它們的次序必須是這樣。”
and fifth a Presbyterian. And I cannot reverse this order.”
鄧肯說,與其說這個範疇像同心圓,不如說它們像塔樓的層級。
And Duncan said these are not so much like concentric circles as like in the ascending tower.
“第一層是最寬泛的,是由基督奠定的基礎。
“The first is the broadest, is the foundation laid by Christ;
而我們要在此基礎上來向上建造。
but we are to build on that foundation.
而隨著我們一步步向上升高,我們的視野也會變得更加開闊。”
As we ascend, our outlook widens.”
我們已經討論了“神學是什麼?”,“誰來從事神學研究”,
So having discussed the what, the who,
以及“在何時何地從事神學研究”。
the where, and the when of theology,
現在我們要在緒論中問的問題是,我們從事哪一種神學研究?
we now need to ask the question in Prolegomena, is which theology do we do?
人們可能會從事各種各樣的神學研究。
There’s all kinds of theology that could be done.
我們可以從塔尖上最窄的一點開始,來明確我們的神學立場,
We could define our theological standpoint from the narrowest point on the top of the tower,
或者我們也可以從塔底最寬泛的一點開始,
or we could do it starting at the bottom of the tower,
再一步步向上移到塔頂。我們這門課採用的是第二種方法。
the broadest point and move up to the top of the tower, which is what we are going to do.
好,首先,當我們研究神學時,我們研究的是基督教神學。
So first of all, when we do theology, it is Christian theology.
對我們而言, 若神學是以真理為內容的, 它就必須是基督教神學.
It must be Christian from our perspective if it’s going to deal with truth.
使徒行傳11章26節告訴我們,
We do theology as disciples of Jesus Christ,
我們是作為耶穌基督的門徒來研究神學的。
Acts 11:26.
所以我們研究神學的目標(從廣義上講)是非常純粹的。
And so our goal in doing theology in a broad sense is it’s simple,
上帝為祂的愛子作見證:“這是我的愛子,我所喜悅的,你們要聽他.”
God said of His Son, this is my beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased, hear ye Him.
因此,我們在研究神學時,要做的就是聽主耶穌基督。
And so in doing theology, all we want to do is hear the Lord Jesus Christ.
所以如果有人對你說這樣的話,
So when you get people that come up to you and say things like this,
“你知道嗎,在我讀經的時候、研究神學的時候,
you know, all I do when I read the Bible, all I do when I do theology,
我就只想聽耶穌。最重要的就是耶穌和我。”
I just want to hear Jesus. It’s just about Jesus and me.
那麼,從某種意義上來說,這話也有一定的道理。
Well, there’s a sense in which there is some truth in that.
我們要研究的確實是基本的基督教神學。
It is a basic Christian theology you want to do.
但是這句話說得並不完備,還有許多需要補充的地方。
It’s not the whole truth, there’s much more to say,
這句話有時候也透露出了很多的無知。
and there’s a lot of ignorance in that statement at times.
但的確,基督他自己就是所有屬靈知識和生命的根基。
But Christ himself is the foundation of all spiritual knowledge and all life.
保羅在哥林多前書3章1節(更正:3章11節)中說,
And Paul said, 1 Corinthians 3:1 (Correction: 1 Corinthians 3:11),
“因為那已經立好的根基就是耶穌基督,此外沒有人能立別的根基.”
“other foundation can no man lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ”.
因此,耶穌基督是那位大神學家。
So Jesus Christ is the great Theologian.
或者我也可以這樣說,再補充一點:
Or maybe I could say it another way, or I say “and”:
基督是那位大神學家,並且他就是神學本身。
He is the great Theologian and He is theology itself.
所以實際上,要順服基督就意味著
And so practically speaking, submission to Christ entail submission
要順服先知和使徒在聖經中所說的話。
to words of His prophets and His apostles found in the Bible.
他是那位向亞伯拉罕和摩西啟示自己的
He’s the great I AM who reveals Himself to
偉大的“我是”(自有永有的上帝),約翰福音8章58節。
Abraham and Moses, John 8:58.
他向舊約中被他的靈所引導的先知啟示他自己,
He revealed Himself to the prophets in the Old Testament, who were directed by the Spirit of Christ,
彼得前書1章11節。
而整本舊約聖經都指向他,路加福音24章25至27節。
And the entire Old Testament refers to Him, Luke 24:25 through 27.
也是藉著他的聖靈。
And by His Holy Spirit.
耶穌說,“只等真理的聖靈來了,他要引導你們明白一切的真理,
“The Spirit of truth, when he is come,” Jesus said, “he will guide you into all truth:
因為他不是憑自己說的,乃是把他所聽見的都說出來,
for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak:
並要把將來的事告訴你們。”
and he will shew you things to come.”
“他要榮耀我,因為他要將受於我的告訴你們”,
“He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you”,
約翰福音16章13至14節。
John 16:13 and 14.
因此,基督教神學是忠於耶穌基督、並符合聖經的神學。
So Christian theology is biblical theology done in allegiance to Jesus Christ.
第二,我們的神學不僅必須是基督教神學,還必須是大公教會神學。
But secondly, our theology must not only be Christian, it must also be catholic,
是小寫的c(英語中天主教是Catholic, 大公教會是catholic)。
in the sense of the small “c”, which simply means “universal”,
這個詞源於希腊詞語“katholikos”,意為“普遍的”、“大公的”。
that comes from a Greek term “katholikos”, which means “general” or “universal”.
所以在教會歷史中,有一些事情是普遍的、屬於大公教會的。
So there are things that develop in church history that are general and belong to the universal church,
當我們研究神學時,我們也必須要研究這些方面,
and when we study theology, we must study these things as well,
這些事情不但不會使基督徒分裂,反而會使他們團結起來。
things that don’t divide Christians, but things that bring Christians together.
我們要討論的,首先當然是《使徒信經》。
The first, of course, is the Apostles’ Creed.
它歷經數世紀而形成,是早期教會的信仰準則。
That’s an early church rule of faith developed over period of centuries,
它將有大公教會信仰的基本基督教教會與異端教派分別開來,
to separate the basic Christian church with its catholic universal faith from sects,
與那些自稱是基督教、
from false forms that claim to be Christian
但其實根本不是基督教的虛假的教導分別開來。
but aren’t really Christian at all.
所以,雖然《使徒信經》並非人們所想的那樣出自使徒之手,
And so the Apostles’ Creed, though it’s not written by the Apostles themselves,
但它確實教導了新約聖經中使徒所傳講的基本教義。
as was ones thought, really teaches the basic apostolic doctrines of the New Testament.
有人這樣評價:《使徒信經》“以卓越的朴素、無法超越的簡潔、
As someone said, it teaches the basic New Testament teachings
巧妙的次序,以及敬拜式的莊嚴”教導了新約中的基本教義。
“in sublime simplicity, in unsurpassable brevity, in beautiful order, and with liturgical solemnity.”
《使徒信經》“以卓越的朴素、無法超越的簡潔、
Apostles’ Creed teaches the basics of New Testament teaching
巧妙的次序,以及敬拜式的莊嚴”教導了新約中的基本教義。
“in sublime simplicity, unsurpassable brevity, beautiful order, and liturgical solemnity.”
這是菲利普・沙夫說的。
It’s by Philip Schaff.
《使徒信經》採用了一個三位一體的框架,
Bearing throughout a basic Trinitarian framework,
肯定了那些基本的大公教會信條的內容,特別是《使徒信經》。
confirming that what those basic creeds themselves say, the ecumenical creeds, especially the Apostles’ Creed.
它表明,若一個人不相信三位一體,他就不是一名基督徒。
The implication is, if you don’t believe the Trinity, you are really not a Christian.
他也許贊成某些基督教真理,但是他不能說自己是一名基督徒。
You can espouse some Christian truth, but you can’t say you are Christian.
因此,今天我們仍然使用《使徒信經》的三位一體框架
So still today, this Trinitarian framework of the Apostles’ Creed is used as a definition of,
來確認一個人是否信仰基督教。
is someone believing the Christian faith or not.
因為摩門教、基督教科學派和耶和華見證人
So we say that Mormonism, Christian Scientist,
都不認同大公教會信仰,所以,我們認為它們不屬於基督教,
Jehovah’s Witnesses are not Christian, no matter what they claim.
無論他們聲稱自己是什麼。
Because they don’t agree with the catholic faith, small “c”.
但是我們應該如何看待羅馬天主教教徒呢?
Now what do you do with Roman Catholics?
羅馬天主教教徒會列出這十二條,並說,這些我們也全都持守。
Well, Roman Catholics will recite these twelve articles and say, we believe them all.
但有意思的是,羅馬天主教教徒自己也常常
But it’s interesting that Roman Catholics
不知道自己是不是基督徒。
themselves often don’t know.
如果你問他們,你是基督徒嗎?
When you ask them, are you a Christian?
有些人會說,我不是基督徒,因為我是羅馬天主教教徒。
They’ll say, no, I’m a Roman Catholic.
但另外一些人會說,我當然是基督徒,因為我是羅馬天主教徒。
Or they’ll say, yes, I’m a Roman Catholic.
他們好像兩邊都說得通。
They go both ways.
如此一來,我們可以為此爭論不休。
So we could debate that endlessly.
但是,這就是基督教教會歷世歷代所設立的基本框架。
But this is a basic paradigm by which the church has set from ages past.
這是新約教導我們的基本真理,為要使我們聯合起來。
This is a basic teaching of the New Testament truth that are to bind us together.
不是為了使我們分裂,而是為了使我們連接起來,成為一體。
Not to divide us, but to bind us together.
這就是大公教會信條起的作用。有問題嗎?
That’s the purpose of the ecumenical creeds. Yes.
學生:耶和華見證人和摩門教不屬於基督教,這一點很清楚。
Student: Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormons are clear.
但是那些持守形態論或者撒伯流主義的人呢?
But what about Modalists or Sabellians,
還有那些持守許多其他主義的人呢?
and there are many, millions.
他們試圖簡化三位一體,
But they are trying to simplify the Trinity,
所以他們教導的三位一體與基督教的三位一體並不一樣。
and so they are doing a different trinity.
周必克教授:好的。我認為這些大公教會的信條,
Beeke: Yeah. Well I think the ecumenical statements,
特別是《亞他那修信經》,因為我們都知道,它特別強調,
particularly the Athanasian Creed would say, cause you know, it says specifically,
那些不是如此相信三位一體的人都不是基督徒。
he who does not thus believe in the Trinity is not part of the Christian faith.
因此,我認為這些信條會拒絕承認這些主義屬於基督教。
And I think they would reject them.
學生:所以您的意思是,形態論者不是基督徒?
Student: So Modalists would not be Christian?
周必克教授:我不確定我現在可以下這個結論。
Beeke: Well, I am not sure I am prepared to answer that right now.
但是可以肯定的是,撒伯流主義不是基督教信仰。
But Saberianism would not be the Christian faith,
因為它的教導是上帝有三張“臉”,但只有一個位格。
because it’s just three faces, there’s only one person, yeah.
《尼西亞信經》是在虛假教導的壓力之下發展起來的,
The Nicene Creed also developed under the pressure of false teaching,
虛假教導中特別突出的是阿裡烏斯教派對基督神性的否定。
particularly the Arian denial of the deity of Christ.
所以,教會進一步發展了《使徒信經》,
And so the church enlarges upon the Apostles’ Creed
便有了我們現在所知的《尼西亞信經》。
in what is known as Nicene Creed.
這一信經起源於公元325年的尼西亞會議的認信宣言,
That’s rooted in the declaration of the council of Nicaea, 325.
然後公元381年,在君士坦丁堡會議上進行了補充,
It was then supplemented by the council of Constantinople, 381,
最後在公元451年的時候,
and that was affirmed and enlarged
由迦克墩會議對其進行肯定、擴展,並最終確立。
and given a definitive conclusion by the council of Chalcedon, 451.
之後,人們又添加了一個短語,即“和子”(“filioque”)這一短語。
And then one phrase was added, the phrase “and the Son”. “Filioque” phrase,
它的意思就是,聖靈不僅僅來自聖父,
which really means the Spirit comes not just from the Father,
也來自聖子,人們稱之為“聖靈的發出”。
but also the Son, called the procession of the Holy Spirit.
這一短語是在公元589年的托利多會議上添加的。
That was added by the Synod of Toledo, 589.
西方(拉丁語)教會接受了這一改變,
And that change was accepted by the Western so called Latin churches,
但是東方(希腊語)教會並不認可這一改動。
but not by the Eastern so called Greek churches.
因此,通常情況下,如果你問教會中的會眾(至少我的教會是這樣),
And so often, if you ask your people in your church, at least if I would ask my people in my church,
在教會歷史上,基督教教會什麼時候出現了第一次的重大分裂?
and say when did the church in church history first go through a major split?
正因為我們都來自西方,習慣了西方的思維模式,
Because we are from the west and we are so used to western ways of thinking,
所以我教會中的很多人現在很有可能會這樣回答:
most of the people in my church would probably say,
even today, even after my teaching of the contrary several times,
即使我已經反覆地告訴過他們: 第一次重大分裂是在589年,
they would probably say 1517 when Luther posted the thesis, instead of saying 589,
當教會分裂為西方教會和東方教會的時候。
when the church split into the Western and Eastern church.
而宗教改革實際上是第二次重大分裂。
And really the Reformation was the second major split.
因此,《尼西亞信經》(你可以課下自己讀一下)
So the Nicene Creed, of course you can read on your own,
是對大公教會信仰的準確而莊嚴的表述,與之目標一致。
but it’s a majestic formulation of the catholic faith with the same kind of purpose.
而我提到的迦克墩會議,
The council of Chalcedon I said sort of finalizes the development of that ancient theology,
通過明確確定基督同一位格中神人二性的關係,
and does so by a very clear definition of the relationship
可以說是完成了古代神學的最終發展。
of the two natures of Christ in one Person.
《迦克墩信經》是這樣說的,
Chalcedon stating this,
其二性“不相混亂,不相交換,不能分開,不能離散”。
that the natures are “without confusion, without change, without division, and without separation.”
這四個詞中,兩個是反對猶提乾的,另外兩個是反對聶斯托利的,
And those four words, two are against Eutyches, and two are against Nestorius,
它們有助於為歷世歷代的教會闡明這一基本核心的教義,
help clarify for the church of all ages this basic core doctrine
即基督是同一位格,神人二性。
of two natures of Christ in one Person.
當然,你們在古代教會歷史課中會學到很多這方面的內容,
Of course you’ll get a lot of this in ancient church,
在這裡我只是大概講一下,為了使你們明白,
so I’m just developing something here in general to help you understand,
當我們研究神學時,我們是在大公教會信經這一背景下來研究的,
when we do theology, we do it in the context of the ecumenical creeds,
我們的神學研究具有大公性。
we do it with catholicity. And the fourth major ecumenical creed
在神學研究中,第四個大公教會信經便是《亞他那修信經》。
that’s included in this catholicity way of doing theology is the Athanasian Creed.
這一信經以亞他那修(293-373)命名,
Named after Athanasius, 293-373,
部分原因是因為中世紀教會以為是亞他那修寫的。
partly because the medieval church thought that Athanasius wrote it.
但是我們現在知道,它並不是亞他那修寫的。
But we now know that he did not.
但是它的內容確實與亞他那修的基本教學是一致的。
But it does coincide with his basic teaching.
很顯然,當時有一段時間,亞他那修和阿裡烏唇槍舌戰、極其激烈,
And there was of course a time when Athanasius and Arius and Arianism were so at each other’s throat
以至於教會不得不決定要驅逐他們中的一個。
that the church had to either expel one or the other.
因為教會以為阿裡烏的觀點是對的,
There was a time Athanasius himself was in prison
所以亞他那修被關進了監獄,在那裡待了一段時間。
because they thought Arius was right.
但是聖靈逐漸引導教會,終使他們看到亞他那修才是對的,
But gradually the Holy Spirit led the church to see that Athanasius was right
我們今天仍然為此而感謝上帝。
and we thank God till today for that.
在經歷長達數世紀的討論後,《亞他那修信經》終於完成了。
And so in the Athanasian Creed that came out of those debates over the next couple centuries,
有人說它是“三位一體神學和基督論神學的一個宏偉提綱,
we find what’s been called “a superb compendium of Trinitarian and Christological theology
我們可以在符合其原意的前提下,
and offers itself as a ready outline for catechetical purposes
將之作為一個現成的大綱用於教學。”
in keeping with its original intent.”
因此,我們在《亞他那修信經》中可以看到,
So in the Athanasian Creed,
前28條內容關註的是三位一體上帝的三個位格彼此之間的關係,
you find the first 28 articles dealing with the relationship with the Trinity, Persons to each other,
後16條關註的是基督的同一位格和他神人二性之間的關係。
and then in the last 16 articles the relationship of the natures of Christ to His Person.
這四個信經一起,就構成了我們關於
And so these four creeds then, to taken together, form the boundaries,
“上帝是誰”以及“基督是誰”的神學的邊界和骨架,
the skeletal framework that structures our theology about who God is and who Christ is,
它是深刻的三位一體的神學,是深刻的道成肉身的神學。
that’s profoundly Trinitarian, it’s profoundly incarnational.
那麼我們以此為基礎,接著向下講。
Now we then go from there.
在研究神學時,我們研究的不只是出自聖經的基督教神學,
When we do theology, we don’t just do Christian theology flowing out of the Bible only,
也不只是研究出自這四大古老信經的大公神學。
or we don’t just do a theology of catholicity flowing out of the four ancient creeds.
我們在塔上要再向上登一級,而這一級的範圍會更窄一些。
But we go another step up, a bit narrower,
我們這一群人,即在清教徒改革宗神學院研究神學的人、
and we say when we are going to do theology in Puritan Reformed Seminary,
和我們中有著改革宗長老會背景的人,
and you of reformed Presbyterian background,
我們還會說,我們研究的神學是福音派神學。
our theology is going to be evangelical, evangelical.
“福音派”一詞,源自希腊詞“euangelion”,意為“福音”或“好消息”。
And that term of course derives from “euangelion”, which means “gospel” or “good news”.
近來,人們圍繞著這個術語的具體含義,展開了諸多討論。
And lately, this term has been subject to a huge amount of debate, exactly what it is.
我曾為”福音出版社”寫過一本名為《什麼是福音主義》的小書,
And I wrote a little book for Evangelical Press called What Is Evangelical (Correction: What is Evangelicalism),
我試圖在這本書中定義“福音派”,即我認為它指的是什麼。
in which I tried to define what I think it should be.
我在那本書中的定義可能有點過於樂觀。
I was maybe a little too optimistic in that book.
但很顯然,人們曾嘗試過用各樣的方法來定義這一術語。
But it’s been defined, of course, in many different ways.
今天有些人,例如我的一個好朋友,
There are people today who say like, I have a close friend
說他再也不用“福音派”這個詞了,因為它已經極度自由化,
who says never even use the word “evangelical” anymore because it’s been so liberalized,
已失去了它原本的含義,所以還不如棄置一旁,再也不用了。
so stripped of all content that you might as well just throw it away.
這是人們走的另一種極端,我覺得這樣做也有點偏激。
Well, that’s the other extreme, I think that’s going too far.
大衛·貝賓頓將“福音派”一詞定義為四個逐步演變的標誌,
David Bebbington has defined it as evolving four marks,
他的這個定義已經成為一個重要的定義了。
that’s become kind of the staple work.
我認為他說的有一定的道理,但是,
I believe that there’s some truth to what he says,
他認為這一術語主要應該追溯到18世紀,我不認同這一點。
but he dates it back to the 18th century primarily, and I believe that’s wrong.
我和其他幾位學者一起,寫了一本書,名叫《福音派的出現》。
And I joined with a number of scholars in writing a book called The Advent of Evangelicalism.
我們各自在那本書中從不同的角度來論證福音派出現的時間。
And we are arguing in that book from different perspectives.
他們讓我寫荷蘭的那部分,即福音派是何時出現在荷蘭的,
They gave me the Dutch section, when did evangelicals begin in the Netherlands,
荷蘭的改教家們是什麼時候開始以“我們是福音派”自稱的。
when did the divines think in the Netherlands in terms of “we are evangelicals”.
我已經證實,早在16世紀的宗教改革時期,
And I have proven, as well as many other men have proven from different countries,
荷蘭的改教家們就已經自稱為“福音派”了,
that they saw themselves as evangelicals
其他幾位弟兄也從其他不同的國家證實了這一點。
already back in the 16th century in the time of Reformation.
這才是“福音派”真正的起源。
And that’s really the foundation of evangelicalism.
我們邀請大衛·貝賓頓來回應這本書的內容,
David Bebbington was then invited to respond to that book.
本書的後記就是他寫的,就是書最後面的回應部分。
And he wrote the Afterword, or the response section at the end,
他表達的基本意思就是,我從這本書中學到了一些知識,
and basically said, well I learned some things from this book,
你們也指出了我論點中一些較弱的地方,
and you’ve pointed out some weaknesses in my arguments,
但是我不會改變我的基本立場。
but I’m not gonna change from my fundamental position.
因此,人們關於這一點的爭論仍在繼續著。
So the debate is still going on.
但貝賓頓確實提出了四個(在他看來)對福音主義意義重大的標誌。
But Bebbington does come up with four marks that he thinks are important for evangelicalism.
第一個是聖經主義,意思是聖經是唯一權威的屬靈指導。
The first is biblicism, which means the Bible is the only authoritative spiritual guide.
第二個是十字架中心主義,即我們以十字架為中心,
The second he calls crucicentrism, that is we center on the cross,
這就意味著基督在十字架上的死是福音派信仰和生命的核心,
which means that Christ’s death on the cross is the heart of faith and life for evangelicals,
所以對於整個福音派神學,“贖罪”是一個必不可少的要素。
so the atonement is essential to all of theology for evangelical.
第三個,悔改歸信主義,
Third, Conversionism,
意思是從罪中悔改和歸信基督是救恩的必要條件。
which means that repentance from sin and faith in Christ alone are essential to salvation,
因為悔改歸信就包括“悔改”和“相信”,對不對?
because conversion really consist of repentance and faith, right?
然後是第四個,行動主義。
And then fourth, activism,
貝賓頓說福音主義的一大標誌就是基督徒必須共同努力,
he says the mark of evangelicalism is that Christians must work together
將福音傳給萬國萬民。
to spread the gospel to all nations.
現在我們講“合乎聖經的福音”。
Now, under the biblical gospel.
雖然“福音派”這個術語並沒有在聖經中出現,
he is saying that although the word “evangelical” does not appear in the Scriptures,
但它的希腊語詞根在新約聖經中卻常常被譯為“福音”。
its Greek root is often translated “gospel” in the New Testament.
因此,福音派神學始終是以耶穌基督的福音為根基的神學。
And so the evangelical theology is always theology rooted in the gospel of Jesus Christ.
貝賓頓說,哥林多前書15章1節至5節特別能夠論證這一點,
And Bebbington goes, particularly the 1 Corinthians 15:1 through 5, which is a good place to go,
因為保羅通過這幾節想要表達的意思是,
where Paul says things like, you know,
我們相信基督是照聖經所記而死,也是照聖經所記而複活,等等。
we believe that Christ died according to the Scriptures, he rose again according to the Scriptures, and so on.
實際上,保羅在這幾節經文中強調了福音的七個基本核心真理。
And in this text, Paul is really highlighting seven fundamental central truth of the Gospel.
哥林多前書15章1節至5節,七個基本真理。
如果你是一個福音派,你會欣然接受這七個真理。
all of which, if you are evangelical, you will embrace.
首先,福音是來自上帝的權威信息。
First of all, it’s the gospel is an authoritative message from God.
(我不打算就這幾點展開詳述,
Second… I am not going to enlarge upon these
因為你們會在之後的神學課程中學到更多有關這方面的知識。)
because you get this later on in theology.
第二,福音展現了耶穌基督的獨一性。
The gospel presents the unique person of Jesus Christ.
第三,福音宣告了基督代贖的死。
Third, it proclaims the atoning death of Christ.
第四,福音宣告了基督的身體複活。
Fourth, it proclaims the bodily resurrection of Christ.
第五,福音堅持肯定了這些歷史事件的真實性。
Fifth, it asserts the historical reality of these events.
第六,福音告訴了我們上帝對人類歷史的計劃。
Sixth, it teaches the plan of God for human history.
然後第七,福音教導了相信聖經所記載的福音的必要性。
And seventh, it teaches the necessity of faith in the biblical gospel.
現在我們講大綱上的第二點,“歷史上的宗教改革信仰告白”。
Now we would argue, and I am moving now to a second point on the historic reformation confessions.
我們提出的論據是, 馬丁·路德就稱他自己和他的追隨者為”福音派”.
We would argue that Martin Luther himself called himself and his followers “evangelicals”.
路德所說的福音派教會,與天主教教會形成了鮮明對照。
Luther spoke of the evangelical churches over against the Roman Catholic churches.
事實上,《協同書》(即路德宗的堅定宣言)中
In fact the formula of Concord, the solid declaration of Lutheranism in the book of Concord,
就談到了福音派教會(指的就是他們自己)和純正的福音派教導。
speaks of evangelical churches referring to their own and speaks of pure evangelical teaching.
所以,我們在《福音派的出現》這本書中論證,從歷史上來說,
And therefore, historically, we would argue in this book The Advent of Evangelicalism,
“福音派”一詞指的是欣然接受宗教改革教義的人或者教會。
that “evangelical” refers to a person or a church embracing the doctrines of the Reformation.
因此,福音派傳統是一個覆蓋面十分廣泛的傳統。
So the evangelical heritage is a broad heritage.
它包括路德宗和他們的信仰告白;
It would include the Lutherans and their confessions.
包括英格蘭教會及其《三十九條信綱》,一個福音派宣言;
It would include the church of England and its Thirty-Nine Articles, evangelical document.
包括荷蘭與德國教會這一分支的“三大合一信條”;
It would include the three forms of unity from the Dutch German church family.
包括瑞士教會這一分支的改革宗教義聲明,
It would include the Swiss family of doctrinal reformation statements,
《第一瑞士信條》、《第二瑞士信條》;
The First Helvetic, Second Helvetic confessions.
包括英國的信仰告白,《威斯敏斯特信仰準則》,
And it would include the British confessions, the Westminster standards,
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》,
the Westminster Confession of Faith,
《威斯敏斯特大教理問答》和《威斯敏斯特小教理問答》。
the Larger Catechism, and the Shorter Catechism.
所以一共有這四個分支的改革宗信仰告白,而在歷史上,
So there are these four families of reformed confessions that all would have regarded themselves historically,
至少在那個時候,它們都將自己歸類於福音派的信仰告白。
at that time at least, as evangelical confessions.
那麼這也會引發一些其他的問題,比如,
Now that raises other questions like,
衛理公會和亞米念主義是否屬於福音派範疇?
should Wesleyans, Arminians be considered evangelicals?
衛理公會持守的是1784年的《信仰要道》,從某種程度上來說,
The Wesleyan methodist churches affirm the Articles of Religion, 1784,
它是對英國聖公會的《三十九條信綱》進行了修改的一個版本。
which is kind of a modified version of the Anglican Thirty-Nine Articles.
只要他們仍然忠於宗教改革時期福音派的基本推動力,
Well, insofar as they remain true to the basic Reformation evangelical impetus,
我認為他們也可以算是有宗教改革福音派的傳統。
they have some claim, I suppose, to an evangelical heritage from the Reformation.
但是,他們拒絕承認上帝在救恩上的絕對主權,
However, they have rejected God’s absolute sovereignty in salvation,
認為一個未悔改信主的罪人擁有部分被恢復的自由意志。
in favor of a partially restored freedom of an unconverted sinner’s will.
所以他們相信自由意志。
So they believe in free will.
華腓德努力地思考過這個問題,然後他這樣說(我也贊同他的觀點),
And so B. B. Warfield wrestled with this, and said, and I think rightly so,
我們認為衛理公會和亞米念派是“不能始終如一的福音派”。
we consider Wesleyans and Arminians to be “inconsistent evangelicals”,
而華腓德稱改革宗信仰為“始終如一的福音派”。
whereas the reformed faith, he called “consistent evangelicalism”.
可悲的是,歷史上屬於福音派的許多人以及許多教會,
Well, sadly today, many persons and churches in historically evangelical groups
如今都叛離了他們曾經持有的神學傳統。
have rejected their theological heritage.
今天的大多數人都會不假思索地說,
And today, I mean most people would automatically say,
衛理公會和亞米念派肯定屬於福音派。
of course, Wesleyans and Arminians are evangelicals.
因此,什麼是福音派主義的界線變得越來越寬,越來越模糊,
So the boundaries of evangelicalism have gotten broader and more fuzzy,
這也是造成這一難題的部分原因。
which is part of the problem.
卡爾·楚曼在反思現實主義對神學所產生的取代性影響時,
Carl Trueman has a statement in one of his books,
在他的一本書中這樣寫道:
reflecting upon the theological effects of pragmatism that has kind of taken over so much of specific theology,
“最近, 我與一位教會輔助機構負責人有過一次交談, 他告訴我,
“today”, he says, “I was talking recently to the head of a parachurch organization
當他看到這麼多去他那裡申請工作的年輕人
who was telling me how disheartened he was at the lack of doctrinal understanding
都缺乏教義方面的知識時,他感到非常的氣餒。
among many of the young people applying to him for work.
他們都愛主耶穌,但似乎,他們卻幾乎對他一無所知。
They loved the Lord Jesus, but they seemed to know next to nothing about Him.”
這很令人擔心,因為他們在教義知識上的貧瘠,
And he said, “this is very worrying, for such lack of doctrinal knowledge
實際上表明他們與基督之間並無什麼深刻而有意義的聯繫。”
actually indicates a lack of a deep and meaningful relationship with Christ.”
我們可以看到,問題是,當人們排斥教義和神學時,
And you see the problem is when doctrine and theology are marginalized,
他們就不知道
and people don’t know
自己所相信的基督教信仰的基本核心內容到底是什麼,
what they believe about the basic core things of the Christian faith,
那麼這個時候,“福音派”這個詞就可以表示任何意思。
then the word “evangelical” can come to mean, indeed, anything.
阿爾伯特·穆勒說:“一個可以表示任何意思的詞是毫無意義的。
Al Mohler said, “A word that can mean anything means nothing.
如果‘福音派身份認同’意味著沒有任何界線,
If ‘evangelical identity’ means drawing no boundaries,
那麼無論我們宣稱相信什麼,我們實際上都沒有重心。”
then we really have no center, no matter what we may claim.”
雖然有很多人是這樣看的,
But you see, even though a lot of people take it up that way,
但是我仍然認為(這是我的觀點),
and I think still we can argue, and this is my argument,
歷史上的福音主義是認信的福音主義。
that historic evangelicalism was always confessional.
所以,如果有人想要改變“福音派”這個詞的意思,
So if people are trying to change the word “evangelical” today,
我不贊成這樣的改變。
I don’t agree with the change.
因此,我要在“福音派”這個詞的歷史意義中使用它。
And I’m gonna still use the word “evangelical” in its historic sense.
順便說一下,
And that, by the way,
這也是1996年“認信福音派聯盟”的《劍橋宣言》中所決定的。
is the decision of the Cambridge Declaration of the Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals in 1996.
那是一場非常有意思的討論,
And that was a very interesting debate,
我可以給你們講講那次討論的內部情況。
let me let you in on the inside of that debate.
詹姆斯·博伊斯從全美的不同宗派中召集了一百個人,
James Boice called together one hundred people from around America from different traditions,
所以,我代表我們宗派,受邀去了波士頓。
so I got asked for our tradition to come to Boston,
聚集這一百人是為了敲定一份福音派的信仰告白宣言。
and to hammer out a confessional declaration of evangelicals.
即福音派基督徒真正相信的是什麼?
What do evangelicals really believe?
這是最近,也就是1996年的事情。
This is as recent as 1996.
很多人都去了,史普羅在那裡,
And there are a number of people there, R. C. Sproul was there,
美國前醫務總監埃弗雷特·庫普也去了,
the former Surgeon General of the United States Everett Koop was there,
這是我第一次見到他,非常有意思。
first time I ever got to meet him, that’s interesting.
我們用了一兩天的時間來討論和作研究報告。
And there was a day or two of debate and papers.
辛克萊·傅格森也去了。
Sinclair Ferguson was there.
有八個人要作研究報告,我沒有這個榮幸成為其中的一個,
Eight people get papers, I was not privileged to be one of those,
但辛克萊是那八個人之一。
but Sinclair was.
我還記得,在辛克萊要作報告的前一天晚上11點多的時候
And I was having refreshment with Sinclair, he had to speak the following morning at like 8:30 in the morning,
(他的報告是第二天早上八點半),我和他一起在喝咖啡。
and we were, like 11 o’clock at night, having refreshments.
我問他,明天的報告準備好了嗎?
So I am going, are you prepared for tomorrow?
他說,“關於明天吧,我有點舉棋不定。”
And he says, yeah I am kind of troubled about tomorrow,
因為你們知道嗎,這八篇文章的任務是提前佈置的,
because you see all eight papers were given ahead of time,
它們都被收錄在一本書中,為的是讓我們可以提前讀一下。
they were all in a book so we can read them ahead of time,
我們所有人本應該做好準備,到這裡來討論
and we are supposed to come prepared to debate exactly
福音主義的認信宣言中究竟應該包含一些什麼內容。
what should be involved in a confessional declaration of what evangelicalism is.
我記得那個時候已經作了四、五場報告了,
And so I think four papers have been given at that time, maybe five,
每個發言人都只是讀了一遍他們自己寫的文章。
and everybody just read their papers.
然後我和辛克萊晚上11點來喝咖啡。
So we’re having coffee at 11 o’clock at night,
辛克萊在這一點上特別有恩賜。他說,“我有點舉棋不定。
and this is Sinclair’s gift, he says, you know, I’m kind of troubled,
每個人作報告時都只是讀他們寫的文章,我覺得這樣有點枯燥。”
everybody’s just reading their papers, I find this rather boring.
我說,“是,我也這樣覺得。他們一邊讀,我們一邊看,
And I said, yeah I know. It’s like I’m just kind of follow along, it’s rather tedious,
確實有點單調。我們看起來可能比他們讀的都更快。”
you can read faster than they could say it.
他問我,“你覺得我明天早上是不是應該換個主題,
He says, what do you think, you think I should just change my topic tomorrow morning
講點不一樣的事情?”
and just do something different?
這可是一個十分令人敬重的團體,
I go, now this is an august body
裡面的一百人是從全國各地特別邀請而來的改革宗人士。
of one hundred particularly invited reformed confessional people from around the country.
我說,“如果我是你,我就不會換。”
I go, well I wouldn’t do that if I were you.
我問他,“如果你換主題,你要講什麼呢?”
I said what would you do now?
他的報告主題是悔改,就是福音派在悔改上相信的是什麼。
His talk was on repentance, what evangelicals believe about repentance.
他說,“我可以講講悔改的其他方面。”
I can do it on some other aspects of repentance, he said.
我說,“弟兄,你決定吧,我也不知道。”
I said, brother, it’s up to you, you know, I don’t know.
第二天早上,他站上講臺,作了一個完全不同的報告。
The next morning, he gets up and delivers a completely new talk,
他一開始就對大家說,“你們都已經讀過我寫的文章了,
tells the people right at the front, you know, you’ve read my paper,
所以呢,我要講一篇不同的、關於‘悔改’的報告。”
I’m just gonna give you another talk on repentance.
那是整場大會最精彩的一篇報告。真是令人驚嘆。
It was by far the best paper of the whole conference. It is amazing.
總之,這八個人和博伊斯、還有幾個帶領者一起,
But anyway, these eight guys get together with Boice and a couple of the leaders,
大約十幾個人,他們把我們其他人所說的意見都記錄了下來,
about a dozen of them, they then took all the comments that has been said from the rest of us,
然後他們私下裡進行了漫長的、直到深夜的商討,
recorded them and they then went into private lengthy late night sessions,
最終敲定了這個認信告白,即《認信福音派聯盟劍橋宣言》。
and hammered out this confession, the Cambridge Declaration of the Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals.
他們在這一認信告白中恰當地寫道,
And happily in that confession, they said,
歷史上的福音派是認信的福音派。
historic evangelicalism was confessional.
他們實際上採用了宗教改革的五個唯獨的框架,
And they actually affirmed, they actually used the framework,
作為解釋福音主義是什麼的基本範例。
which I think is contrary to Bebbington of the five solas
我認為,這與貝賓頓的觀點是相反的。
of the reformation as the basic paradigm for what evangelicalism is.
學生:那一百個人中有沒有衛理公會的基督徒?
Student: Part of the hundred were Wesleyans or no Wesleyans?
周必克教授:我記不清楚裡面有沒有衛理公會的人了。
Beeke: I can’t remember if there was any Wesleyans present.
我記得《劍橋宣言》中好像羅列了這一百個人的名字。
You can actually get the Cambridge with, I think, the hundred people that were there were probably listed.
我不敢百分之百地確定,但是我記得好像是列出來了。
I am not a hundred percent sure, but I think they were.
它被收錄於《這是我們的立場!認信福音派呼籲現代改革》中,
It’s in Here We Stand! A Call from Confessing Evangelicals for a Modern Reformation,
是1996年由“長老會與改革宗出版社“出版,
that’s published by P&R, 1996,
由詹姆斯·博伊斯和本傑明·薩斯編輯。
, edited by James Boice and Benjamin Sasse.
正好這一點就將我們引向了“五個唯獨“。
So that brings me then to the five solas.
拉丁詞語“sola”的意思當然就是“唯獨”。
The word “sola”, of course, mean “alone”.
它對保護我們、使我們避免陷入錯誤的教義有重要作用。
And that too is important to protect us from false doctrine.
我贊成《劍橋宣言》中所寫的,
And I agree with this document
即福音派的基本定義應該包括這五點。
that a basic definition of evangelicals includes these five things.
首先當然是,唯獨聖經。
Sola Scriptura, of course.
一名福音派基督徒必須要能夠說,
An evangelical needs to be someone who says,
聖經是我們信仰和生命的至高無上的唯一准則。
our only absolute authority for faith and life is the Holy Scriptures.
唯獨恩典,我們唯獨靠恩典得救。
Sola Gratia, we are saved by grace alone,
在救恩中,上帝使我們這些死在罪惡過犯中的人活過來,
and in salvation God raises those dead in sin
去擁抱一個有信、望、愛的新生命。
to a new life of faith and hope and love.
所以,當我們研究比福音派神學範圍更窄的改革宗神學時,
So when we do reformed theology, you see, which is narrower than evangelical theology,
我們並不會丟棄福音派神學,
we don’t throw away evangelical theology,
而是改革宗神學是福音派神學中的一個子集,
but reformed theology is a subset within evangelical theology,
一個範圍更窄的子集。
it’s a narrower subset.
我們也持守福音派的這五個原則。
But we argue, yes, we believe these five evangelical principles as well.
因此,我們堅持唯獨聖經,唯獨恩典。
And so, we adhere to Sola Scriptura, Sola Gratia.
當然還有唯獨基督,即我們唯獨靠基督而得救。
And of course Solus Christus, that we are saved by Christ alone,
除基督以外的每一個其他的救恩途經都是在否認基督,
and that every alternative in salvation to Christ is to deny Christ,
這也是1996年的《劍橋宣言》的觀點。
as the confession in 1996 actually argues.
之後當然就是唯獨信心。
And then of course Sola Fide.
我們唯獨靠著信心得救,而不是靠著我們的行為。
We are saved by faith alone, not by our works.
罪人藉著信心得以從罪疚中被稱義,被上帝算為義人。
Faith is the instrument by which the sinner is justified from the guilt of sin, counted righteous by God.
接著是唯獨上帝的榮耀。
And Soli Deo gloria.
And the 1996 confession of defining evangelicalism says, the ultimate aim,
福音派神學的終極目標是在這五個唯獨中向上帝獻上贊美。
therefore, of evangelical theology is that take these five solas and to end in doxology,
是與保羅一同說,“因為萬有都是本於他,倚靠他,歸於他。
that we say with Paul “for of him, and through him, and to him, are all things:
願榮耀歸給他,直到永遠!”
to whom be glory for ever.”
所以在真正的福音派神學中,我們欣然接受宗教改革的五個唯獨,
So in true evangelical theology, we embrace the five reformation solas
我們的目標是上帝的榮耀。
and you aim the glory of God.
而我認為,我們至少應該設法使“福音派”一詞保有這些含義。
And I would say to us, let’s strive to at least maintain that much definition in the word “evangelical”.
現在到下課的時間了,
But of course now, and we don’t have time for that,
下周我們會在這根神學研究的柱子上爬得更高。
we will start there next week, we are going to descend higher on this pole of doing theology.
我們將會從改革宗的視角來查考神學研究,
And we’re going to look at doing theology from the reformed perspective,
也會探討,“從改革宗角度來研究神學”的含義究竟是什麼。
and what it means exactly to be reformed when we do our theology.
我們前面一直在建立一種對神學立場的認識。
We’ve been looking at building a sense of theological identity from the ground up.
我們到目前為止,已將我們的神學定義為基督教神學、
We identified so far our theology as Christian;
大公神學,以及福音派神學。
catholic, that is universal; and evangelical.
當然,在對福音派神學的討論中,我們也認識到,
When we discuss evangelical theology, we recognize, of course,
好幾個教會分支的信仰告白都屬於福音派神學的範疇。
that there are various families of confessions within the boundaries of evangelical theology.
所以,既然我們要討論的是比福音派神學範圍更窄的神學,
And so since we are aiming for something even more narrower than evangelical theology,
即改革宗經歷式神學,我們就需要來應對這個問題。
namely reformed experiential theology, we want to grapple with that.
就是,從事改革宗神學的研究到底是什麼意思?
Now, what does it mean to be doing reformed theology?
之後我們還會查考“從事經歷式神學的研究”指的是什麼,
And if possible, I doubt it if we’ll make it, but if possible,
但是我不確定我們有沒有時間講到那一個部分。
we’ll consider what does it mean to do experiential theology.
所以,我們首先講改革宗神學,然後再講經歷式神學。
So first reformed, and then experiential.
但實際上,如果今天能講完改革宗這一部分,我就已經很滿意了。
But I’ll be happy, actually, if we make it through reformed today.
若是這樣,那我們就兩周後再來講經歷式神學,
And then experiential theology would be two weeks from now,
因為我記得下周是你們的讀書周(秋假)。
because next week is your reading week I believe.
和“福音派”這個詞一樣,直到十八世紀,“改革宗”一詞
As late as the eighteenth century, the term “reformed”, like “evangelical”,
還適用於所有參與到宗教改革里的教會,包括路德宗教會。
could be used of all churches participating in the Reformation, including Lutheran churches.
但是今天,“改革宗”一詞特指宗教改革中基督教的某一個分支。
Now today, however, it’s used specifically for that form of Reformation Christianity
這一分支起源於瑞士,
that originated in Switzerland
後來演變為一場與路德宗有著顯著區別的國際運動。
and became an international movement distinct from the followers of Luther.
我相信你們一定知道這段歷史。
And you know that history, I’m sure.
October 1 through 3, 1529, where Luther and Zwingli come together,
路德有他的得力助手墨蘭頓陪在他身旁,
Luther having Melanchthon on his right hand as his right hand man,
慈運理則有厄克蘭帕迪烏斯的陪伴。
and Zwingli having Oecolampadius,
他們一共要討論十三至十五個問題。
and having 13 to 15 matters to debate.
結果,除了一個問題之外,他們在其他的問題上全部意見一致。
And they agree on all of them,
而這個問題就是:在聖餐中,基督的身體是否真實的臨在。
except on the presence of Christ in the Lord’s supper.
最後,路德拿起一支粉筆,在桌上畫了一個圓圈,
And Luther finally takes a piece of chalk, draws a circle on the table,
在圓圈中間畫了一個X,然後他說,
puts an X in the middle of it, and says,
“慈運理,主說了,’這是我的身體’,
Zwingli, if you don’t agree that Christ’s presence was bodily there,
如果你不贊同在聖餐時基督的身體是真實臨在的話,
‘this is my body’ at the Lord’s supper,
我們無法再同行。
then we can not go together,
你就是一個屬靈神秘主義者,你就像重洗派一樣。”
you are just a spiritual mystic, you’re like an anabaptist.
慈運理說,”我無法贊同基督的身體在聖餐中是真實地臨在。”
And Zwingli says, I cannot agree that Christ’s body is physically present.
然後路德站起來便離開了。顯然,他並不知道,
And Luther stands up and walks out the door, not knowing, of course,
那個時刻所發生的事情把新教分成了兩個宗派,
at that moment, that what they were doing was dividing Protestantism into two groups,
即路德宗和改革宗。
the Lutheran group and the Reformed group.
你們可能也知道,慈運理試圖勸阻路德,
And Zwingli tries to stop him, and you probably know that as well,
他雙眼含淚地懇求路德,但是路德把他甩開,然後就離開了。
with tears in his eyes, he pleads with him, and Luther just brushes him off and away he goes. Yeah.
學生:這是在什麼地方?
Student: What place?
周必克教授:這個會議叫做馬爾堡會議。
Beeke: Marburg Colloquy, it’s called.
總之,當現在我們談論改革宗神學時,
So anyway, when we talk now about reformed theology,
我們指的是從慈運理開始的這一改革宗的分支,
we’re talking then about the reformed branch that began with Zwingli
後來,這一分支的系統神學在加爾文的發展下變得更加完整。
and became more definitive in its systematic theology with Calvin.
因為很顯然,加爾文是一名出類拔萃的系統神學家。
Because Calvin, of course, was the systematician par excellence.
有一段時間,人們將這個運動命名為“慈運理主義”,
For a while, it was called Zwinglism,
但後來加爾文的成就使之相形見絀。
but Calvin kind of overshadowed that.
你們也知道,慈運理1531年在戰場上過早地離世,
Zwingli died prematurely, you know, 1531 on the battlefield,
因此,他沒有機會像加爾文一樣更加成熟地發展他的神學。
and didn’t have a chance really to develop his theology as much as Calvin would.
所以這裡出現了教會歷史上很少見的一種情況,
And so this is a rare case in church history
就是一個運動最後並沒有以它的創始人命名,
where the pioneer of a movement doesn’t get its name long term,
而是以它的第二代領導人命名。
but the second generation Calvin.
後來它就被稱為“加爾文主義”。
It becomes known then as Calvinism.
考慮到加爾文的確十分卓越,這也是可以理解的。
Now that’s understandable because of Calvin’s prominence.
但是,加爾文自己並不喜歡這個稱呼。
At the same time, Calvin didn’t like it.
加爾文在這方面非常的謙卑,他說,
Calvin was very humble that way and said,
我不願意這個運動以我的名字命名。
I don’t want this movement called after my name.
我們也需要明白,在加爾文那個時代,
And we need to understand also that Calvin himself was not regarded in his own day
人們並沒有認為他的成就遠遠超過了其他的改教家。
as being head and shoulders above all the other reformers.
實際上,比起加爾文,
In fact, Henry Bullinger was probably in Calvin’s day
人們可能更將海因里希·布林格視為宗教改革中的領導者。
looked to as being even more of a leader in the Reformation than Calvin,
我們若從布林格與別人往返的信件數量來判斷,
certainly if you go by the number of extend letters
就一定會說他是領導者。
to and from Bullinger.
他一個人的信件數量,
His letters outnumber those
超過了加爾文、慈運理和路德三個人信件數量的總和。
of Calvin, Zwingli, and Luther combined.
並且我們也知道,加爾文也常常去找布林格,
And we know, of course, that Calvin often went to Bullinger
在各種事上尋求他的建議。
for advice on things.
還有彼得·馬特, 他在當時的整個歐洲絕對算是與加爾文平起平坐,
And then there’s Peter Martyr, who was certainly an equal of Calvin throughout Europe,
他和加爾文一樣受到了人們的高度重視。
and was just as highly regarded as Calvin.
但有意思的是,加爾文的《基督教要義》被譯成了多種語言,
It’s fascinating that Calvin’s Institutes got translated into many languages,
幾乎可以說是改革宗這一分支所公認的宗教改革系統神學,
and sort of become the systematic theology of the Reformation from the reformed side,
彼得·馬特也寫了一本《基督教要義》,
when Peter Martyr wrote his Institutes,
比加爾文的內容還要多,
which are even larger than Calvin’s,
但很多語言中卻沒有這本書的譯本。
and they have never been translated into many languages.
這本書在1583年被譯成了英文,但是後來卻從未重印過。
They were translated into English in 1583, but never reprinted.
And the 1583 edition is extremely rare. There’s only a couple of dozen copies in the world.
你們可能知道,神學院圖書館里就有一本,放在展示台里的。
We do have one upstairs under glass, as you’ve probably seen.
當我們(“改教傳統圖書出版社”)做完柏金斯的書的項目以後,
And when we finish Perkins,
若是上帝的旨意,若主耶穌還沒有再來,
God willing, in 2019, if the Lord tarries,
我們希望能夠在2019年把彼得·馬特的《基督教要義》打出來,
we hope to type up Peter Martyr’s Institutes
然後出版。
and print them.
學生:您剛纔說加爾文不希望這個運動以他的名字命名。
Student: You said that Calvin was not happy that the movement was named after his name.
所以這是不是說,加爾文還在世的時候,
So this means the movement was named
人們就用他的名字命名這個運動了?
after his name in his life?
周必克教授:人們開始這樣做了, 當然還沒有達到後世的那種程度.
Beeke: Well, it was beginning to. It wasn’t as definitive as it was later.
但是有些人開始說改革宗信仰是加爾文主義了。
But some people were beginning to speak of the reformed faith as being Calvinistic,
不是很多人,但是確實有些人開始這樣叫了,
not a lot, but there were those
特別是在日內瓦地區。
particularly in the Geneva area.
所以,人們開始說“加爾文主義”了,它開始成為了一個標誌,
So that was beginning to be used as a label,
還不是整個歐洲,而只是在那個地區。
not throughout Europe but in that area.
我們知道,加爾文對此表達了他的看法,
And Calvin, we know, made some remark about that,
他說請不要用我的名字來叫這個運動,這是改革宗信仰。
please don’t call this movement after my name, it’s the reformed faith.
學生:儘管在加爾文的時代,布林格才是更有影響力的領導者?
Student: With the presence of Bullinger as the more influential leader during his time?
周必克教授:確實是這樣。
Beeke: That’s correct. That’s correct.
但當時的瑞士人並沒有把改革宗信仰稱為“加爾文主義”,
But it’s not saying that the people in Switzerland were calling it Calvinism.
我們說的是日內瓦地區。
We’re talking about the area of Geneva.
一些法國的改革宗作家,比如皮埃爾·杜·穆蘭,
Now some of the French reformed writers, such as Pierre du Moulin,
就看出了這一傾向,
limited, well not limited, that’s not the right word, sorry,
即日內瓦的一些人似乎抬高了加爾文的地位,
were aware of this tendency that certain people in Geneva
使之居於其他改教家之上。
were kind of exalting Calvin as above others.
這些法國作家不贊成這樣的做法。
And they denied that.
杜·穆蘭是一位歷史學家,
Du Moulin is a historian
他知道還有其他一些和加爾文一樣偉大的領導者。
and he recognized also that there were other great leaders equal to Calvin.
我們需要記得,從某種意義上說,布林格是慈運理的接班人。
Now you need to remember also that Bullinger was Zwingli’s successor in sense.
慈運理是創始人,
Zwingli was the founder
而布林格的性格非常沉著冷靜,個性也非常平和。
and Bullinger was very calm and had an irenic personality.
所以,這領導者的擔子自然就落到了他的肩上。
Leadership naturally fell on his shoulders.
我們還需要記得,
Calvin also was only an eight year old boy,
當路德將《九十五條論綱》釘在威登堡教會的大門上時,
you need to remember that, in France, when Luther nailed the ninety-five theses
加爾文還只是一個八歲的法國小男孩。
to the Wittenberg church door.
因此,當加爾文二十幾歲悔改信主時,
And so when Calvin was converted as an adult,
他自己也深受了其他改革中的一些長者的影響。
he was greatly influenced also by some of the older men in other reformation.
他不僅受到了路德這邊的路德和墨蘭頓的影響,
Not only by Luther and Melanchthon and the Lutheran side,
也受到了厄克蘭帕迪烏斯和馬丁•布塞爾的影響。
but also by Oecolampadius and Martin Bucer.
比如,厄克蘭帕迪烏斯生於1482年,加爾文生於1509年,
Oecolampadius, for example, is born in 1482, Calvin is born in 1509,
所以厄克蘭帕迪烏斯比加爾文年長27歲。
so you have 27 years’ difference there.
加爾文的確是深受人們敬重的,我希望你們不要誤解我的意思,
So Calvin was deeply respected, I don’t want you to misunderstand me.
但我希望你們明白, 他並不是像一個國王一樣統治著整個改革宗。
But he did not reign as a kind of theological monarch and that’s my point.
所以,至少在我們談十六世紀的宗教改革時,
And so it’s really more accurate when we speak of sixteenth-century Reformation,
我們應該稱之為“改革宗神學”,這確實是更合適的叫法。
at least, to speak of reformed theology.
現在我自己也會用“加爾文主義”這個詞,這種用法是可以的。
And I use the word “Calvinism” myself today and it’s acceptable to use that,
只是當我們回想十六世紀的宗教改革時,
but when we think of sixteenth-century Reformation,
我們想到的應該是改革宗神學。
we should think of reformed theology.
現在,我想從幾個角度來向你們介紹改革宗神學。
Now I want to introduce reformed theology to you from several perspectives.
這一部分我會講得比較快,因為這些都是很基礎的東西,
First we look briefly… … And I will try to go through this quite rapidly,
我們這門課只是系統神學的入門課程。
cause this is primarily basic stuff, we are in the intro systematic theology course.
但是,如果你以前從沒有聽說過這些內容,
But if you have never heard of these things,
那麼你需要知道和理解這些內容,它們是非常重要的測量基準。
these are very important foundational benchmarks for you to know, to grasp,
來幫助我們明白我們稱之為改革宗系統神學的內容。
what we call reformed systematic theology.
首先,我們將簡要地從歷史角度來查考改革宗神學。
Reformed theology historically.
改革宗神學源自歐洲十六世紀的福音派復興,
Reformed theology grew out of the sixteenth-century evangelical renewal in Europe
也就是我們稱之為宗教改革的這一運動。
that we refer to then as the Reformation.
在此之前,有許多宗教改革的先驅。
Prior to that, there were many forerunners of the Reformation.
但是,他們終歸是先驅,而不是改教家。
And ultimately, they are all forerunners and not reformers,
因為他們中沒有一個人得出了宗教改革的關鍵教義,
because none of them until Luther came to the decisive Reformation doctrine,
即因信稱義,直到路德出現。
which is justification by faith alone.
他們中有些人已經非常接近這個教義了,
Some of them came close to that.
約翰·胡斯有幾次很接近了,約翰·威克裡夫有幾次更接近。
John Wycliffe, John Hus, at times, Wycliffe a bit more.
而比起威克裡夫和胡斯,托馬斯·佈雷德沃丁和
Thomas Bradwardine, and Gregory of Rimini probably came
里米尼的格雷戈里可能更加接近“因信稱義”這一教義。
even closer to justification by faith alone, than did Wycliffe and Hus.
但是路德是最終取得突破的那個人,
But Luther was the one who really did have the breakthrough,
他看到,我們的稱義完全是單向的,是唯獨在基督里的,
who saw that our justification was totally one-sided in Christ alone,
而我們唯獨藉著信心而被稱義。
and we receive it by faith alone.
上帝使用這一突破來開創、建立新教的宗教改革。
And that was really the breakthrough that God used to establish the protestant Reformation.
而因著這個核心教義,
And through that central doctrine then,
路德開始反對天主教的聖禮體系(人的儀式和人的功績)。
Luther began protesting against the sacramental system of human ritual and human merit.
所以路德從一開始就有了追隨者。
And so Luther, getting followers early,
要知道,不出一個月的時間,《九十五條論綱》就傳遍了歐洲。
and remember the ninety-five theses spread throughout Europe in less than a month.
路德自己也沒想到,人們竟將它譯成了各種語言。
It was translated in all languages, to Luther’s astonishment.
若用今天的流行語,我們會說“它在網上火了”。
And today we would say “it went viral on internet”.
它被傳到了各個地方。
It went everywhere.
許多人都加入了這場運動,有些是名人,有些則不那麼有名。
And there were many people that joined this cause, some famous, some not so famous.
但其實這場運動更多地是在針對羅馬天主教濫用職權這一點,
But what happened was, it was a culmination really, of the abuses of the Roman Catholic church,
甚至超過最初點燃這場運動的教義問題。
even more than it was a doctrinal issue initially.
我們認識到這一點很重要。
That’s important to grasp.
在路德張貼《九十五條論綱》幾周後, 比如1517年的11月中旬,
If you had said on mid-November in 1517, a couple of weeks after the theses were posted,
如果你問那些支持路德的人,
what’s the real difference between Luther and the Roman Catholic church?
“路德和羅馬天主教教會的真正區別是什麼?”
Or, how do you feel about the Roman Catholic church?
或者,“你覺得羅馬天主教教會怎麼樣?”
For those who were siding with Luther,
我相信八、九成的人的回答都不會是教義方面的,
I am sure that 80 to 90 percent of the answers would not have been doctrinal,
而是羅馬教皇各種的濫用職權、羅馬天主教濫用職權。
they would have been papal abuses of various kinds, Roman Catholic abuses.
所以,我要在這裡提到改教家們反對的五件事情。
So there’s five things I mentioned here, reformers objected against.
第一,羅馬教皇在神學與實踐中濫用職權。
First, papal abuses in theology and practice,
特別是,不僅教會領袖們道德行為敗壞,
particularly immoral conduct by church leaders,
教會還通過一個聲稱能分配上帝恩典的體系,將宗教商業化。
and commercialized religion through a system of religious works that claim to dispense grace.
正是這一點使路德忍無可忍,最終寫了《九十五條論綱》。
That was what really tipped Luther over the edge to write the theses after all.
他所看到的是,許多人以為只要自己給羅馬教會一點錢,
When he saw that people just thought if they paid a little money to Rome,
就可以出去繼續過他們爛醉如泥的生活。
they could just go out and continue to live as drunks.
然後只要他們能給教會足夠的金錢,他們的罪就能得赦免。
And they would have forgiveness of sins if they give enough money to the church.
這必然會激怒路德。所以第一點就是羅馬教皇濫用職權。
That enraged him, of course. So papal abuses.
第二點,羅馬教皇的狂妄。
Second, papal pretentiousness.
羅馬主教不僅聲稱自己有使徒的權威,
The claims of the bishop of Rome to apostolic,
甚至還說自己有彌賽亞的權威。
even a kind of messianic authority.
教皇對宗教改革的殘酷逼迫也使得他們更加狂妄。
The cruel opposition of the popes to Reformation also helped fan these flames.
要知道,當路德明白信徒唯獨是因信稱義之後,
Because you remember, when Luther saw that salvation is by justification by faith alone,
他想,“我可以去找教皇和教會的其他領袖。
he thought, well I can just go to the pope and other church leaders,
這一點這麼明顯,我可以說服他們,
and you know this is so obvious, I will just persuade them
然後他們就和我一樣明白這一真理了。
and they will see the truth like I do.
結果當然是他們反擊了回來,
But of course they kicked back
完全不願接受路德所說的。
and refused to go down that road at all with him.
這最終使得許多新教基督徒將教皇視為敵基督,
So that eventually persuaded many of the protestants to view the papacy as the anti-Christ,
因為他們認為教皇阻擋的正是上帝自己的作工,
because they are opposing the very work of God
並且教皇還把自己放在上帝的位置上。
and putting themselves in God’s place.
所以第二點,羅馬教皇的狂妄。
So papal pretentiousness.
第三點,對上帝話語的禁錮。
Thirdly, captivity of the Word.
在路德張貼了《九十五條論綱》的五年、十年之後,
Captivity of the Word was a big issue,
對上帝話語的禁錮是一個很嚴重的問題。
five, ten years after the theses were posted.
因為路德開始意識到,
Because Luther began to see that the only way
讓人得自由的唯一方式就是將他們帶回到上帝的話語中去。
to deliver people was by bringing them back to the Word of God,
但是羅馬天主教卻不讓平信徒用他們自己的通用語來研讀聖經,
and Rome was withholding access to the Bible in the common language of the lay people,
並將詮釋聖經的權力掌握於主教手中。
subjecting its interpretation to the authority of bishops.
而此時,也因著文藝復興,
And also what’s happening here at this time is, due to the Renaissance as well,
早期的新教徒開始研讀原始資料(拉丁語是“ad fontes”),
the early protestants are going back to the sources, original sources, “ad fontes”.
他們從過去的歷史中發現,旁經原來並不屬於聖經正典,
And they are discovering that, hey, the apocryphal really historically doesn’t belong in the Bible,
也不是上帝默示的。
and does not appear to be inspired.
而羅馬天主教卻將猶太旁經加入了聖經眾書之列;
And Rome is including the Jewish apocryphal,
還增加了羅馬天主教的傳統,將之視為與聖經擁有同等的權威;
they are including the Roman tradition as being of equal to the authority of Scripture.
他們還用形式主義的演講來取代傳遞聖經信息的講道,
And they are displacing the preaching of the Bible with formalistic talks,
這些演講的時間都十分短, 而且用的是許多人都不懂的拉丁語。
short little mini talks in Latin that many people can’t understand.
因此,我們可以看到,除了人們不能讀聖經之外,
So the Word is being held captive, you see,
因著講道和公共宣讀聖經的缺乏,上帝的話語被禁錮住了。
also through the lack of its preaching, as well as its reading.
第四點,對修道主義的推崇,
And fourth, elevation of monasticism
將它的獨身觀和貧窮觀視為一種更高級的宗教生命觀,
with its celibacy views and its poverty as a higher religious life view,
但這並不符合聖經的教導,即普通職業也可以是屬靈的,
as oppose to the biblical spirituality of ordinary vocations,
聖經還教導了婚姻的屬靈性,以及信徒的祭司身份。
marriage, the priesthood of believers.
因此,當宗教改革開始時,
So as this Reformation began to unfold,
人們(特別是路德)看到了等級制度的危害,
Luther in particular, saw the danger of a hierarchical system,
因為在這種制度中,你在教會等級中的級別越高,
in which the higher you are on a church ladder,
你就必須要活得更聖潔。
the more holy you’ve got to live.
而再高一點,人們就聖潔得不需要結婚了。
And the higher step then would be, you are so holy, you don’t need to get married.
路德開始明白,
And Luther begins to understand
這就是為什麼在主教中爆出了這麼多的性侵醜聞,
that this is one of the reasons why there are so much sexual abuse in the bishopric,
這也是教皇為什麼有這麼多情婦的原因之一。
and the popes have so many mistresses on the side.
路德在聖經中沒有找到任何一處推崇修道主義的地方,
And this whole elevation of monasticism, Luther finds, is not anywhere in the Scripture,
他反而發現,聖經教導的是,所有的信徒
but rather all believers are to live holy lives
都要在普通的工作中、在婚姻中、在家庭中過聖潔的生活。
in ordinary vocations and through marriage, and having family.
路德其實是一個居家男人。
And Luther was actually a family man.
順便說一下,“宗教改革出版社”剛出版了一本關於路德的書,
In fact Reformation Trust just published a book on Luther,
這是一本非常好的瞭解宗教改革的書。
a really good book by the way for the Reformation.
我們(“改教傳統圖書出版社”)也是上周才拿到。
We just got it last week.
我也受邀寫了一章,寫的是居家男人路德。
And I was asked to do one chapter in that book on Luther as a family man.
我跟你們說,研究這個部分實在是趣味無窮。
That’s a fascinating thing to study, I’ll tell you.
因為你們知道,在那樣一個時代,
Because that was in a day when, you know,
如果一個人很聖潔,他根本就不是什麼居家男人。
if you were holy, you weren’t to be much of a family person at all.
但路德非常喜歡小孩子,也很愛他的妻子,
And Luther loved children, and he loved his wife,
他是一個居家好男人。
and was a great family man.
從路德的寫作中、個性中,
And the earthiness of Luther
我們隨處都可以看到他是一個非常質朴的人,
is everywhere in his writings and in his persona,
與羅馬天主教的任何特征都是截然不同的。
and it just flies in the face of anything Romish.
所以,對修道主義的推崇也是宗教改革時期的一個大問題。
And that too, became a big issue in the Reformation, elevation of monasticism.
接下來,對中保權的篡奪。
And then usurped mediation,
基督的中保權被歸給了瑪利亞與聖徒們。
ascribed to Mary, ascribed to the saints.
我上周剛去了墨西哥,他們告訴我說,
I was just down in Mexico last week and they were telling me
那裡的人口中仍有八成是羅馬天主教徒。
down there how 80 percent of the population is still Roman Catholic
他們還說,對很多羅馬天主教徒而言,
and how for many Roman Catholics,
特別是那些名義上的教徒,
especially the nominal Roman Catholics,
向瑪利亞禱告甚至比向耶穌基督禱告更加重要。
praying to Mary is even more important than praying to Jesus Christ.
而這個傳統充斥著他們的文化。
And how alive this is in their culture.
他們將中保權歸給了瑪利亞,
Mediation ascribed to Mary
還稱上帝的恩典會在聖禮中自動註入信徒。
as well as the automatic transfusion of grace in the sacraments.
因而聖禮也成了中保。
So that the sacraments become mediators as well.
所以,不只是瑪利亞和聖徒,還有聖禮,這些全都變成了中保,
So it’s not just Mary, it’s not the saints, but it’s the sacraments as well
這與“唯獨因信基督而得救”的教義大相徑庭。
versus salvation by faith in Christ alone.
所以羅馬天主教教導的是,上帝在中間,
And so what you have in Roman Catholicism then, is you end up having God in the center,
然後因為罪,人與上帝之間有了隔閡。
and there’s a separation between the two because of sin,
因此,罪人必須要經過這一整個起中保作用的聖禮體系,
so the sinners got to come through the whole sacramental system as a kind of mediator, sacraments,
然後是瑪利亞和聖徒們,然後再通過基督到達上帝那裡。
and then you’ve got Mary and the saints, and then you’ve Jesus to God.
所以一個人要到上帝那裡去,得經過這一整個複雜的體系。
So there’s a complex system to really get to God.
而路德說,這些都是謬論。
And Luther said, this is all nonsense,
上帝與人之間只有一位中保,就是那義者基督耶穌。
there’s only one Mediator between God and man, Christ Jesus the Righteous.
所以,我們不需要這一整個複雜的體系。聖禮自有它們的作用,
So you don’t need that whole complex system.
但若說它們有中保作用,就是在篡奪基督的中保權。
Sacraments have their role, but this is usurped mediation.
最後一點,倚靠善工,將之作為獲得上帝恩典、
And then finally, reliance upon good work as the means to obtain,
甚至在某種意義上賺取上帝恩典的途徑。
and in some sense, to merit God’s grace.
而這便是半伯拉糾主義的荼毒,
And that’s the poison of semi-Pelagianism,
即一個人把自己的善工和上帝的恩典混合在一起來獲得救贖。
that you mix your works with God’s grace in order to get salvation.
為了反對羅馬天主教的這些謬誤,
So in opposition to these Roman Catholic errors,
宗教改革逐步明確地得出了我們上堂課講到的“五個唯獨”。
the Reformation gradually crystalizes the five solas that we discussed last lecture.
我們需要明白的是,這些教義本身並不是區別所在,
So the point you need to understand is that it’s not the doctrines themselves that of a differentiation point,
真正的區別存在於“唯獨”這個詞。
but the word “sola” is where the rubber hits the road, okay?
你可以畫出兩欄,我就直接說給你們,
So if you draw two columns, I’ll just give them to you,
你們寫的應該比我寫的快。
you’re probably quicker than I can write them.
兩欄。第一點,宗教改革,唯獨聖經(拉丁語“sola Scriptura”)。
Two columns. Point one, Reformation, “sola Scriptura”, “Scripture alone”.
羅馬天主教:“聖經和傳統。這兩者具有一樣的權威性。“
Roman Catholicism: Scripture and tradition, two equal branches of authority,
但是若實踐起來,傳統一定會變成更大的那個權威。
which of course, in practice tradition becomes a greater branch of authority.
因為,如果教皇曾經說過瑪利亞是完全無罪的,
Because if the pope says yesterday that Mary was sinless,
那一定是會眾讀經時誤解了它的意思,教皇說的才是權威。
you must have misinterpreted reading the Bible, and that’s got authority.
因此,教皇的解讀勝過路加福音1章中所記載的,
So that trumps Luke 1
即瑪利亞說,耶穌是我的救主。
where she says Jesus is my Savior.
第二點,唯獨恩典(拉丁語“sola gratia”)。
Number two, “grace alone”, “sola gratia”.
羅馬天主教:“恩典?我們相信恩典的。但也相信人的功勞。”
Rome: grace? Oh yes, we believe in grace, but and human merit.
第三點,唯獨基督。
Three, Christ alone.
羅馬天主教:“我們相信基督。但也相信瑪利亞和聖徒們。”
(Rome:) Oh yes, we believe in Christ, but and Mary and the saints.
第四點,唯獨信心。
Four, “faith alone”.
羅馬天主教:“對,我們相信信心,我們需要信心。
(Rome:) Oh yeah, we believe in faith, we need faith,
但是我們相信,信心和善工一起組成了得救的方式。”
but and works become the means of salvation.
然後是唯獨上帝的榮耀。
And then “glory to God alone”.
羅馬天主教:“當然,我們相信上帝的榮耀。
Oh sure, Roman Catholics would say, we believe in the glory of God,
但我們也相信聖徒們的榮耀。“
but we also believe in the glory of the saints.
因此,如果我們今天對一個羅馬天主教徒說,
So when you say to a Roman Catholic person even today that
我們相信聖經、恩典、基督、信心和上帝的榮耀,
we believe in Scripture and grace and Christ and faith and the glory of God,
他會說,我們也相信這些。
they say, so do we.
但實際上,他們會在每一項上增添別的東西。
But they add to each one of these, okay.
而隨著宗教改革的展開和進行,新教逐漸形成了三個分支。
Alright, so as this Reformation unfolds then, what happens is that three branches evolve.
我已經提到,公元529年,新教分為了路德宗和改革宗信仰。
I mention to you already, 529, Protestantism divides into Lutheranism and the reformed faith.
而大概就在同一時間,
And right about that same time,
有另外一群人,他們認為改教家的改革還不夠徹底。
there was another group of people that said the reformers weren’t going far enough.
教會歷史中總有這樣的事情發生,對不對?
And this is always true in church history, right?
當有一個像路德這樣激進的改革家時,
When there’s a radical reformer like Luther,
總會出現一個人,比路德還要路德,
there’s always gonna be someone who comes alongside of him and out Luther’s Luther,
或者比加爾文還要加爾文。
or out Calvin’s Calvin.
當一個人比加爾文還加爾文時,我們稱之為“極端加爾文主義者”。
So we call them “hyper-Calvinist”, if you out Calvin Calvin.
所有來了這樣一群人,他們說,
So there was a group of people that came along and said,
路德和加爾文的觀點中仍然保留混雜了太多羅馬天主教的東西。
you know, there’s still too much mixture of Rome even in Luther and even in Calvin.
路德比加爾文更加明顯,
And Luther was more obvious
因為路德試圖要留住任何他能夠留住的羅馬天主教神學,
because Luther tried to retain from Roman Catholic theology what he could retain,
而加爾文的觀點卻是,讓我們單單看聖經怎麼說,
whereas Calvin took more of the view point, let’s look at Scripture alone
由聖經的教導來決定我們應該怎麼做,
and just settle on what Scripture is teaching,
我們不要去試圖保留羅馬天主教的東西。
and let’s not try to keep anything from Rome.
當然了,加爾文的寫作是在他的鼎盛時期,
But of course Calvin was already in the day, and he’s writing at his heyday,
而在他所處的時代,新教與羅馬天主教已經有了一個正式的分離。
he’s in a day when there was a formal break made with Rome.
路德在他的時代則是正在經歷那個分離的過程。
Luther had to go through that break.
所以路德的期望總是更偏向於,也許我們可以合在一起,
So Luther was always hoping more for, maybe we can get together,
也許我們能夠跨越我們的分歧。
maybe we can bridge over our differences.
現在又來了這另一群人,他們說,
Well, this other group comes along and says,
不行,嬰兒洗也是羅馬天主教的特征,我們必須要廢除嬰兒洗,
oh no, even infant baptism, even that is Romish, we got to do away with that
而且,我們的生活必須要與這整個世界更加分離,
and we got to live more separate from the whole world,
我們不能參加戰爭,不能宣誓,我們必須要更加、更加屬靈。
we can’t participate in wars, we can’t take vows, we are really gonna be much much more spiritual.
那時已經是十六世紀二十年代了。
And that was already beginning in the 1520s as well.
事實上,我們稱之為“重洗派運動”的這一場運動,
In fact, that movement, which we call anabaptist,
是一場我們很難解釋清楚的運動。
is a very difficult movement to get your arms around.
喬治·威廉姆斯博士對重洗派運動進行了研究,
Dr. G. Williams has done the definitive book
寫出了一本權威著作。
on anabaptist.
我記得他的書一共有四、五個版本,
I think he put out four, five editions,
最後一個版本大概有1200多頁。
the last edition was about 1,200 pages,
他將重洗派運動劃分為了五個主要的運動。
and he divides it into five major movements.
在重洗派中,有像門諾·西門這樣比較平和的人,
You got peace making anabaptist like Menno Simons,
也有像托馬斯·閔采爾這樣出去燒殺擄掠的人,
and you got guys like Thomas Müntzer who got out and killed people and raid,
他們都被稱為重洗派。
all under one umbrella.
因此,我們不能夠將那時的重洗派運動
So don’t equate the anabaptist movement with,
與今天的改革宗浸信會運動等同起來,
say the reformed baptist movement today.
如果邁克爾·海金博士在這裡的話,他會告訴我們,
If you have Dr. Michael Haykin here, he would say,
這兩者幾乎沒有任何聯繫,
there’s scarcely any connection at all,
可能唯一一個小小的共同點就是他們都不給嬰兒施洗。
maybe one little common denominator where they don’t baptize infants.
但是,那些在某種程度上認為改教家對教會的改革
But the anabaptist movement was a collective umbrella for all those who felt in one way or another,
還不夠徹底的人,都屬於重洗派運動這一共同體中。
that the reformers didn’t go far enough in reforming the church.
那麼,正如我們已經提到的那樣,
So as a distinct branch of evangelical Christianity then,
改革宗教會在瑞士、在慈運理和布林格的教導下,
we are talking about the reformed movement now, one of these branches,
作為福音派基督教的一個單獨的分支出現了。
which arose in Switzerland with the preaching of Zwingli and Bullinger as we saw.
後來,加爾文又將日內瓦建立成了一個改革宗信仰的模範城市。
And then later Calvin establishes Geneva as a model reformed city.
與集中於德國與斯堪的納維亞半島的路德宗主義不同,
Unlike Lutheranism, which concentrated itself in Germany and Scandinavia,
改革宗基督教迅速演變為了一個範圍廣泛的國際運動,
reformed Christianity, quite early on, became a broadly international movement,
傳播到了德國、匈牙利、波蘭、荷蘭(在荷蘭取得了巨大成功)、
spreading to parts of Germany, to Hungary, Poland, the Netherlands, big time in the Netherlands,
法國(至少最開始), 以及以強有力的方式傳到了蘇格蘭和英格蘭.
but also France, at least initially, and then, in a strong way, Scotland and England.
英國的改教家們首先是受到了路德的巨大影響,
Now the English reformers were much influenced by Luther at first,
但在兩位君主愛德華六世(短暫執政)
but during the short reign of Edward the sixth and the long reign of Edward the first,
和伊麗莎白一世(長期執政)執政期間,即1547至1603年,
oh Elizabeth the first rather, sorry, so that would span 1547 to 1603, the reigns of those two monarchs,
改革宗神學以一種較為溫和的形式
a moderate form of reformed theology
在英格蘭教會中日益占據了主導地位。
became increasingly dominant in the church of England.
於是這就引發了一個現象,
And so from the fifteen-sixties on, that in turn sparks a reaction,
就是從16世紀60年代到17世紀末的清教徒運動。
which from the fifteen-sixties to the end of seventeenth century, became known as the Puritan movement,
清教徒說,我們的講道、敬拜和日常生活
in which the Puritans were saying, we need a more thorough reformation
應該有一個更為徹底的改革。
of preaching, of practice and of worship.
一些清教徒從英格蘭教會中分離出來,
Some Puritans separated from the church of England.
他們中的大多數仍然在各個方面持守著改革宗信仰。
And most of those separatists remained thoroughly reformed in all areas.
也有一些人選擇繼續留在英格蘭教會中,
Some continued on in the church of England,
他們勉強讓自己能夠在教會中存留下來。
manage to somehow survive in the church of England,
可能《公禱書》中有幾處地方讓他們心中不平安,
maybe stepped on their conscience in a few areas in the Book of Common Prayer
他們說,“我們會遵從《公禱書》,
and just said, well, we will go along with it
不過只是因為教會是這樣要求的,其實我們心裡並不贊同。“
because church is telling us to, but in our hearts we disagree with it.
我們從他們的講道中就可以看出這一點,
And their preaching show that,
但他們設法留在了教會中,沒有被驅逐出去。
but they manage to survive without being ejected.
這群分離派中有一小部分人(不是很多)開闢了自己的道路,
And then some of the separatists who went their own way, not very many,
他們建立了浸信會, 仍然持守著改革宗神學家所信奉的原則,
but a few of them formed baptist churches, that continued to hold the tenents of the reformed theologians
不過他們不接受嬰兒洗禮。
but denied infant baptism.
我們今天的改革宗浸信會便是從這個運動中發展出來的。
It’s out of that movement, that what we call today reformed baptist evolved.
許多改革宗信徒從英格蘭移民到北美英國殖民地,
Now many persons of reformed persuasions immigrated from England to the British colonies in America,
與來自蘇格蘭、荷蘭、法國與德國的基督徒們住在一起,
mingling with people of like mind from Scotland, Netherlands, France, Germany,
這些人大都是為了躲避家鄉的宗教逼迫而來到美國的。
often fleeing persecution in their home lands.
據約翰·布拉特估計,在1776年美國正式建國時,
And so John Bratt, John Bratt estimated and said, in 1776, when the United States is officially founded,
當時人口中的三分之二都與改革宗教會有著緊密聯繫。
two thirds of the population were affiliated with churches espousing reformed theology.
因此,美國有一段非常耐人尋味的開國曆史,
So United States has a really interesting beginning,
至少是一段更偏向改革宗的開國曆史。
a more reformed beginning at least.
我們並不否認,他們中有許多人只是名義上的改革宗基督徒,
Now a lot of these people were nominal reformed, we don’t deny that,
但是確實有許許多多
but there were a goodly number of reformed people
從歐洲、英國和美國各大中心而來的改革宗基督徒。
from centers in Europe and Britain and United States.
自那時起, 至上個世紀, 改革宗信仰已傳遞到了全世界幾十個國家.
And in the last century since then, the reformed faith has spread to dozens of nations around the world.
雖然它通常並不是主流宗派,但它往往有重大的意義。
Seldom in a majority way, but often in a substantial way.
我們(“改教傳統圖書出版社”)出版了詹姆斯·麥戈德里克的書,
And we have published James McGoldrick’s book
《世界上的長老會和改革宗教會》。
Presbyterian and Reformed Churches in the World.
這是一本內容非常豐富的書,改革宗神學生應該人手一本。
That is a tremendous volume and should be had by every theological student of reformed persuasion.
因為如果有這本書在手邊,我們立刻就能找到
Because in a moment’s notice, you can open it up
世界上任何一個國家中所有改革宗和長老會的宗派,
and you can look at any country in the world and see all the reformed and Presbyterian denominations
也能讀到每個教會的歷史。
in that country and get the basic history of each one.
學生:能請您再說一遍這本書的名字嗎?
Student: what’s the name of the book again?
周必克教授:我記得是《世界上的長老會和改革宗教會》,
Beeke: Reformed and Presbyterian Churches in the World,
但是最後這幾個詞我記得不是很清楚。
I think, I don’t know about the last words,
是詹姆斯·麥戈德里克寫的。
James McGoldrick.
而這本書涵蓋的就是這些內容。
But that’s what it covers.
詹姆斯是格林維爾長老會神學院的一位教授。
He’s a professor at Greenville Presbyterian Seminary.
好,你們有什麼問題嗎(關於從歷史角度看改革宗神學這部分)?
All right, any questions about reformed theology from a historical perspective?
我們講的只不過是一段小小的概述。
This is just a tiny overview.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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