系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第24講 聖經的屬性(上)(斯莫利牧師)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

我們接下來要探討的,
In your outline is point 17,
是我們課程大綱上的第17大點,“聖經的屬性”。
“The properties of the written word of God.” So what I want to do now
在討論這些屬性的時候,
is I want to start to look at those properties, I want to look at…
我不會完全按照大綱上羅列的順序來講,
I’m gonna look at them not in the exact same order
我們會在講的時候先暫且跳過其中兩個屬性,
that they were presented just now, we’re gonna take two of them out,
“聖經的準確無誤性”和“聖經的充分性”,
the inherent veracity of Scripture and also its perfect sufficiency,
把它們留到最後來講。
and we’ll delay those to the end.
之所以這樣做,是因為這兩個教義(聖經的無誤性和充分性)
And the reason we’re doing this is because those inherency and sufficiency
在過去的一百年裡備受批判與攻擊。
have been very much under attack within the last century.
所以對這兩個屬性,我們要多花一點時間。
So we’re gonna give those special attention.
但在此之前,我們先來看看聖經的其他屬性:
But let’s move through the other properties of Scripture.
聖經的”權威性”、”清晰性”、”必須性”、”在基督里的合一性”、
Its authority, clarity, necessity, unity in Christ
以及”在聖靈工作中的有效性”。
and efficacy by the Holy Spirit.
好,我們首先來看”聖經的權威性”。
So first of all, let’s talk about the authority of the Bible.
我們在讀馬太福音7章29節以及其他對照經文時發現,
One of the things about the Lord Jesus Christ that really astonished people
每當主耶穌講話時,
as they heard him speak
最令聽眾稀奇的是他總是帶著“權柄”說上帝的話。
was that he spoke God’s Word with “authority.” Matthew 7:29 and parallel texts.
上帝的話中有一種使人”理所應當要順服它”的力量。
There is something about the Word of God that brings people into rightful subjection to it.
保羅把它視為一個人悔改信主的標誌,
Paul considered it a mark of conversion
就是那些曾經是罪的奴僕的人,
that those who formerly were servants of sin
“現今卻從心裡順服了所傳給你們道理的模範”,
have now “obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you,”
羅馬書6章16節(修正:6章17節)。
Romans 6:16 (Correction: 6:17).
保羅說的”信服真道”(羅馬書1章5節的希腊語原文,羅馬書16章26節)
Paul could write of a proper response to the gospel as the “obedience of faith,”
就是人們對福音的一種恰當的回應。
Romans 1:5 in the Greek and Roman 16:26.
使徒們在傳福音時不斷引用聖經、指向聖經,
And the apostles modeled this obedience when they preach the gospel
這就是“信服真道”的典範。
by repeatedly quoting and alluding to the Holy Scriptures.
因此我們所說的“聖經的權威性”,
So when we speak of the Bible’s authority,
是指聖經有權柄讓它的聽眾順服於它的教導,
we refer to its property as the Word of God
而這種順服本是它的聽眾應盡的義務。
to obligate its readers or hearers to submission.
因為聖經是上帝的話語,
Because it is God’s Word.
它有權柄管理我們,我們也有義務要順服於它。
It places you under authority, under obligation.
聖經有權約束我們的一切思想與行為。
It binds you both in what you believe and in how you behave.
因此,聖經約束著我們的良心,
And so if the Bible teaches some doctrine
使我們有義務相信
or report some event,
聖經中的一切 – 無論是教導還是歷史事件,都是真實無誤的。
it binds our consciences to believe that what the Bible has said is true.
如果聖經要求我們應有某種態度、某種情感、或某種行為,
If it commands some attitude, affection or action,
我們也有義務要順服。
it binds our consciences to obey.
雖然有一定權柄的人也可以規範人的某些行為,
Men who have proper authority can regulate some of our actions, but only the Word of God
但唯獨上帝的話語有權力在教義、道德、敬拜上約束我們的良心。
has the authority to bind our consciences with regard to doctrine, morality, and worship.
威斯敏斯特信仰告白說,
The Westminster Confession of Faith says, “God alone is Lord of the conscience,
“唯獨上帝是良心的主,在信仰或敬拜的事上,
and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men,
要使人脫離一切與聖經相離或相悖之人的道理與吩咐。”
which are, in anything, contrary to his word; or beside it, in matters of faith or worship.
這是信仰告白第1章中的第2段(修正:第20章的第2段)。
That’s Chapter one, paragraph two.
我們現在來進一步看看這個教義。
So let’s discuss this a little bit.
首先,“聖經權威的源頭”。
First of all, “The source of the Bible’s authority.”
聖經有權威性的直接原因在於它是上帝的話語。
The Bible’s property of authority arises directly from its divine origin: it is God’s Word.
約翰在約翰一書5章9節中寫道,
As John wrote in 1 John 5:9, the testimony of God has
上帝的見證遠比人的見證更有權威性。
far more authority than the testimony of man.
保羅在帖撒羅尼迦前書2章13節中說,
Paul said in 1 Thessalonians 2:13 that apostolic doctrine should be received
使徒所教導的教義“不是人的道”,實乃“上帝的道”。
“not as the word of men,” but as it truly is “the word of God.”
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第4段說,
And therefore the Westminster Confession of Faith Section 1.4 Says,
“我們應信服聖經的權威,這權威不在乎任何人或教會的見證,
“The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, and obeyed,
乃完全在乎上帝(祂自己就是真理)。
dependeth not upon the testimony of any man, or Church;
上帝是聖經的作者,所以我們應當接受聖經,
but wholly upon God, who is truth itself, the author thereof: and therefore, it is to be received,
因為聖經是上帝的話。”
because it is the Word of God.”
我們在前面的課上也提到過,
We’ve already noted in these lectures
“耶和華如此說”這個短語以及類似的語句在聖經中出現了400多次。
that the Bible says more than 400 times, “Thus saith the Lord,” or some equivalent phrase.
要知道,只有統治者才會使用這樣的語句。
This is a formula that’s used by a ruler.
我們發現,這個語句也可以用在人身上,
You can find it being used by people who aren’t God,
比如在列王記上2章30節和一些別的經文中, 我們讀到”王吩咐說”。
for example, the expression “Thus saith the King” in 1 Kings 2:30 and other places.
再給大家舉個例子。
To give you an example,
在出埃及記5章10節和11節中,
the king of Egypt, when he sent out his servants
埃及王差派他的僕人去向當時做埃及人奴僕的希伯來人傳話,
to speak to the Hebrew slaves, gave them this message in Exodus 5:10 and 11,
僕人說,“法老這樣說:我不給你們草,
“Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw.
你們自己在哪裡能找草,就往哪裡去找吧!
Go ye, get you straw where ye can find it:
但你們的工一點不可減少。”
yet not aught of your work shall be diminished.”
所以在聖經中,人們常常用“某某如此說”的語句來傳達國王的話。
And so the expression “Thus saith” is commonly used in the Bible as the word of the king.
這話是不容置疑、不容爭議的,人們只能順服國王的話。
It’s not to be questioned. It’s not to be disputed. It is only to be obeyed.
因此,通過使用“某某如此說”這個說法,主要我們知道,
And when, therefore, the Lord uses this expression, he is communicating
祂是那位至高的主與大君王,凡聽見祂話語的人都必須順服。
that He speaks as the Supreme Lord and King and all who hear must submit to His words.
我們所說的“權威”,並不只是指賞罰的權力,
And when we speak of authority, we’re not just talking about the power to reward or punish.
更多是指某種約束道德權利和道德義務的權力。
We’re speaking more specifically to moral right and obligation.
上帝有權命令我們,因為祂造了我們,祂造了萬物。
God has the right to command us, because He made us, and He made all things.
詩篇95章3至5節說,
Since He made all things,
既然上帝造了萬物,祂就是萬物的主。
he owns all things, as Psalm 95:3 through 5 says.
而正如陶匠有權隨己意支配他手中的土,
And like the potter over the clay,
造物主也有權按祂自己的心意來使用我們。
the Creator has the right to do with us what he pleases.
所以,聖經天生就有這種權威,它有權讓人順服於它。
And therefore the Bible has inherent authority that rightly demands our submission.
但是,我們所說的“聖經的權威性”,
It’s not just, when we say the authority of the Bible
不只體現在它對人的影響上,
that we’re describing the effect that it has on people,
因為就算人沒有認識到這種影響、體會不到這種影響,
whether or not people acknowledge it, whether or not people experience it.
聖經仍舊是上帝的話語。
This is God’s Word.
因此,人有義務要順服聖經的話。
And therefore, they are obligated to submit.
所以我們接下來要講的就是 “聖經的權威與教會”。
Now this brings us to consider “Biblical authority and the church.”
在宗教改革時期,羅馬天主教教會宣佈:
During the Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church claimed that for all practical purposes,
由教皇領導的羅馬訓導當局實際上擁有全世界的最高權威。
the Roman Magisterium, led by the Pope, held supreme authority on Earth.
他們說,教皇有約束人良心的權柄,
The Pope had the authority, they said, to bind the conscience
也有解決教義紛爭、處理順服與敬拜上的分歧的權柄。
and to arbitrate disagreements over doctrine, obedience and worship.
顯然,羅馬天主教援引基督的應許來支持他們的這一觀點,
And of course, the Roman Catholic Church pointed to Christ’s promise
基督在馬太福音16章19節中應許,
to give “the keys to the kingdom” to Peter
要把“天國的鑰匙”給彼得,讓彼得可以”捆綁”或”釋放”。
so that he can “bind” or “loose,” in Matthew, 16:19.
我們在回應羅馬天主教的時候應該認識到,
Well, in response to that, we recognize that, of course,
顯然,彼得自己並沒有任何權柄,這個權柄是出自聖靈的默示。
it wasn’t Peter himself who had that authority, it is only by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
但是,我們在聖經中看不到任何應許,
But there is no promise in the Bible
說上帝會把聖靈的默示賜給使徒之後的任何人。
that God would grant that kind of inspiration to anyone after the apostles.
所以,羅馬天主教所做的,
So what the Roman Catholic Church does is,
是把上帝賜給彼得或使徒的應許挪用到了教皇身上。
they take promises given to Peter or the apostles and then they apply them to the Pope.
所以我們理應問他們:
And we rightly say,
“你們把上帝賜給彼得的應許用在教皇身上的做法,有何依據?”
what gives you the warrant to say that promises made to Peter apply to the pope?
聖經中並沒有這樣的教導,說使徒的權柄是可以繼承沿襲的。
There’s nothing in the Bible that would indicate any kind of apostolic succession.
此外,
Furthermore,
我們也決不能把某一領袖或某一委員會視為我們的最終權威,
we cannot make any leader or council of leaders into our final authority,
因為歷史已經向我們顯明,
because history has shown that
這些領袖、這些委員會都會犯錯,也會提出相互矛盾的觀點。
such leaders and councils have errored and contradicted each other.
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第10段說,
Therefore, the Westminster Confession of Faith in Section 1:10 says,
“在處理信仰上一切爭論,教會會議一切決議、
“The supreme judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined,
古代作者意見,人的道理、個人屬靈領受事務時,
and all decrees of counsels, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits,
我們可以放心:其裁判最高審判者只有一位,
are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other
就是在聖經中說話的聖靈。”
but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.”
信仰告白在這裡引用的經文是馬太福音22章29至31節
And it’s interesting, because the Confession at this point cites Scriptures like Matthew 22:29-31,
和使徒行傳28章23至25節。
and Acts 28:23-25.
有意思的是,如果我們研讀這幾節經文,
And if you go to those scriptures, you find that the apostles,
查看使徒、乃至耶穌在卷入宗教紛爭時的做法,
even Jesus himself, when they’re involved in religious controversy, what do they do?
我們會發現:他們回到了聖經、回到了上帝的話語中去。
They go back to the Book. They go back to the Scriptures.
還有一個關於“聖經權威性”的爭議,
Now, there’s another controversy that was involved with regard to the authority of the Bible,
它與“聖經鑒別”有關。
and that has to do with “The authentication of the Bible.”
羅馬天主教稱,聖經確實是上帝的話語,
The Roman Catholic Church also claimed that while the Bible is the Word of God,
但教會的權柄是我們接受聖經、接受它是上帝話語的基礎。
we receive it as the Word of God only on the authority of the church.
他們的意思是,只有教會才能辨別聖經的真偽,
In other words, they say we need the church to authenticate the Bible for us,
只有通過教會,我們才能確認聖經是上帝的話語。
so that we know for sure that it’s the Word of God.
他們常常會援引奧古斯丁說過的一句話,
They often quote Augustine’s statement when he said, “For my part,
“對我來說,若不是因為教會的權柄,我就不會相信福音。”
I should not believe the gospel except as moved by the authority of the Catholic Church.”
這句話出自奧古斯丁的《答基要派摩尼的書信》,
That, by the way, comes from his epistle, or his writing Against the Epistle of Manichaeus
它被收錄在《尼西亞及尼西亞後期教父》一書中。
Called Fundamental. And you can find it in the Nicene and post-Nicene fathers.
羅馬天主教還試圖引用保羅在提摩太前書3章15節的話
Roman Catholics also try to prove the dependence of the Bible upon the church
來證明教會是聖經權威的基礎,
by quoting Paul’s statement in 1 Timothy 3:15,
保羅說,“永生上帝的教會”是“真理的柱石和根基”。
that “”the church of the living God is “the pillar and ground of the truth.”
所以,羅馬天主教並不否認聖經的權柄,
And so they say, “The Bible? Oh, yes, oh, yes.”
他們會說,“聖經有權威性,聖經有上帝的權柄。”
They say that “The Bible has authority. It has divine authority.
但是如果我們問他們, “聖經的權柄是從哪裡來的?”
But where does it get that authority from?
他們會說,“聖經的權柄出自教會。”
It gets it from the church.”
那麼我們應該如何回應羅馬天主教呢?
Well, how do we respond to that?
首先我們承認,
First of all, we agree
上帝的確會使用真教會的見證、
that the witness of the true church, combined with its holy life and good works,
結合它敬虔的生命和善工來吸引人、使人開始留意祂的話語。
is an instrument by which God often moves people to pay attention to His Word.
我們中的許多人就有這樣的經歷。
How many of us can acknowledge in our own lives
我們可能結識了某位非常敬虔的基督徒,
that we knew some godly Christian person, and it was through that person
通過這個人的影響,我們開始讀經、開始去聽合乎聖經的講道。
that we started to pay attention to the Bible or to attend biblical preaching.
在古時候,
This is what Paul seems to mean
人們會把皇家法令和特別公告張貼在建築物的支柱上,
when he called the church “the pillar and grounded the true truth.”
以供公眾閱覽;
In the ancient world,
所以,當保羅說教會是“真理的柱石和根基”時,
royal edicts and special announcements were posted
他的意思好像是說,
on pillars for public viewing.
教會就像那時候張貼公告的柱石一樣,
And so in the same way,
將上帝的話語舉起,給世人觀看。
the church holds up the Word.
因此,不是我們賜給上帝的話語權柄,
Not that we are the ones that give the Word its authority,
我們要做的,是把它舉起來,讓世人看到這話語、認識這話語。
but we publicly hold it up for people to see it and to know it.
這也是為什麼
This is one reason why
教會成員、特別是教會的神職人員需要言行聖潔、行為無可指摘,
it’s crucial for church members and especially church officers, to conduct themselves
這一點極其重要。
in a holy and blameless manner.
正如保羅在提多書2章中所說的,
As Paul says, for example, in his Epistle to Titus in chapter 2,
我們要過聖潔的生活,“免得上帝的道理被毀謗”。
we need to live holy lives so that people won’t slander the Word of God.
但這並不代表教會有鑒定上帝話語真偽的權柄。
But this does not mean that the church authenticates God’s Word.
教會不是聖經的根基,事實是,聖經是教會的根基。
The Bible is not built on the church. The church is built on the Bible.
保羅在以弗所書2章20節中說,
Paul says in Ephesians 2:20 that the church
教會是建造於“使徒和先知的根基上”的。
is “built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets.”
保羅又在以弗所書3章5節中說,
And he explains in Ephesians 3:5 that these apostles and prophets
上帝把祂啟示的奧秘賜給了使徒和先知。
function as the bearers of divine revelation.
因此,威廉默斯·阿·佈雷克有句話說得好,
And so Wilhelmus a Brakel rightly says,
他說,“教會的一切權威都出自上帝的話語。
“The church derives all authority from the Word.
只有藉著上帝的話語,我們才能認出真教會。”
We cannot acknowledge a church to be the true church except by means of the Word of God.”
這也正是羅馬天主教的論點的問題所在,
And this is a real problem for the Roman Catholic argument,
因為他們認為,我們必須通過教會的鑒別
because they argue that to know that the Bible is the Word of God,
才能知道聖經到底是不是上帝的話語。
it must be authenticated by the true church.
我們可以反過來問他們:
But we then respond by saying,
你們如何知道哪個教會是真教會呢?
how do you know which church is the true church?
因為很顯然,我們認出真教會的唯一方法
And of course, the only answer is,
就是用上帝的話語去查驗那間教會的教導。
by comparing what that church teaches to the Word of God. It is the word of God
我們需要用上帝的話語來鑒別教會的真偽、來辨別真教會。
that we use to authenticate the true church, to know which is the true church.
坦白說,這也是為什麼我們必須否認羅馬天主教是真教會。
And frankly, that is one reason why we should reject the Roman Catholic Church.
羅馬天主教不是真理的柱石,
It is not a pillar of the truth.
相反,它的教導常常違背上帝的聖言。
Instead, it often contradicts the doctrines of God’s holy Word.
那麼,如果不靠教會的認證,
So how then do we know that the Bible is God’s Word,
我們怎樣才能確定聖經就是上帝的話語呢?
if not from the testimony of the church?
加爾文對此給出了一個很有意思的回答。
Interestingly, Calvin answered that question by going back to the same treatise
他同樣引用了奧古斯丁的話,且就是羅馬天主教引用的那篇,
that Augustine wrote, that the Roman Catholics had quoted earlier.
加爾文指出,如果我們繼續往下讀,我們就能讀到奧古斯丁說,
Calvin pointed out that if you read on a little bit further in that,
教會的見證指引我們,讓我們看到一個高於教會的權威,
Augustine says that the church’s witness leads us to an authority
“這個權威通過上帝在我們心中賜下的光照和確信,
that is higher than the church, “to know what we believe
讓我們知道自己所信的是什麼。
by the inward illumination and confirmation of our minds,
這光照與確信出自上帝自己,而非人。”
due no longer to men, but to God Himself.”
我們之所以能夠帶著得救的信心、
The way in which a person becomes convinced
堅定不移地相信聖經是上帝的話語,
that the Bible is the Word of God with that deep inward certainty of saving faith
是因為聖靈的工作、因為祂光照我們的內心。
is when the Holy Spirit works to inwardly illuminate us,
聖靈的光照讓我們看到,聖經確實有出自上帝的神聖屬性,
so that we are able to see the divine characteristics that the Bible actually has,
所以我們確認,聖經就是上帝的話語。
so that we receive it as the Word of God.
保羅在哥林多前書2章4節至5節中就是這樣教導的,
This is what Paul taught in 1 Corinthians 2:4 and 5, where he said,
他說,“我說的話、講的道,不是用智慧委婉的言語,
and “My speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man’s wisdom,
乃是用聖靈和大能的明證,
but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power:
叫你們的信不在乎人的智慧,只在乎神的大能。”
that your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.”
保羅在這裡說的“聖靈…… 的明證”是指什麼?
Now what did Paul mean when he said the “demonstration of the Spirit?”
有些人會說,保羅是指神跡奇事,
Well some people might say that he meant miracles,
是因為保羅行了神跡奇事,人們才相信聖經是上帝的話語。
Paul worked miracles so that people would know that this is the Word of God.
但這是不可能的,
But that can’t be the case,
因為就在前面的哥林多前書1章24節中,保羅寫道,
because Paul had just written in 1 Corinthians 1:24,
因為猶太人求神跡,所以他們根本就不信福音。
that the Jews require a sign, and therefore they don’t believe in the gospel.
所以,如果神跡就能夠解決人不信的問題,
And so if it was a problem to be solved by miracles,
保羅不會在前一章中寫下這樣的話。
he wouldn’t have written that before.
相反,保羅在哥林多前書2章12節中說,
Instead, Paul writes in 1 Corinthians 2:12 that the Holy Spirit works inwardly
聖靈在人的心裡動工,將福音的真理展示給人,
to exhibit the truth of the Gospel with the result
使人能夠從心底承認耶穌是主。
that people confess from the heart that Jesus is Lord.
我們在哥林多前書12章3節中也讀到同樣的內容,
We see that in 1 Corinthians 12:3, where Paul says that
保羅說,若非是聖靈感動人,沒有人能說“耶穌是主”。
apart from the Holy Spirit, no one can say that Jesus is Lord.
同樣,保羅在帖撒羅尼迦前書1章5節中對帖撒羅尼迦人說,
In a similar way, Paul wrote to the Thessalonians in 1 Thessalonians 1:5,
聖靈帶著使人有“信心”的“權能”賜下福音。
that the Holy Spirit accompanied the gospel with power to produce “assurance.”
保羅在這裡所說的“信心”,不是指“得救的確據”,
Now that word “assurance” in that context does not refer to “assurance of salvation.”
而是指“’相信上帝的話是真理’的確據或信心”。
Instead, it refers to the assurance or confidence that God’s Word is true.
在這一點上,
And so, again,
即上帝如何使我們確信聖經就是祂滿有權柄的話語,
the Westminster Confession of Faith offers a helpful summary
我們又可以在《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》中
of how God convinces us to believe
找到一個很有幫助的概括。
that the Bible is God’s authoritative Word.
順便說一句,
And before I quote it,
你們可能也註意到我在課上多次引用了《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》。
you’ve probably noticed, I’m quoting the Westminster Confession a lot.
這是因為在“聖經的屬性”這個主題上,
That’s because Chapter 1 in the Westminster Confession
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》第一章
is one of the best statements
是有史以來神學家們寫過的最精準的幾段話。
about the nature of God’s Word that has ever been written.
所以如果你們想進一步深入研究這個主題,
If you need to study this topic in depth, I highly commend
我強烈建議你們去回顧、研讀威斯敏斯特神學家寫的這一章。
going back and studying Chapter 1 written by the Westminster Divines.
威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第5節說,
The Westminster Confession of Faith Section 1.5 says,
“我們可能受教會的見證的感動與影響,
“We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church
因而高舉聖經、敬重聖經。
to a high and reverend esteem of the Holy Scripture.
對聖經屬天的性質、教義的效力、文體的莊嚴、各部的一致、
And the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style,
整體的要旨(將一切的榮耀歸給上帝),
the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God,
人類唯一得救之道的完整彰顯,
the full discovery it makes of the only way of man’s salvation,
和其他許多無比卓越、全然完美之處,
and many other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof,
都足以證明聖經本身就是上帝的話。
are arguments whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God:
雖然如此,
yet notwithstanding,
最讓我們完全確信聖經無謬真理與上帝權威的原因,
our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof,
是聖靈在我們心中作見證,
is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit,
藉著上帝的話在我們心中所作的見證,
bearing witness by and with
也與上帝的話在我們心中一同作見證。”
the Word in our hearts.
因此,連加爾文在內的改革宗神學家都說,
And so Reformed theologians from including Calvin himself say that
聖經是“它自己的見證”,用希腊語說就是”autopistos”。
the Bible is self authenticated, it’s “autopistos,” to use the Greek word.
換句話說,聖經自身就帶有從上帝而來的標誌,
In other words, the Bible has in itself those marks of divinity
當聖靈打開我們的眼睛、讓我們能夠真正看到這些標誌的時候,
that when the Holy Spirit opens up our eyes so that we can truly see them,
我們就能從心底感受到聖經作為上帝話語的權威性。
we have an inward sense of the Bible’s authority as God’s Word.
有人可能會提出反對意見,說,“這分明就是循環論證”,
One might object to this They say, “Well, that’s a circular argument,”
又說,“那你的意思是說,
and say, “You’re saying
‘我們知道聖經是上帝的話語,是因為聖經是上帝的話語。’”
that we know that the Bible is God’s Word because it’s God’s Word.”
我們應該如何回應這樣的反對意見呢?
Well, how do we answer that?
首先,我們要提醒他們,
Well, first of all, we should note that
一個人若要談論”終極權威”、
whenever you’re talking about ultimate authority,
談論”幫助我們認識真理的終極權威是什麼”,
what is the ultimate authority of how you know what is true,
他的論證必定會變成循環論證。
your argument has to be circular.
因為如果我們在論證時借助了另一個所謂的權威,
Because if you appeal to another authority,
比如一個人說,
“Well, I’m gonna prove to you
“我要通過這些理性論證來向你證明,聖經是上帝的話語”,
that the Bible is God’s Word by these, say, rational arguments.”
那這個人實際上做的,就是表明
Then what have you done? You’ve said, “Well, my ultimate authority
“我的終極權威實際上是’理性論證’。”
is really rational arguments.”
因此,如果我們認為
And so if we’re gonna say
上帝的話語 – 聖經是我們在這個世界上的最高權威,
that the Bible, as God’s Word, is our highest earthly authority,
那麼顯而易見,我們就必須用上帝的話語本身來證明這一點,
then by definition we have to appeal to God’s Word itself to prove it,
否則我們就是自相矛盾。
or we’ve contradicted ourselves.
此外,那些眼睛被聖靈打開的人之所以選擇相信聖經的權威,
Furthermore, for those whose eyes are opened, trusting in the Bible’s authority
不是因為他們有盲目的信心,
is not a blind leap of faith.
而是因為聖靈打開了他們的眼睛,
But because their eyes are opened,
讓他們看到了聖經中上帝的權威,
they see the Bible’s divine authority
那權威如同空中閃耀的太陽一樣清晰可見。
just as surely as we see the sun when it’s shining in the sky.
加爾文說,”聖經本身就是為它自己的真理作證的確鑿證據,
Calvin said, “Scripture exhibits fully as clear evidence of its own truth
就好像黑與白為顏色作證,甜與苦為味道作證。”
as white and black things do of their color, or sweet and bitter things do of their taste.”
弟兄姐妹們,這實在是讓我們鬆了一口氣。
And brothers and sisters, this is very liberating.
請大家不要誤解我的意思,
Don’t misunderstand me,
我並不是說理性論證這類方法一點作用也沒有,
I’m not saying that there’s absolutely no place for rational arguments and things like that.
有時候我們確實需要“照愚昧人的愚妄話回答他”,
There are times to answer a fool according to his folly,
需要讓一個無神論者或提出反對意見的人看到
and to show that the atheist or the other objector
他們的論證其實是站不住腳的。
doesn’t have something to stand on.
但是,我們不需要這些理性論證
But you don’t need those kinds of arguments
來使人相信聖經是上帝的話語。
for people to be convinced that the Bible is the Word of God.
這實在是太好了!
the Bible is the Word of God. And that’s so good.
我們來想象這樣一幅畫面,
Think about the little old lady,
一位滿臉皺紋、身體瘦小的老太太,住在一間小屋裡。
all crumpled up, living in a cottage or a hut. She’s received virtually no education.
她幾乎沒受過什麼教育,雖然能識字,但沒怎麼上過學。
She can read, but she’s never gone to much schooling.
如果我們想給她解釋某個哲學理論,
If you try to give some kind of philosophical argument to her,
她根本連我們在說什麼都聽不懂。
she’d have no idea what you’re even talking about.
但這位慈祥的老太太知道,聖經是上帝的話語。
But that dear little old lady knows that the Bible is the Word of God.
她是怎麼知道的呢?
And how does she know it?
是因為上帝的靈打開了她的眼睛。
Because the Spirit of God has opened up her eyes.
所以她在讀聖經的時候,就認出了那位創造她的上帝的聲音。
And when she reads that Bible, she recognizes the voice of the God who created her.
她的這種確信,是任何理性論證都無法給與的。
And she knows that with a certainty that no rational argument can obtain.
這實在是讓我們得釋放、得自由,
That frees us. It liberates us
我們可以堅定地站在上帝話語的立場上,
to take our stand on the Word of God
不再總是覺得自己需要去捍衛它。
and to not feel like we always have to defend it.
就像司布真說的,我們要做的,就是把獅子從籠子里放出來。
But simply, as Spurgeon said, let the lion out of the cage.
我們不需要試圖去保護那隻獅子,我們只需要把它放出來。
Stop trying to protect the lion. Just let it loose.
我們只需要把上帝的話語放出來,它自己能解決一切問題。
Let the Word of God loose, and it will take care of itself.
在現今世界,聖經的權威性還在另一個方面”得罪”了人,
Now, in the modern world, there is another way in which biblical authority is offensive.
它”違背了”人的個人自主權,
And that is because it is contrary to personal autonomy.
而這裡所說的“自主”顯然是指人們要自己做判斷是非的審判官。
Of course, “autonomy” means people seeking to be a law unto themselves.
卡爾·亨利寫道:
Carl Henry wrote,
“那些激進的世俗主義者,一邊高舉現代人所謂的成熟,
“The radical secularist, vaulting modern man’s supposed maturity,
一邊又對一切從上面來的權威都持懷疑態度。”
is skeptical of all transcendent authority.”
那麼就讓我們來探討一下這個問題。
So let’s think for a moment about this problem.
我們前面也講過,
We’ve talked some about
對那些堅稱教會有絕對權柄的羅馬天主教教徒等人來說,
how the Bible is a stumbling block to people like Roman Catholics
聖經就是一塊絆腳石。
who insist on the authority of the church.
但把聖經為絆腳石的,不只是羅馬天主教教徒,
It’s not just Roman Catholics, it’s modern man as well,
還有持現代懷疑論的人。
skeptical people.
有時候他們會這樣辯解,
And you know, sometimes they justify this.
他們會說,“瞧瞧這些打著宗教權威旗幟的人,
They say, “Look at all the horrible abuses
他們犯下了一樁又一樁的惡行:
that have been committed in the name of religious authority.
家庭中、教會中的惡行,教會和國家政府的濫用職權。
Abuses in families, abuses in churches, abuses by national governments.
這些都是他們以宗教的名義做的。”
All in the name of religion.”
所以他們就下了這樣的結論,
And so they conclude,
“我們應該推翻一切權威。
“We should throw off all authority.
這個世上不該有什麼更高的權威,
There can be no higher authority
因為權威是專制的、行惡的。”
because it’s authoritarian and abusive.”
我們應該怎樣回應他們呢?
Well, how do we respond to that?
首先我們要說,
Well, first of all, we would say
“有時候,我們確實應該質疑權威。
that “Sometimes it’s good to question authority.
比如有人宣稱自己擁有某種權威,卻沒有任何合理依據;
If, for example, that authority is claimed without legitimate warrant,
或者有人在行使權柄時毫無公義可言。
or if it is exercised with gross injustice.
但是,如果沒有一個更高的權柄做我們的審判官,
However, you have no solid basis to question human authority
我們也就沒有任何理由去質疑任何人的權柄。
if you do not have a higher authority to appeal to.
如果我們拒絕一切權柄,那我們也拒絕了上帝。
If you reject all authority, you have rejected God.
而拒絕上帝的後果並非是讓自己得自由,
And you have, instead of liberating yourself,
而是使自己落入殘酷暴君的統治之下。”
you have cast yourself into the cruel hands of tyrannical idols.”
How many times in the 20th century have we seen
就是那些站起來推翻壓迫性政權的人,
that those who set out to overthrow oppressive authority
最後卻變成了下一任壓迫者。
themselves became the next oppressors?
為什麼會出現這樣的事情?
And why was it?
這是因為,他們不承認世上有任何高於他們自己的權柄,
It was because they lacked any supreme authority over themselves which would restrain them,
所以他們不受約束、不服引導,一心想要把自己變成上帝。
which would direct them, which would curb their impulse to turn themselves into gods.
因此,我們若想要阻止有權柄的人行惡或濫用職權,
And so the pathway to overcoming evil and abuse of authority
我們就必須順服以上帝的權威為基礎的真權威。
is submission to true authority, which is grounded in the authority of God.
並且,當那位創造我們、供養我們、
And it is not oppressive that the God who made us
護理我們的上帝要求我們遵行祂的旨意時,
and who has given us everything that we are and everything that we have
這不是壓迫,
should expect us to do His will.
恰恰相反,這是理所應當的事。
Instead, it is right.
然而,現代人又會提出這樣的反對意見:
Oh, but modern man may object again,
“這種把聖經視為絕對的權威的做法不符合科學,
“To accept the Bible as an absolute authority is unscientific.
因為我們必須要用能夠說服我們理性的方式來證實這所有的一切,
The scientific method demands that all things must be proven to the satisfaction
這才是科學的方法。
of our own minds.”
這種理論乍一聽極有說服力、也很合理。
Well, that sounds very strong and very good.
但事實上它非常幼稚。
But in reality it’s quite naive. It’s quite naive.
想一想聖經的本質是什麼:
Think about the nature of the Bible:
聖經自己教導我們,它是從上帝而來的見證。
the Bible identifies itself as a testimony from God.
其實我們每個人都會相信
Well, we all base many of our beliefs
許多未經我們自己親眼見過、或親自驗證過的事情。
upon things that we’ve not personally seen or tested.
我們相信權威見證。
but we trust the testimony of an authority.
歷史就是這樣。
Think of history.
要是沒有書面文獻的記載,
How else can we know who was the president of the United States
我們怎麼知道一百年前的美國總統是誰?
a hundred years ago, if not on the testimony of written documents?
我們難道要在實驗室里做一個實驗,
Are you going to go to do an experiment in your lab
來證明誰是一百年前的總統嗎?
to prove who the president was a hundred years ago?
法律裁定也是這樣。
Or think about legal decisions.
法庭的法律裁決通常是以證人證詞和專家證詞為依據的。
Legal decisions in courts often depend upon eyewitness testimony and expert testimony.
就連科學也是這樣。
Or, this is supposed to be a
既然這是一個”科學的反對意見”,那我們就來說說科學。
scientific objection, think about science.
試問有哪位科學家曾在他的實驗室中
What scientist has gone through and personally tested and proven
把他相信的每一條科學定律都親自研究並驗證一遍?
every single law of science that he believes in his own lab?
沒有一個科學家這樣做過。
None of them.
他們每一個人都相信整個科學界的能力、
They all depend upon the ability of the scientific community
相信那些寫出科學著作、發表科學文章的人所做的見證。
to trust the testimony of those who write scientific books and publish articles.
他們是依靠見證的。
They trust in testimony.
我們每個人都是這樣。
We all do.
因此,一個人如果因為見證而相信,
And therefore, it is not irrational or foolish
這並不是不理性、也不是愚昧。
to base one’s beliefs upon testimony.
其實,相信一位知曉一切、完全公義、
In fact, it is the most rational thing in the world to believe in testimony
永遠誠實的上帝所做的見證,是全世界最合理的事情。
if it is the testimony of an all knowing, perfectly righteous, never lying God.
這才是科學方法的典範。
It is the epitome of the scientific approach.
有些現代主義者試圖建立一種更”科學”的基督教,
Some modern people would try and construct a more scientific Christianity
但是他們不承認聖經有來自上帝的權柄。
and to do so without the divine authority of the Bible.
大家可以在我們上傳到Populi的講義里
And you can read about some of their efforts
讀到這些現代主義者的主張與實踐,
in those published lectures
這些講義討論的都是自由派神學、新正統神學、
on errors concerning special revelation, liberals
以及其他主義在特殊啟示這一教義上的謬誤。
and neo-orthodox and others.
但是,如果他們想要建立一種沒有聖經中上帝權柄的基督教,
But if they try and build a form of Christianity without divine authority from the Bible,
他們做的不過是在沙土上建房子。
they’re only building on sand.
奧古斯丁說過,
Augustine said,
“如果聖經的權威開始動搖,我們的信仰就會搖搖欲墜。
“Now faith will totter if the authority of Scripture begins to shake.
而當我們的信仰搖搖欲墜時,愛本身就會變冷淡。”
And then, if faith totters, love itself will grow cold.”
這些現代主義者又說,
And if such modernists would say that
“我的權柄不是某本書,而是耶穌基督。”
“my authority is not some book, my authority is Jesus Christ.”
對持這樣觀點的人,我們可以借用鐘馬田的話來問他們:
Then we may respond as Martyn Lloyd-Jones did:
“你是怎麼認識主的?”
“How do you know the Lord?”
如果他們說,”我認識主,是因為我自己經歷了祂”,
If it is by personal experience, then we can ask,
我們可以緊接著問,”你怎麼知道你所經歷的這些
“How do you know that what you have seemed to have experienced
看起來與主相關的事情
concerning him is not a figment
不是你自己想象的呢?”
of your own imagination?”
如果他們說, “我認識主,是因為我自身理性的力量,
If they claim that by the powers of their own minds
它讓我們能夠查考聖經、並取其精華。”
to sift through the Bible to separate out what is valuable,
那麼,這就應了鐘馬田所說的,
then, as Lloyd-Jones said,
“這就是現代主義的真面目:‘理性決定一切’。”
“The modern position amounts to this, that it is man’s reason that decides.”
現代主義者拒絕了上帝滿有權柄的話語,
Having rejected the authoritative word of God,
他們走上了一條以人為中心、且充滿謬誤的
the modernist travels the dead-end road of man-centered,
經驗主義和理性主義的道路。
fallible experientialism and rationalism.
而這一切,最終一定會傾塌殆盡。
And the whole thing ultimately falls apart.
好,接下來我們簡要地講一講聖經權威性的實際應用。
Well, let’s talk briefly about some practical implications of biblical authority.
其實,聖經權威性的實際應用是顯而易見的,
The practical implications of biblical authority become very plain
只要我們能好好思想這一點:
when we consider that our response
我們對上帝話語的回應就等同於我們對上帝的回應。
to God’s Word is our response to God as He is speaking to us.
靠著聖經啟示的光照,
In the light of the inspiration of Scripture,
我們可以從以賽亞書66章1節和2節中讀到一個令人震撼的道理。
we can see the awesome logic of Isaiah 66:1 and 2:
“耶和華如此說:‘天是我的座位,地是我的腳凳,
“Thus saith the Lord, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool:
你們要為我造何等的殿宇?哪裡是我安息的地方呢?’
where is the house that ye build unto me? And where is the place of my rest?
耶和華說:‘這一切都是我手所造的,所以就都有了。
For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the Lord:
但我所看顧的就是虛心、痛悔、因我話而戰兢的人。’”
but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.”
弟兄姐妹們,如果聖經是上帝的話語,
Brothers and sisters, if the Bible is the Word of God,
那我們就應該帶著敬畏主的心來聽它、讀它。
then we should hear it and read it with the fear of the Lord.
因為這可是上帝在說話啊!
Because God is speaking, God is speaking.
此外,我們絕對不能成為判斷聖經的審判官。
And we never, ever stand in judgment over the Bible.
相反,當我們聽到聖經的話時,是上帝在審視我們。
Instead, when we hear the Bible, God is standing over us.
因此, 如果要用一種合乎聖經的簡短描述來形容上帝的真子民,
And therefore, a short biblical description of the true people of God is that they tremble
我們可以這樣說:他們”因上帝的話語而戰兢”。
at God’s Word.
我想在這裡停一下,規勸大家一句。
I just wanna pause here and admonish you.
因為在神學院里,我們每天都會接觸到上帝的話語,
Because in seminary, you work with God’s word constantly,
我們會學習與之相關的各類知識,
and you study all these things,
如希腊語語法、希伯來語句法,我們會閱讀聖經註釋書,
you learn Greek grammar, you learn Hebrew syntax, reading commentaries.
而”學習上帝話語”這件事本身並沒有任何問題,
It is very easy, not because of the nature of our work itself,
但是因為我們裡面的罪性,
but because the sinfulness of our hearts,
我們很容易因為熟悉而輕看上帝的話語。
for familiarity to breed contempt.
親愛的各位朋友,我想提醒大家,
My dear friends, let me just remind you,
我們所學習的是神聖的,它是上帝的話語。
that what you are handling is holy. It is the word of God.
我們絕不能忘記這一點。
Never forget that.
如果有一天,我們發現自己在面對上帝的話語時,心裡冰冷剛硬,
And if you find yourself ever becoming cold and callous, the answer is not to quit seminary,
我們要做的不是離開神學院,而是跪下來向上帝呼求,
but the answer is to fall on your knees and to cry out to God
求祂更新我們的心意。
that He’ll renew your heart.
好,“聖經的權威性”就講到這裡。
That’s the authority of the Bible.
我們接下來要探討的是“聖經的清晰性”。
Let’s move on and consider “The clarity of the Bible” now, the clarity of the Bible.
這位同學有問題,你請說。
Yes, question.
學生:“我有一個問題。
Student: “I have a question.
剛纔您提到,天主教會在沒有合理根據的情況下,
You spoke about the Catholic Church taking basically what the Bible says
把聖經的話應用到了自己身上。
and they claim to themselves without a foundation.
當然,我很贊同您說的這一點,但我同時也有一個問題。
And obviously, I agree to that. But then I have the question, too.
就是我們自己也會做同樣的事情,
Like, we do the same thing
我們也會把舊約中上帝給以色列人的應許應用到自己身上。
for Old Testament promises that were meant for Israel.
那麼您是否認為,舊約中的所有應許都有兩種應用方式,
Do you say, then, that all the Old Testament promises, they have a double fulfilments
所以我們可以把它們用在我們自己身上?
that we can take them to ourselves. Or are we…
比如,上帝曾應許說,當我們經歷水火時,
Because, for example, the promise like when we go through water,
水不會淹沒我們,火也不會燒滅我們。
the water will not overflow us, and when we go through fire…
這個應許是上帝賜給以色列人的,
God gives that to Israel as a promise,
但我們確實常把它應用到我們自己身上。”
but we do take it to ourselves so often.
斯莫利牧師:“嗯,這是一個很好的問題。
Pastor Smalley: “Right, right. Okay, good question.
你註意到我批判羅馬天主教,
So you’re picking up on the fact that I was critical of the Roman Catholic Church,
因為他們將上帝特別賜給使徒的應許應用到了教皇身上。
because they took promises that pertained to the apostles and they applied them to the pope.
是的,我們也可能犯這樣的錯誤,
Right, okay. Well, it is possible for us, not just with the Old Testament,
把上帝特別賜給某些人的應許應用到自己身上,
but with any part of the Bible to take promises that were directed towards
而且不只是舊約的應許,而是聖經中的任何一個應許。
particular individuals and to misapply them in the way we apply them to ourselves.
給大家舉個例子。
I’ll tell you an example. I had a friend one time who,
我曾經有一位朋友,他和他的妻子很長一段時間都膝下無子。
he and his wife had gone a long time, they hadn’t had any children.
然後有一天,他讀經的時候讀到上帝應許亞伯拉罕,
And he was reading through his Bible, he came across God’s promise to Abraham
說要賜給亞伯拉罕一個兒子。
that He would give him a son.
我這位朋友就說,“我要相信上帝的話,我要相信上帝的這個應許,
He said, I will believe in the Word of God, and I’m gonna trust that promise
上帝一定會賜給我一個孩子。”
that God will give me a child.
這樣的想法對嗎?
Well, is that legitimate?
顯然不對。
No, it’s not legitimate.
這個應許是上帝特別賜給亞伯拉罕的,
God had given that specific promise to Abraham.
不是給所有人的,
God has not given that particular promise to every single
所以我們不能把它應用到自己身上。
married or unmarried man and woman that we can claim for ourselves.
這是一個錯誤應用聖經應許的例子。
So that would be an example of misapplying the Scriptures, okay?
但與此同時,我又想到另一位牧師朋友,
However, at the same time, I remember a pastor friend of mine,
有一天我們在打電話,
I was talking to him on the phone one time
他跟我分享說,他的教會中有人問他,
and he said that some people in his church were asking him that
‘我們怎麼才能知道聖經里的應許到底適不適用於自己呢?’
‘Well, how do we know if promises in the Bible apply to us or not?’
我就對他說,‘弟兄,其實這個問題本身是有問題的。
And I said, ‘You know, brother, that’s the wrong question.
我們要問的不應該是‘這個應許是否可以應用在我們身上?’
The question is not whether or not the promise applies to us,
而是‘這個應許是怎樣應用在我們身上的?’
the question is how does it apply to us?’
因為整本聖經都是上帝默示的,是有益處的。
Because all Scripture is God-breathed and is profitable.
那我們再來看亞伯拉罕的這個例子,好吧?
And so let’s go back to Abraham, okay?
上帝應許亞伯拉罕,說祂會使他後裔眾多。
God promised Abraham that He would multiply his seed.
當我們通過聖經神學研讀整本聖經、追溯這一應許的蹤跡時,
Now we trace that promise through biblical theology, through the Scriptures.
我們會讀到
And we discover, for example, in Isaiah 54, that God took that image
以賽亞書54章中,上帝用‘不懷孕不生養’的女子來做比喻,
in Isaiah 54, that God took that image of the barren woman and applied it
祂應許祂的子民,將來必定使他們後裔繁多。
to the future of the people of God to multiply them greatly.
然後,如果我們把這一章
And you connect that Isaiah 54
與以賽亞書53章的耶穌受死與”他必看見後裔”的應許聯繫起來,
with Isaiah 53 in the death of Jesus and the promise that he shall see his seed,
或是與羅馬書第4章和一些其他的經文聯繫起來,
and you realize, you can connect it with Romans 4
我們就會看到,
and other places as well,
上帝給亞伯拉罕的應許不只是要賜給他一個地上的國度,
that what God promised to Abraham was not just a promise of a physical nation
而是更要賜給他一群屬靈的後裔。
that would come to him,
上帝應許,會讓他們生養眾多、佈滿地面。
it was a promise of a spiritual people that God would multiply and use to fill the earth.
因此,保羅在加拉太書第3章中說,
And therefore, Paul in Galatians chapter 3 says that
哪怕我們是完完全全的外邦人,
if we trust in Christ, even if we’re as gentile as a gentile can be,
只要我們相信基督,我們就是‘亞伯拉罕的後裔’。
we are children of Abraham. And so that promise then
所以,這個應許並不是說某對夫婦最終一定能生養孩子,
doesn’t become a promise that my wife and I are therefore going to have children.
而是‘上帝一定會讓祂的子民佈滿地面’。
That promise becomes a promise that God will multiply His people.
而因為我自己就是這裡面的一員,所以我為這個應許而歡喜。
And that brings me joy, because I am one of those people
上帝的子民會像天上的繁星一樣多。
and God’s people will be multiplied like the stars of the sky.
所以這個應許確實是上帝給我的應許,
That promise is a promise for me,
但它是以不同的方式應用到我身上的。
but in a different way.
那我們現在再來看看你剛剛提到的那個例子,
Now, let’s go back to the other example that you gave,
就是上帝應許以色列,說他們雖要經過烈火,卻不會被燒滅。”
the promise that God gave to Israel that they will pass through the fire and not be burned.”
學生:“還有一個人們常用的應許,
Student: “Another one’s that,
就是‘我知道我向你們所懷的意念,是賜平安的意念,
‘I have good plans for you, not plans to harm you,
不是降災禍的意念,為要叫你們末後有指望。’”
but plans to give you good future.'”
斯莫利牧師:”恩, 這些都是常常印在明信片和賀卡上面的應許。”
Pastor Smalley: “Oh okay, now we’re getting into Hallmark card promises.”
學生:“我想說的是,人們濫用得最多的就是這個應許。
Student: “I mean, that is the most cliche promise basicly
人們常常把它用到非常個人的事情上,
that is applied to very personal situations,
甚至用到一些並沒有在面臨某種未來的人身上。”
even to people who are perhaps not facing the future.”
斯莫利牧師:“好,那我們來說說這個應許。
Pastor Smalley: “Right, right, okay.
這個應許是上帝在以色列人流亡的時候賜給他們的。
So this is a promise that’s given to Israel while they’re in exile.
耶利米書29章中的這個應許
It’s a promise specifically, this is Jeremiah 29,
是上帝特別賜給那些被擄到巴比倫的以色列人的。
a promise specifically written to the Israelites who’ve been carried off to Babylon.
藉著這個應許,上帝在對那些以色列人說:
And God is saying to them that:
‘你們只管在巴比倫安頓下來,在那裡建造房屋、住下來。
You just settle down, build your houses, live there.
等到時候滿足的時候,我自會帶你們出來。
In due time, I will bring you out.
但是現在,你們要做當地居民的祝福。
But for now, be a blessing to the people that you’re with.
你們要相信我,因為我知道我向你們所懷的意念,
But trust me, because I have plans for you,
是賜平安的意念,不是降災禍的意念。’
plans to do you good and not harm.
好,我們如何通過聖經神學把這個應許與我們今天聯繫起來呢?
So using biblical theology, how do we connect that with us today?
讓我們想一想,新約聖經中有沒有什麼地方提到說,
Well, is there anything in the New Testament that would suggest to us
我們可以在某種程度上與當時流亡在外的猶太人感同身受?
that we in some way can identify with the Jews who were in exile?
當然有。
Yes, of course.
彼得前書說,我們是在各國流亡寄居的人。
因此,我們通過聖經神學、通過研究彼得前書可以看到,
and builds a biblical theology whereby we see
上帝所描繪的這幅以色列人流亡的畫面
that Israel’s exile is a picture that God was giving
就是如今來自各國的上帝子民流亡各地的境況。
of how His people from many nations are exiles today amongst the nations.
因此,我們不應該在應用這個應許時,
And so, now we don’t claim that promise
認為上帝的意思是有一天祂會把我們帶回巴勒斯坦的土地上。
to say that one day God will bring me back to the land of Palestine.
不,這樣的想法是在錯誤地應用這個應許,是不是?
No, that would be a misappropriation of it, wouldn’t it?
上帝沒有應許說,有一天我們都要坐在以色列的無花果樹下。
And I’m gonna sit under my fig tree there in the land of Israel.
上帝在多年前就已經實現了這一應許,
No, God fulfilled that promise in a physical way
祂已經把當時被俘的以色列人帶回了他們的家鄉。
when He brought the exiles back home.
但是,如果我是一個流亡他地的上帝選民,
But if I’m one of the elect exiles of God,
那麼上帝賜給祂的以色列選民的這些應許也同樣適用於我。
then I have the right to claim promises that God made to His elect amongst Israel.
彼得甚至在彼得前書2章9節中
Peter even takes in 1 Peter 2:9 things
把上帝對以色列說的“你們是君尊的祭司,是聖潔的國度”
that God said to Israel, “You’re a royal priesthood, you’re a holy nation.”
應用到了我們 – 上帝的教會身上。
And he applies them to us, the Church.
所以我們需要研究聖經神學,
And so once again, you need to do biblical theology,
我們需要追溯上帝的應許在歷史中運行的軌跡,
you need to trace the promise as it moves through history
查看新約聖經是如何應用舊約聖經的。
and see how the New Testament uses the Old Testament.
但問題的關鍵不在於‘這個應許是否適用於我們’,
But it’s not a question of whether or not those things apply to us.
而在於‘我們如何應用這個應許’。
It’s a question of how do they apply.
因為這些應許應用在我們身上的方式
Because they apply to us not as physical Jews,
與應用在猶太人身上的方式不同,
but as people who are joined to,
我們是一群與那位’大猶太人’ (如果我可以這樣說的話) 連接的人,
if I may say so, the Great Jew, the Lord Jesus Christ,
就是主耶穌基督、猶大支派的獅子。
the Lion of the Tribe of Judah.
希望我的回答還算讓你滿意。”
So I hope that answer suffices.
(學生:“謝謝。”) 斯莫利牧師:“不客氣。”
Okay, you’re certainly welcome.
好,我們來講講“聖經的清晰性”。
Okay, well, let’s talk about the clarity of the Bible.
聖經教導我們的真理,遠超我們的理解範圍。
The Bible teaches us about realities that go way beyond our understanding.
保羅在羅馬書11章33節中這樣寫道,
Paul writes in Romans 11:33,
“深哉,神豐富的智慧和知識!
“O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God!
他的判斷何其難測,他的蹤跡何其難尋!”
How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!”
我特別感謝彼得,因為他在彼得後書3章16節中說,
I’m so grateful for Peter, who wrote in 2 Peter 3:16, saying,
聖經中“有些難明白的”內容。
the Holy Scriptures contain “some things hard to be understood.”
弟兄姐妹,這讓我們很得安慰,對不對?
Isn’t that a comfort, brothren?
大家在讀經時都會遇到困難。
You’re not alone. You’re not alone.
但是彼得的話讓我有些意外,
Although I always found it ironic because
因為我覺得彼得寫的某些內容比保羅寫的更難懂。
I find some things that Peter wrote more hard to understand than the things that Paul wrote.
不過那就另當別論了。
But that’s a whole other story.
此外,聖經是一本包羅萬象、深刻又複雜的書。
Furthermore, the Bible is a vast and complicated Book.
聖經中其實共有六十六捲書、
It’s really a collection of 66 different books written by many authors,
由多位作者跨時一千五百年、使用多種語言寫成的。
written over the span of about fifteen hundred years, written in more than one language.
所以,我們若要教導上帝的話語,
And so God’s Word calls for
不僅需要恩賜、也需要勤奮的學習,
gifted, studious teachers,
這就是為什麼你們會在神學院進修的原因。
which is why you’re here in seminary.
但是我們一定要記得,
However, the Bible is not the sole property
聖經不是一本僅供精英教師群體閱讀的書。
of an elite guild of teachers, and we must never forget that.
所以我們首先要探討的, 是”聖經能讓家庭里的各個成員都得益處”。
Let’s talk, first of all, about the usefulness of Scripture for the whole family.
在申命記6章7節中,
In Deuteronomy 6:7,
上帝教導以色列民 – 不只是以色列的祭司,還有所有做父母的人,
God commanded the people, not just the priests, but all the parents in Israel
要他們默想上帝的話語,“也要殷勤教訓你的兒女”。
to meditate on his words and “teach them diligently unto thy children.”
我們在摩西五經中反覆讀到
As you read through the Pentateuch, you see repeatedly
上帝要求以色列人中做父母的要教導孩子,
how there was an expectation that parents would be teaching the children
用家長和孩子之間互動問答的方式來教導孩子。
with questions and answers, going back and forth between them.
詩篇78篇第7節說,
Psalm 78:7 says that generations to come
要使“將要生的後代子孫可以曉得”主的作為,
must be taught the deeds of the Lord “that they might set their hope in God,
“好讓他們仰望上帝,不忘記上帝的作為,唯要守他的命令。”
and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments.”
提摩太顯然就是一個最好的例子。
And of course, Timothy is the preeminent example of this.
因為提莫太的祖母羅以在他的母親友尼基還小的時候,
Because Timothy’s grandmother, Lois,
就以基督教信仰來教導她,
brought up her daughter Eunice in the faith,
隨後友尼基又以此信仰來教導她的兒子提摩太,
and Eunice brought up her son Timothy in the faith,
因此提摩太從小就開始學習聖經。
and so he has been learning the Bible since he was a child.
而這個快樂的使命 – 讓我們教導子女的快樂使命
And this joyful mandate to teach our children is grounded implicitly
其實是以聖經清晰性的教義為基礎的。
in the doctrine of the clarity of the Holy Scriptures.
聖經中最基本的主題 – 上帝、律法、福音
The Bible, in its basic themes of God, law, gospel,
雖然極其深刻,但它們是簡單清晰的,
which are profound in depth, nevertheless, is simple and clear enough
足以讓孩子們學習、理解、並將之用到他們自己身上。
for children to learn, understand and personally appropriate.
有人將聖經比作一條河,
Someone has compared the Bible to a river
說這條河既深得足以讓一頭大象暢游其中,
that is deep enough for an elephant to swim in it,
也淺得能讓一隻小羊羔安心踏入飲水。
and yet a river shallow enough at its shores for a lamb to safely wade in and drink.
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第7段說,
And so the Westminster Confession of Faith 1.7 says,
“聖經的內容並不是每個地方都同樣清楚,
“All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves,
也不是對每個人都同樣明白;
nor alike clear until all:
但是得救所必須知道、相信、遵守的事,
yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed for salvation,
我們總能在聖經找到,而且解釋得非常清楚明白;
are so clearly propounded, and opened in some place of Scripture or other,
不但有學問的人”, 就是受過教育的人,
that not only the learned,” or educated,
“就是無學問的人”, 即沒有受過教育的人,
“but the unlearned,” or uneducated,
“不必用什麼巧妙的辦法,只要用一般的方法,就能充分理解。”
“in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.”
但是,這個教義在宗教改革期間引起了極大的爭議,
Now, this was controversial during the Reformation,
所以我們接下來就來看一看這場關於聖經清晰性的爭議。
which leads us to the Perspicuity controversy.
大家不要被“perspicuity”(“清晰性”)這個詞唬住了。
Now don’t be thrown off by that word “perspicuity”.
我們來上神學院的好處之一,
One of the great things about seminary
就是可以順便學到這些聽起來很宏大、很了不起的詞彙。
is you can pick up all these grand words that sound so impressive,
其實“perspicuity”就是一個拉丁語詞,
but “perspicuity” just is basically
基本上表達的意思就是“清晰性”(英文是“clarity”),好嗎?
a Latin word that means “clarity.” Okay?
我講課時有時候必須要用到這個詞,
So don’t, you know, don’t injure yourself
但是你們大可不用像我這樣費力勞神地說它,
trying to say the word, as I may do at some point in this lecture.
你們就說“聖經的clarity(清晰性)”就可以了。
Instead, just talk about the clarity of Scripture.
好,宗教改革時期的改教家們非常強調這個教義,
Now, the Reformers were very strong on this point,
這是因為當時羅馬天主教只允許教會神職人員讀經,
because the Roman Catholic Church sought, and sometimes with great violence,
不允許一般人讀聖經,
to withhold the Bible from people
有時候甚至會採用過激的手段來限制人讀經。
who were outside of the church’s hierarchy of official teachers.
羅馬天主教認為,允許一般人讀經是一件非常危險的事情。
They did not believe that the Bible was safe in the hands of ordinary people.
他們之所以會有這樣的觀點,其中一個原因就是
And part of the reason that they believed that is because
他們的解經已經偏離了字義解經的方向。
they had departed from literal interpretation of the Scripture.
相反,他們採用了各式各樣的靈意解經法。
Instead, they employed various allegorical readings.
例如羅馬天主教神學家約翰· 艾克
So, for example, the Romanist, or at least one Romanist, John Eck,
將好撒瑪利亞人付給旅店店主的二錢銀子
interpreted the two coins that were given by the good Samaritan to the innkeeper
解讀為聖經的新舊約兩本書。
as the two Testaments of the Bible.
宗教改革時期的改教家們則回到了字義解經的路上,
Well, the Reformers returned to the literal sense of Scripture,
他們還說,聖經常常被稱為”光”,
and they also appealed to the way the Bible is frequently called,
這光引領我們,讓我們看到它的清晰。
“a light,” to guide us, to show its clarity.
我們都讀過詩篇119篇的第105節,
And we all know Psalm 119:105,
“你的話是我腳前的燈,是我路上的光。”
“Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.”
箴言6章23節說,“因為誡命是燈,法則是光”,等等。
Proverbs 6:23 says, “The commandment is a lamp; and the law is light,” and so forth.
我們在彼得後書1章19節中也讀到了類似的話。
We saw the same in 2 Peter 1:19.
光的特性就是讓事物變得可見,
Light has an inherent quality of making things visible.
光讓我們能夠看見。
Light enables us to see.
因此,當聖經作者將聖經比作光的時候,他們的意思是,
And therefore, when the Bible is compared to light, it’s saying that
聖經不是一本神秘不明、需要人來照亮它的書;
it’s not a dark and cloudy book which men must come along and illuminate,
相反,聖經是上帝賜下的光,它要穿透人無知的黑暗。
but instead, it is a divine light that penetrates the darkness of men’s ignorance.
我們需要記得,聖經是上帝的啟示,
Let’s remember here that this is revelation.
上帝的心意是藉著聖經與我們交通。
God intends to communicate to us through the Bible,
既是上帝選的方式,那它就一定是最明智的。
and He is wise in the way that He’s chosen to do it.
然而,這並不表示,我們可以很容易地讀懂聖經、相信聖經,
Now, that doesn’t mean that the Bible is easy for us to understand or accept.
但是我們的攔阻,不是聖經本身,
But the great obstacle to our understanding of the truths
而是如耶穌在約翰福音8章43節至45節中對猶太人所說的,
of God is not the Bible itself, it’s the sin
也如保羅在哥林多後書4章4節中所寫的,
and satanic unbelief that dominates the wicked,
阻攔我們理解上帝真理的最大阻礙,
as Jesus said to them in John 8:43-45,
是占據著罪人生命的罪與他們邪惡的不信,
or Paul wrote of in 2 Corinthians 4:4,
可悲的是,即使在信徒身上,
and sadly the sin and unbelief
我們也能看到殘留下來的一定程度的罪與不信。
that remains to some extent even in the godly.
還記得耶穌從死里複活後,是怎樣責備他的門徒的嗎?
Remember how Jesus rebuked his disciples after he rose from the dead?
他責備他們,是因為他們心裡遲鈍,
Because they were so slow to believe
不明白、也不相信先知所教導的。
what all the prophets had spoken?
但是保羅在哥林多前書2章的末尾說,
But those who have the Spirit of God dwelling in them
那些有上帝之靈內住的人,他們“是有基督的心了”。
“have the mind of Christ, Paul says at the end of 1 Corinthians 2.
因此,我們是屬靈的人,我們能夠讀懂聖經,
And therefore we are spiritual people, we are able to understand the Scriptures, especially
特別是當我們日益成熟、不再只是做基督里永遠的嬰孩。
if we are pressing on towards maturity, and not living on as perpetual babes in Christ.
蒙在我們心上的帳幕已被揭開。
The veil has been lifted from our hearts,
藉著聖靈,我們得以在上帝的聖言中瞻仰基督的榮光。
by the Spirit we behold the glory of Christ in the Word,
並且,上帝也在不斷改變我們,讓我們越來越有基督的樣式。
and we’re being transformed in his likeness. And that’s why, for example,
而這就是為什麼,保羅的書信是寫給整個教會的。
when Paul wrote his Epistles, he addressed the whole church with his Epistles.
因為他堅信,不只是牧師需要聽上帝的聖言,
He believed it wasn’t just the ministers,
教會裡的每一個人都需要。
but the whole church who should hear what the Word says.
有人反對這樣的觀點,他們說,“因為上帝是無限不可測透的,
Now, it may be objected against us that that God is infinite and He’s incomprehensible,
所以聖經中到處都是奇怪又隱晦的教義,比如說預定論,
and therefore the Bible is full of strange and obscure teachings like predestination.
所以我們最明智的做法是不理會這些東西。”
And therefore it would be wisest for us just to ignore those things.
我們可以用路德說過的一句話來回應這樣的反對意見,
But if that objection comes up, we may reply with Luther,
“上帝和上帝的話語是兩回事。”
“God and the Scripture of God are two things.”
也就是說,我們的確無法測透上帝,
In other words, yes, God is incomprehensible.
祂的榮耀深不可測,我們永遠無法完全測透上帝。
He’s an infinite depth of glory that we could never fully penetrate.
但聖經並不是上帝,
But the Bible is not God.
它是上帝的話語,是祂的啟示。
The Bible is God’s Word. It’s His revelation.
因此,我們的答案出自類似申命記29章29節這樣的經文,
And so we rest in texts like Deuteronomy 29:29 that says “The secret things
“隱秘的事是屬耶和華我們神的,
belong unto the Lord our God: but those things
唯有明顯的事是永遠屬我們和我們子孫的,
which are revealed belong to us and to our children for ever,
好叫我們遵行這律法上的一切話” 。
that we may do all the words of this law.”
所以就像路德說的,聖經中的一切教導都出自上帝的道,
And so as Luther said, all things that are in the Scriptures are by the Word,
上帝用最清晰明瞭的方式來傳遞這些教導、使之在全世界傳揚。
brought forth into the clearest light and proclaimed to the whole world.
那麼,聖經的清晰性有哪些實際應用呢?
Well, what are some practical implications of biblical clarity?
首先,我們應該滿懷期待。
One is anticipation.
如果我們帶著謙卑的心來讀聖經,
If you come to the Bible humbly,
如果我們渴望有所成長、有所收穫,
desiring to grow and to learn,
如果我們像詩篇作者在詩篇119篇第18節中那樣來禱告,
and praying as the Psalmist prays in Psalm 119:18,
“求你開我的眼睛,使我看出你律法中的奇妙”,
“Open my eyes that I may behold wonderous things in thy law.”
那我們完全有理由相信並期待,
You have every reason to expect
上帝一定會藉著祂的話語賜福我們。
that God will bless you through His Word.
啟示錄 – 這本可以說是整本聖經中最難懂的書卷之一
Revelation, which is frankly one of the most difficult books in the entire Bible to interpret,
在它開篇的第1章第3節中應許說:
starts with a promise in Revelation 1:3,
“念這書上預言的和那些聽見又遵守其中所記載的,
“Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy,
都是有福的。”
and keep those things which are written therein.”
聖經清晰性的第二個應用體現在翻譯上。
Furthermore, another application is translation.
聖經既然有清晰性,足以讓人明白它的教導,
Since the Bible is clear enough for people to understand its doctrines,
教會就有義務將原文聖經 (希伯來語、亞蘭語、希腊語)
the church has an obligation for the translation of the original Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek texts
譯成世界各國的語言。
into the languages of all the nations of the world.
你們可能會問,“聖經翻譯有什麼聖經依據嗎?”
And you might say, “Well, what biblical basis do we have for Bible translation?”
請大家回想一下,
Well, let me ask you,
當主耶穌和他的使徒引用舊約聖經時,他們引用的是什麼?
when the Lord Jesus and his apostles quoted the Old Testament, what were they quoting?
他們引用的是七十士譯本 – 希伯來語舊約聖經的希腊語譯本。
The Septuagint. They were quoting a Greek translation of the Hebrew text,
至少新約作者就是這樣記錄的。
at least that’s the way that the New Testament writers present things to us.
所以我們從主耶穌和他門徒的這一舉動看出,
And so they were operating with the belief that
他們是認可將聖經譯為通用語的。
it is legitimate to translate the Bible into the common language,
因為當時除了當地人用的亞蘭語外,
because Koine Greek was the common language at the time,
通用希腊語就是那時候他們通用的語言。
in addition to the Aramaic that was spoken around that area.
當然,羅馬天主教一度是反對這個教義的,
This, again, was opposed by the Roman Catholic Church,
但值得感恩的是,他們現在已經改變了他們的觀點。
though thankfully it has changed its stance on it.
但是曾經有很長一段時間,羅馬天主教都強烈反對聖經翻譯。
But for many years, the Romanists fiercely opposed biblical translation.
他們堅持認為當時的拉丁語武加大譯本是唯一權威的聖經譯本。
They insisted that the Latin Vulgate was the only authoritative translation.
但是改教家們卻將聖經譯成了德語、法語、英語、
But the Reformers translated the Bible into German, French, English,
波蘭語、西班牙語、以及其他語言。
Polish, Spanish and other languages,
他們的做法是對的。
and rightly so.
其實在今天,聖經翻譯仍在繼續著。
In fact, Bible translation, as many of you know
我們中也有許多人在聖經翻譯事工中服侍。
very, very personally, is an ongoing task.
全世界還有許多種 – 可能上千種人們仍在使用的語言里
There are many languages, perhaps even thousands of languages, that people speak
沒有相應的聖經譯本。
that have no translation of the Bible.
我們應該支持與鼓勵這樣的聖經翻譯的事工。
We should support and encourage that work. Furthermore,
此外,聖經清晰性的另一個實際應用體現在解讀聖經的原則上,
another practical implication of the clarity the Holy Scriptures is the principle of interpretation,
就是我們常說的”以經解經“。
known as the “analogy of Scripture.”
“以經解經”是什麼意思呢?
The analogy description, what that means is…
我給大家讀一下威斯敏斯特信仰告白的第1章第9段。
Well, I’ll just read the Westminster Confession of Faith 1.9.
“只有一個解釋聖經的規則不會產生錯誤,就是以經解經。
“The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself.
所以當我們對任何一處聖經的真實完整意義
And therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture,
(每處聖經都只有一個意思,而沒有多種意思)有疑問時,
which is not manifold, but one, it must be searched
就當查考聖經其他比較清楚的經文,以明白其真義。”
and known by other places that speak more clearly.”
聖經中的確有一些難懂的經文,
Yes, there are places in the Bible that are difficult to understand,
但是因為我們相信聖經的清晰性,
but because we believe in the clarity of Scripture,
所以我們也相信,聖經所教導的每一個教義都有經文的支持,
we also believe that on any doctrine, you can go to other places of the Bible,
而其中一些經文比另一些經文的教導更清晰。
and you will find a more clear statement of what is being taught.
好,我們接下來講一講“聖經的必須性”。
Okay, let’s move on to consider “The necessity of the Bible,” the necessity of the Bible.
聖經之所以是必須的,
The necessity the Bible is grounded in the fact
是因為只有藉著上帝的話語,
that it is only through the Word of God
我們才能知曉藏於耶穌基督里的救恩之道。
that we can know the way of salvation in Jesus Christ.
宗教多元主義是人類犯的重大錯誤之一。
One of the great errors that people make is the error of religious pluralism.
大家可以在我們發到Populi上的講稿中讀到相關內容。
You can read about that in the lectures posted on Populi.
那種說“所有宗教都能使人認識上帝”的話是謊言。
It is false to say that all religions lead men to God.
只有合乎聖經的宗教才能使人與這位真上帝和好。
Only biblical religion brings about reconciliation with the true God.
所以對每個人來說,福音都是必須的。
We see this in the necessity of the gospel for all mankind.
這一點正是保羅在羅馬書中逐步闡明的教義。
This is something that’s developed through the Book of Romans.
保羅在羅馬書1章16節中說,他“不以基督的福音為恥”。
Paul said in Romans 1:16 that he was “not ashamed of the gospel of Christ.”
保羅為什麼會這樣說呢?
Well, why is that?
我們看到,保羅不惜筆墨,從羅馬書1章逐步闡述至第3章,
Well, Paul develops at great length in Romans 1 through 3 the fact
他強調說:人所需要的,是唯獨在福音中顯明的義。
that people need a righteousness that only the gospel reveals.
雖然藉著創造之工,上帝已將祂的榮耀顯明給人,
Although they’ve been granted the plain manifestation of God’s glory
上帝也將祂的道德律刻在了人的良心上,
through His created works, and they have the inward witness of God’s moral law
但是面對上帝的普遍啟示,人的回應卻是犯下更多的罪惡、
in their consciences, mankind responds to general revelation with more sin,
敬拜更多的偶像,心也變得更加剛硬。
and idolatry, and harden a darkened hearts.
因此,普遍啟示就好像上帝的律法,
And so general revelation is akin to God’s law.
它無法使罪人稱義,
It can’t justify sinners,
它只能使他們知罪、讓他們對自己的罪無可推諉。
but it can only give them a knowledge of sin to remove their excuses.
但是保羅在羅馬書第3章中指出,
But as Paul traces out in Romans Chapter 3,
儘管全世界盡顯上帝創造的榮美,但全人類都犯了罪,
though the whole world, despite the beauty and glory of God’s creation,
沒有人明白上帝的話語,沒有人尋求上帝,也沒有人行善。
has become utterly unrighteous, no one understands, no one seeks God,
但是,即便如此,上帝還是賜下了福音,賜下了特殊啟示。
no one does what is good, there is the gospel, God’s special revelation.
這就是保羅在羅馬書3章21節中所說的,
It is “the righteousness of God without the law that is manifested,”
“上帝的義在律法以外已經顯明出來”。
as he says in Romans 3:21.
而上帝的福音是一個特殊的福音,
And it is a particular gospel.
它不是僅僅向人們啟示一些道德原則,
It is not simply a revelation of certain moral principles,
不是說如果人做了這個、做了那個,就會得救。
that if you do this and you do that, you will be saved.
上帝的福音是與一個特定的人有關 – 這個人就是主耶穌,
The gospel is the announcement about a particular person, the Lord Jesus,
他來到世上,在特定時間、特定地點死去,
who came and died at a particular place, in a particular time,
他為施行拯救,將自己的生命獻上作罪的贖罪祭。
and the significance of his saving death as a sacrifice for sins.
因此,如果人們是因為相信耶穌所成就的一切而得救,
And therefore, if people are going to be saved through faith in his work,
那麼他們就必須要聽到福音。
they must hear the gospel.
保羅在羅馬書10章14節中指出的就是這個道理,
And Paul traces out that logic in Romans 10:14, when he says,
“然而,人未曾信他,怎能求他呢?
“How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed?
未曾聽見他,怎能信他呢?
And how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard?
沒有傳道的,怎能聽見呢?”
And how should they hear without a preacher?”
因此,聖經具有必須性的最基本的原因
And therefore, the deepest root of the Bible’s necessity
是因為人們需要聽到福音,
is that people need to hear the gospel,
因為他們無法憑藉觀察日月星辰來明白福音,
and they can’t get the gospel by looking at the moon and the stars.
他們需要認識耶穌。
They need to hear about Jesus.
而上帝的話語所見證的,就是這位耶穌。
And it’s of Jesus that the Word of God witnesses to us.
關於這一點,
You can find an excellent statement about that
威斯敏斯特信仰告白第一章第一段中又有一段非常精彩的描述。
in the, again, in Chapter 1 of the Westminster Confession of Faith, the very first section.
我們同時也看到,上帝用書面記載的方式將福音記錄了下來。
And this gospel is been published in written form.
從某種意義上來說,福音確實早於聖經。
It is true that there is a sense in which the gospel predates the Holy Scriptures.
我們在讀羅馬書的時候就能發現,
When you look at the Book of Romans,
保羅追溯福音,一直到人類歷史的最開始。
you realize that for Paul, the gospel goes all the way back to the beginning of time.
他在羅馬書16章20節中
In Romans 16:20, Paul alludes
提到了上帝在創世紀3章15節中許下的福音的應許,
to the ancient gospel promise of Genesis 3:15
即女人的後裔要將蛇踐踏在他的腳下。
that the seed of the woman will crush the serpent under his heel.
保羅相信,當亞當最初在伊甸園中犯罪時,福音就出現了。
Paul believes in the gospel that starts in the garden when man first fell.
當然,保羅又在羅馬書第4章中提到,
And of course, Paul in Romans 4 talks about the gospel
早在摩西寫出摩西五經之前,
that was revealed to Abraham
上帝就已經向亞伯拉罕啟示了祂的福音。
long before Moses ever wrote the Pentateuch.
但保羅也一再強調,
But Paul repeatedly emphasizes that
聖經才是上帝指定的傳揚福音、保存福音的方式。
the Holy Scriptures are God’s ordained means of propagating and preserving the gospel.
在羅馬書第1章的1節和2節里,
In the first two verses of Romans 1,
保羅將自己稱作為“上帝的福音”服侍的僕人,
he says that he served “the gospel of God,”
“這福音是上帝從前借眾先知在聖經上所應許的。”
which He has promised afore by His prophets “in the Holy Scriptures.”
雖然嚴格意義上來說,福音不是律法,
Though the gospel is not, strictly speaking, a law,
但是羅馬書第3章第21節說,福音“有律法和先知”為之作證。
it was “witnessed by the law and the prophets,” Romans 3:21.
因此,保羅在羅馬書3章2節中也提到,
And therefore Paul speaks of the great advantage
與外邦人相比,猶太人有著極大的優勢,
that the Jews had over the Gentiles,
因為“上帝”將“聖言交托”給了“他們”。
“that unto them were committed the oracles of God.”
事實上,保羅之所以能寫出這封給羅馬人的書信、
And as Paul writes this, the very fact that he is writing the epistle to the Romans,
這個講解福音的偉大篇章,
this great treatise on the gospel,
是因為他相信,
shows that he believes
將福音記錄下來,是他服侍各國事工的一部分。
that part of his ministry to the nations is committing the gospel to writing.
當我們靜下心來思想,
And there are many good reasons
思想上帝為什麼不是只讓使徒傳講福音,而是要將福音寫下來,
that we can think of when we consider why would God want the gospel,
我們其實可以想到許多好的原因。
not just to be something that’s preached by the apostles, but written down.
畢竟隨著基督的到來,上帝在這個世代的啟示已達巔峰。
After all, with the coming of Christ, revelation in this age came to a climax.
上帝將這一啟示交付給了新約的先知與使徒,
And that revelation was entrusted to the new covenant prophets and apostles,
他們由此奠定了教會的根基。
and those apostles laid the foundation of the church.
但是,當使徒時代成為過去時後,
But when the apostolic generation died, how was God’s church
上帝的教會要怎樣才能聽到耶穌基督帶來的全備的啟示呢?
going to have access to the full revelation that had come with Jesus Christ?
上帝繼續護理著祂的教會,
God provided for His church,
祂沒有繼續差派先知來給我們新的啟示,
not with a continuing sequence of prophets to bring new revelation,
而是將祂自己的啟示永久地記錄了下來。
but with a permanent record that is itself divine revelation,
這就使得今天的人們,無論是在非洲的馬拉維、是在中國、韓國、
so that today, you in Malawi, Africa, or China, or Korea,
荷蘭、我們現在所在的美國,還是在委內瑞拉、巴西等,
or the Netherlands, or here in the United States, or Venezuela, or Brazil,
都能夠直接讀到耶穌基督的福音,
you have direct access to the revelation of Jesus Christ,
讀到記載成文的上帝的話語。
the written Word of God.
這是上帝賜給祂子民的一份多麼珍貴的禮物啊!
What a gift God has given to His people!
我們從哪裡知道,
We are not slaves
自己可以脫離這些可能在千年以前就被人的罪腐化的傳統,
to some ancient tradition that people may have corrupted
知道自己可以不再受它們的奴役了呢?
a thousand years ago, and how would we know?
我們是從上帝的話語中知道的。
We have the Word of God.
藉著上帝賜給我們的聖經,
And because of it, the gift of the scriptures, the Gospel,
全世界千千萬萬的人能夠直接接觸到福音及福音中一切的豐盛。
in all its revealed richness, is directly accessible to millions of people around the world.
這就是聖經的必須性。
This is the necessity of the Scriptures.
上帝也已經應許了,祂會保存祂的福音。
And God has promised to preserve His gospel.
要知道,雖然古時以色列的敵人極其殘暴,
You know, it is striking, that despite the violence of Israel’s ancient enemies,
儘管耶路撒冷城慘遭攻擊與摧毀,
despite the fact that Jerusalem itself was attacked and destroyed,
雖然上帝的子民在上帝的審判之下流亡在外,
despite the fact that God’s people fell under God’s own judgment
但是上帝沒有允許舊約聖經丟失或者殘缺。
and were carried off into exile, God did not permit the Old Testament Scriptures
這實在是令人震撼與驚奇。
to be lost or mutilated.
上帝將聖經書卷存留了下來。
But He preserved them,
祂的保護是如此完善,以至於在摩西五經成書1500年之後,
and he preserved them so well that the Lord Jesus Christ, walking upon this earth,
行在世上的主耶穌仍然可以引用摩西的話,
a millennium and a half after Moses wrote the Pentateuch, could still quote
完全相信這就是永生上帝自己的話語。
the words of Moses with the confidence that they were the living word of God.
主耶穌基督也應許,教會絕不會被摧毀,
And the Lord Jesus Christ promised that the church would never fail,
陰間的權柄也絕不可能勝過她。
but it would prevail over the powers of hell.
主耶穌基督還說,
And that church, he said,
使徒為耶穌基督的身份所做的見證,就是教會存在的根基。
was grounded upon the apostolic testimony to who he was.
耶穌在馬太福音24章14節中說,
Jesus said in Matthew 24:14, “this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached
“這天國的福音要傳遍天下,對萬民作見證,然後末期才來到”,
in all the world for a witness and to all nations; and then shall the end come,”
他的意思顯然是,
which, of course, implies
福音絕不會丟失,上帝的話語一定會存留到最後。
that the gospel will not be lost, that the Word of God will continue to the end.
這可能嗎?
And how is that possible?
這是可能的,因為主耶穌在馬太福音28章的末尾這樣應許,
It’s possible because as the Lord Jesus promised at the end of Matthew 28,
當教會履行使命時,當我們傳講聖經、培養門徒時,
as the church goes forth to perform its mission of teaching the Bible and making disciples,
主耶穌基督會與我們同在。
the Lord Jesus Christ is with us.
他會與我們同在,“直到世界的末了”。
He is with us even to the end of the age.
因此,直到最後,上帝的話語也絕不可能從世界上消失。
And therefore the word of God will not be ultimately destroyed from the face of the Earth.
這是無論倫比的恩典!
And that’s such a blessing.
因為我們實在、實在是太需要聖經了。
Because we need the Bible. We need the Bible.

我們接下來要探討的,
In your outline is point 17,
是我們課程大綱上的第17大點,“聖經的屬性”。
“The properties of the written word of God.” So what I want to do now
在討論這些屬性的時候,
is I want to start to look at those properties, I want to look at…
我不會完全按照大綱上羅列的順序來講,
I’m gonna look at them not in the exact same order
我們會在講的時候先暫且跳過其中兩個屬性,
that they were presented just now, we’re gonna take two of them out,
“聖經的準確無誤性”和“聖經的充分性”,
the inherent veracity of Scripture and also its perfect sufficiency,
把它們留到最後來講。
and we’ll delay those to the end.
之所以這樣做,是因為這兩個教義(聖經的無誤性和充分性)
And the reason we’re doing this is because those inherency and sufficiency
在過去的一百年裡備受批判與攻擊。
have been very much under attack within the last century.
所以對這兩個屬性,我們要多花一點時間。
So we’re gonna give those special attention.
但在此之前,我們先來看看聖經的其他屬性:
But let’s move through the other properties of Scripture.
聖經的”權威性”、”清晰性”、”必須性”、”在基督里的合一性”、
Its authority, clarity, necessity, unity in Christ
以及”在聖靈工作中的有效性”。
and efficacy by the Holy Spirit.
好,我們首先來看”聖經的權威性”。
So first of all, let’s talk about the authority of the Bible.
我們在讀馬太福音7章29節以及其他對照經文時發現,
One of the things about the Lord Jesus Christ that really astonished people
每當主耶穌講話時,
as they heard him speak
最令聽眾稀奇的是他總是帶著“權柄”說上帝的話。
was that he spoke God’s Word with “authority.” Matthew 7:29 and parallel texts.
上帝的話中有一種使人”理所應當要順服它”的力量。
There is something about the Word of God that brings people into rightful subjection to it.
保羅把它視為一個人悔改信主的標誌,
Paul considered it a mark of conversion
就是那些曾經是罪的奴僕的人,
that those who formerly were servants of sin
“現今卻從心裡順服了所傳給你們道理的模範”,
have now “obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you,”
羅馬書6章16節(修正:6章17節)。
Romans 6:16 (Correction: 6:17).
保羅說的”信服真道”(羅馬書1章5節的希腊語原文,羅馬書16章26節)
Paul could write of a proper response to the gospel as the “obedience of faith,”
就是人們對福音的一種恰當的回應。
Romans 1:5 in the Greek and Roman 16:26.
使徒們在傳福音時不斷引用聖經、指向聖經,
And the apostles modeled this obedience when they preach the gospel
這就是“信服真道”的典範。
by repeatedly quoting and alluding to the Holy Scriptures.
因此我們所說的“聖經的權威性”,
So when we speak of the Bible’s authority,
是指聖經有權柄讓它的聽眾順服於它的教導,
we refer to its property as the Word of God
而這種順服本是它的聽眾應盡的義務。
to obligate its readers or hearers to submission.
因為聖經是上帝的話語,
Because it is God’s Word.
它有權柄管理我們,我們也有義務要順服於它。
It places you under authority, under obligation.
聖經有權約束我們的一切思想與行為。
It binds you both in what you believe and in how you behave.
因此,聖經約束著我們的良心,
And so if the Bible teaches some doctrine
使我們有義務相信
or report some event,
聖經中的一切 – 無論是教導還是歷史事件,都是真實無誤的。
it binds our consciences to believe that what the Bible has said is true.
如果聖經要求我們應有某種態度、某種情感、或某種行為,
If it commands some attitude, affection or action,
我們也有義務要順服。
it binds our consciences to obey.
雖然有一定權柄的人也可以規範人的某些行為,
Men who have proper authority can regulate some of our actions, but only the Word of God
但唯獨上帝的話語有權力在教義、道德、敬拜上約束我們的良心。
has the authority to bind our consciences with regard to doctrine, morality, and worship.
威斯敏斯特信仰告白說,
The Westminster Confession of Faith says, “God alone is Lord of the conscience,
“唯獨上帝是良心的主,在信仰或敬拜的事上,
and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men,
要使人脫離一切與聖經相離或相悖之人的道理與吩咐。”
which are, in anything, contrary to his word; or beside it, in matters of faith or worship.
這是信仰告白第1章中的第2段(修正:第20章的第2段)。
That’s Chapter one, paragraph two.
我們現在來進一步看看這個教義。
So let’s discuss this a little bit.
首先,“聖經權威的源頭”。
First of all, “The source of the Bible’s authority.”
聖經有權威性的直接原因在於它是上帝的話語。
The Bible’s property of authority arises directly from its divine origin: it is God’s Word.
約翰在約翰一書5章9節中寫道,
As John wrote in 1 John 5:9, the testimony of God has
上帝的見證遠比人的見證更有權威性。
far more authority than the testimony of man.
保羅在帖撒羅尼迦前書2章13節中說,
Paul said in 1 Thessalonians 2:13 that apostolic doctrine should be received
使徒所教導的教義“不是人的道”,實乃“上帝的道”。
“not as the word of men,” but as it truly is “the word of God.”
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第4段說,
And therefore the Westminster Confession of Faith Section 1.4 Says,
“我們應信服聖經的權威,這權威不在乎任何人或教會的見證,
“The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, and obeyed,
乃完全在乎上帝(祂自己就是真理)。
dependeth not upon the testimony of any man, or Church;
上帝是聖經的作者,所以我們應當接受聖經,
but wholly upon God, who is truth itself, the author thereof: and therefore, it is to be received,
因為聖經是上帝的話。”
because it is the Word of God.”
我們在前面的課上也提到過,
We’ve already noted in these lectures
“耶和華如此說”這個短語以及類似的語句在聖經中出現了400多次。
that the Bible says more than 400 times, “Thus saith the Lord,” or some equivalent phrase.
要知道,只有統治者才會使用這樣的語句。
This is a formula that’s used by a ruler.
我們發現,這個語句也可以用在人身上,
You can find it being used by people who aren’t God,
比如在列王記上2章30節和一些別的經文中, 我們讀到”王吩咐說”。
for example, the expression “Thus saith the King” in 1 Kings 2:30 and other places.
再給大家舉個例子。
To give you an example,
在出埃及記5章10節和11節中,
the king of Egypt, when he sent out his servants
埃及王差派他的僕人去向當時做埃及人奴僕的希伯來人傳話,
to speak to the Hebrew slaves, gave them this message in Exodus 5:10 and 11,
僕人說,“法老這樣說:我不給你們草,
“Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw.
你們自己在哪裡能找草,就往哪裡去找吧!
Go ye, get you straw where ye can find it:
但你們的工一點不可減少。”
yet not aught of your work shall be diminished.”
所以在聖經中,人們常常用“某某如此說”的語句來傳達國王的話。
And so the expression “Thus saith” is commonly used in the Bible as the word of the king.
這話是不容置疑、不容爭議的,人們只能順服國王的話。
It’s not to be questioned. It’s not to be disputed. It is only to be obeyed.
因此,通過使用“某某如此說”這個說法,主要我們知道,
And when, therefore, the Lord uses this expression, he is communicating
祂是那位至高的主與大君王,凡聽見祂話語的人都必須順服。
that He speaks as the Supreme Lord and King and all who hear must submit to His words.
我們所說的“權威”,並不只是指賞罰的權力,
And when we speak of authority, we’re not just talking about the power to reward or punish.
更多是指某種約束道德權利和道德義務的權力。
We’re speaking more specifically to moral right and obligation.
上帝有權命令我們,因為祂造了我們,祂造了萬物。
God has the right to command us, because He made us, and He made all things.
詩篇95章3至5節說,
Since He made all things,
既然上帝造了萬物,祂就是萬物的主。
he owns all things, as Psalm 95:3 through 5 says.
而正如陶匠有權隨己意支配他手中的土,
And like the potter over the clay,
造物主也有權按祂自己的心意來使用我們。
the Creator has the right to do with us what he pleases.
所以,聖經天生就有這種權威,它有權讓人順服於它。
And therefore the Bible has inherent authority that rightly demands our submission.
但是,我們所說的“聖經的權威性”,
It’s not just, when we say the authority of the Bible
不只體現在它對人的影響上,
that we’re describing the effect that it has on people,
因為就算人沒有認識到這種影響、體會不到這種影響,
whether or not people acknowledge it, whether or not people experience it.
聖經仍舊是上帝的話語。
This is God’s Word.
因此,人有義務要順服聖經的話。
And therefore, they are obligated to submit.
所以我們接下來要講的就是 “聖經的權威與教會”。
Now this brings us to consider “Biblical authority and the church.”
在宗教改革時期,羅馬天主教教會宣佈:
During the Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church claimed that for all practical purposes,
由教皇領導的羅馬訓導當局實際上擁有全世界的最高權威。
the Roman Magisterium, led by the Pope, held supreme authority on Earth.
他們說,教皇有約束人良心的權柄,
The Pope had the authority, they said, to bind the conscience
也有解決教義紛爭、處理順服與敬拜上的分歧的權柄。
and to arbitrate disagreements over doctrine, obedience and worship.
顯然,羅馬天主教援引基督的應許來支持他們的這一觀點,
And of course, the Roman Catholic Church pointed to Christ’s promise
基督在馬太福音16章19節中應許,
to give “the keys to the kingdom” to Peter
要把“天國的鑰匙”給彼得,讓彼得可以”捆綁”或”釋放”。
so that he can “bind” or “loose,” in Matthew, 16:19.
我們在回應羅馬天主教的時候應該認識到,
Well, in response to that, we recognize that, of course,
顯然,彼得自己並沒有任何權柄,這個權柄是出自聖靈的默示。
it wasn’t Peter himself who had that authority, it is only by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
但是,我們在聖經中看不到任何應許,
But there is no promise in the Bible
說上帝會把聖靈的默示賜給使徒之後的任何人。
that God would grant that kind of inspiration to anyone after the apostles.
所以,羅馬天主教所做的,
So what the Roman Catholic Church does is,
是把上帝賜給彼得或使徒的應許挪用到了教皇身上。
they take promises given to Peter or the apostles and then they apply them to the Pope.
所以我們理應問他們:
And we rightly say,
“你們把上帝賜給彼得的應許用在教皇身上的做法,有何依據?”
what gives you the warrant to say that promises made to Peter apply to the pope?
聖經中並沒有這樣的教導,說使徒的權柄是可以繼承沿襲的。
There’s nothing in the Bible that would indicate any kind of apostolic succession.
此外,
Furthermore,
我們也決不能把某一領袖或某一委員會視為我們的最終權威,
we cannot make any leader or council of leaders into our final authority,
因為歷史已經向我們顯明,
because history has shown that
這些領袖、這些委員會都會犯錯,也會提出相互矛盾的觀點。
such leaders and councils have errored and contradicted each other.
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第10段說,
Therefore, the Westminster Confession of Faith in Section 1:10 says,
“在處理信仰上一切爭論,教會會議一切決議、
“The supreme judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined,
古代作者意見,人的道理、個人屬靈領受事務時,
and all decrees of counsels, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits,
我們可以放心:其裁判最高審判者只有一位,
are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other
就是在聖經中說話的聖靈。”
but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.”
信仰告白在這裡引用的經文是馬太福音22章29至31節
And it’s interesting, because the Confession at this point cites Scriptures like Matthew 22:29-31,
和使徒行傳28章23至25節。
and Acts 28:23-25.
有意思的是,如果我們研讀這幾節經文,
And if you go to those scriptures, you find that the apostles,
查看使徒、乃至耶穌在卷入宗教紛爭時的做法,
even Jesus himself, when they’re involved in religious controversy, what do they do?
我們會發現:他們回到了聖經、回到了上帝的話語中去。
They go back to the Book. They go back to the Scriptures.
還有一個關於“聖經權威性”的爭議,
Now, there’s another controversy that was involved with regard to the authority of the Bible,
它與“聖經鑒別”有關。
and that has to do with “The authentication of the Bible.”
羅馬天主教稱,聖經確實是上帝的話語,
The Roman Catholic Church also claimed that while the Bible is the Word of God,
但教會的權柄是我們接受聖經、接受它是上帝話語的基礎。
we receive it as the Word of God only on the authority of the church.
他們的意思是,只有教會才能辨別聖經的真偽,
In other words, they say we need the church to authenticate the Bible for us,
只有通過教會,我們才能確認聖經是上帝的話語。
so that we know for sure that it’s the Word of God.
他們常常會援引奧古斯丁說過的一句話,
They often quote Augustine’s statement when he said, “For my part,
“對我來說,若不是因為教會的權柄,我就不會相信福音。”
I should not believe the gospel except as moved by the authority of the Catholic Church.”
這句話出自奧古斯丁的《答基要派摩尼的書信》,
That, by the way, comes from his epistle, or his writing Against the Epistle of Manichaeus
它被收錄在《尼西亞及尼西亞後期教父》一書中。
Called Fundamental. And you can find it in the Nicene and post-Nicene fathers.
羅馬天主教還試圖引用保羅在提摩太前書3章15節的話
Roman Catholics also try to prove the dependence of the Bible upon the church
來證明教會是聖經權威的基礎,
by quoting Paul’s statement in 1 Timothy 3:15,
保羅說,“永生上帝的教會”是“真理的柱石和根基”。
that “”the church of the living God is “the pillar and ground of the truth.”
所以,羅馬天主教並不否認聖經的權柄,
And so they say, “The Bible? Oh, yes, oh, yes.”
他們會說,“聖經有權威性,聖經有上帝的權柄。”
They say that “The Bible has authority. It has divine authority.
但是如果我們問他們, “聖經的權柄是從哪裡來的?”
But where does it get that authority from?
他們會說,“聖經的權柄出自教會。”
It gets it from the church.”
那麼我們應該如何回應羅馬天主教呢?
Well, how do we respond to that?
首先我們承認,
First of all, we agree
上帝的確會使用真教會的見證、
that the witness of the true church, combined with its holy life and good works,
結合它敬虔的生命和善工來吸引人、使人開始留意祂的話語。
is an instrument by which God often moves people to pay attention to His Word.
我們中的許多人就有這樣的經歷。
How many of us can acknowledge in our own lives
我們可能結識了某位非常敬虔的基督徒,
that we knew some godly Christian person, and it was through that person
通過這個人的影響,我們開始讀經、開始去聽合乎聖經的講道。
that we started to pay attention to the Bible or to attend biblical preaching.
在古時候,
This is what Paul seems to mean
人們會把皇家法令和特別公告張貼在建築物的支柱上,
when he called the church “the pillar and grounded the true truth.”
以供公眾閱覽;
In the ancient world,
所以,當保羅說教會是“真理的柱石和根基”時,
royal edicts and special announcements were posted
他的意思好像是說,
on pillars for public viewing.
教會就像那時候張貼公告的柱石一樣,
And so in the same way,
將上帝的話語舉起,給世人觀看。
the church holds up the Word.
因此,不是我們賜給上帝的話語權柄,
Not that we are the ones that give the Word its authority,
我們要做的,是把它舉起來,讓世人看到這話語、認識這話語。
but we publicly hold it up for people to see it and to know it.
這也是為什麼
This is one reason why
教會成員、特別是教會的神職人員需要言行聖潔、行為無可指摘,
it’s crucial for church members and especially church officers, to conduct themselves
這一點極其重要。
in a holy and blameless manner.
正如保羅在提多書2章中所說的,
As Paul says, for example, in his Epistle to Titus in chapter 2,
我們要過聖潔的生活,“免得上帝的道理被毀謗”。
we need to live holy lives so that people won’t slander the Word of God.
但這並不代表教會有鑒定上帝話語真偽的權柄。
But this does not mean that the church authenticates God’s Word.
教會不是聖經的根基,事實是,聖經是教會的根基。
The Bible is not built on the church. The church is built on the Bible.
保羅在以弗所書2章20節中說,
Paul says in Ephesians 2:20 that the church
教會是建造於“使徒和先知的根基上”的。
is “built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets.”
保羅又在以弗所書3章5節中說,
And he explains in Ephesians 3:5 that these apostles and prophets
上帝把祂啟示的奧秘賜給了使徒和先知。
function as the bearers of divine revelation.
因此,威廉默斯·阿·佈雷克有句話說得好,
And so Wilhelmus a Brakel rightly says,
他說,“教會的一切權威都出自上帝的話語。
“The church derives all authority from the Word.
只有藉著上帝的話語,我們才能認出真教會。”
We cannot acknowledge a church to be the true church except by means of the Word of God.”
這也正是羅馬天主教的論點的問題所在,
And this is a real problem for the Roman Catholic argument,
因為他們認為,我們必須通過教會的鑒別
because they argue that to know that the Bible is the Word of God,
才能知道聖經到底是不是上帝的話語。
it must be authenticated by the true church.
我們可以反過來問他們:
But we then respond by saying,
你們如何知道哪個教會是真教會呢?
how do you know which church is the true church?
因為很顯然,我們認出真教會的唯一方法
And of course, the only answer is,
就是用上帝的話語去查驗那間教會的教導。
by comparing what that church teaches to the Word of God. It is the word of God
我們需要用上帝的話語來鑒別教會的真偽、來辨別真教會。
that we use to authenticate the true church, to know which is the true church.
坦白說,這也是為什麼我們必須否認羅馬天主教是真教會。
And frankly, that is one reason why we should reject the Roman Catholic Church.
羅馬天主教不是真理的柱石,
It is not a pillar of the truth.
相反,它的教導常常違背上帝的聖言。
Instead, it often contradicts the doctrines of God’s holy Word.
那麼,如果不靠教會的認證,
So how then do we know that the Bible is God’s Word,
我們怎樣才能確定聖經就是上帝的話語呢?
if not from the testimony of the church?
加爾文對此給出了一個很有意思的回答。
Interestingly, Calvin answered that question by going back to the same treatise
他同樣引用了奧古斯丁的話,且就是羅馬天主教引用的那篇,
that Augustine wrote, that the Roman Catholics had quoted earlier.
加爾文指出,如果我們繼續往下讀,我們就能讀到奧古斯丁說,
Calvin pointed out that if you read on a little bit further in that,
教會的見證指引我們,讓我們看到一個高於教會的權威,
Augustine says that the church’s witness leads us to an authority
“這個權威通過上帝在我們心中賜下的光照和確信,
that is higher than the church, “to know what we believe
讓我們知道自己所信的是什麼。
by the inward illumination and confirmation of our minds,
這光照與確信出自上帝自己,而非人。”
due no longer to men, but to God Himself.”
我們之所以能夠帶著得救的信心、
The way in which a person becomes convinced
堅定不移地相信聖經是上帝的話語,
that the Bible is the Word of God with that deep inward certainty of saving faith
是因為聖靈的工作、因為祂光照我們的內心。
is when the Holy Spirit works to inwardly illuminate us,
聖靈的光照讓我們看到,聖經確實有出自上帝的神聖屬性,
so that we are able to see the divine characteristics that the Bible actually has,
所以我們確認,聖經就是上帝的話語。
so that we receive it as the Word of God.
保羅在哥林多前書2章4節至5節中就是這樣教導的,
This is what Paul taught in 1 Corinthians 2:4 and 5, where he said,
他說,“我說的話、講的道,不是用智慧委婉的言語,
and “My speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man’s wisdom,
乃是用聖靈和大能的明證,
but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power:
叫你們的信不在乎人的智慧,只在乎神的大能。”
that your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.”
保羅在這裡說的“聖靈…… 的明證”是指什麼?
Now what did Paul mean when he said the “demonstration of the Spirit?”
有些人會說,保羅是指神跡奇事,
Well some people might say that he meant miracles,
是因為保羅行了神跡奇事,人們才相信聖經是上帝的話語。
Paul worked miracles so that people would know that this is the Word of God.
但這是不可能的,
But that can’t be the case,
因為就在前面的哥林多前書1章24節中,保羅寫道,
because Paul had just written in 1 Corinthians 1:24,
因為猶太人求神跡,所以他們根本就不信福音。
that the Jews require a sign, and therefore they don’t believe in the gospel.
所以,如果神跡就能夠解決人不信的問題,
And so if it was a problem to be solved by miracles,
保羅不會在前一章中寫下這樣的話。
he wouldn’t have written that before.
相反,保羅在哥林多前書2章12節中說,
Instead, Paul writes in 1 Corinthians 2:12 that the Holy Spirit works inwardly
聖靈在人的心裡動工,將福音的真理展示給人,
to exhibit the truth of the Gospel with the result
使人能夠從心底承認耶穌是主。
that people confess from the heart that Jesus is Lord.
我們在哥林多前書12章3節中也讀到同樣的內容,
We see that in 1 Corinthians 12:3, where Paul says that
保羅說,若非是聖靈感動人,沒有人能說“耶穌是主”。
apart from the Holy Spirit, no one can say that Jesus is Lord.
同樣,保羅在帖撒羅尼迦前書1章5節中對帖撒羅尼迦人說,
In a similar way, Paul wrote to the Thessalonians in 1 Thessalonians 1:5,
聖靈帶著使人有“信心”的“權能”賜下福音。
that the Holy Spirit accompanied the gospel with power to produce “assurance.”
保羅在這裡所說的“信心”,不是指“得救的確據”,
Now that word “assurance” in that context does not refer to “assurance of salvation.”
而是指“’相信上帝的話是真理’的確據或信心”。
Instead, it refers to the assurance or confidence that God’s Word is true.
在這一點上,
And so, again,
即上帝如何使我們確信聖經就是祂滿有權柄的話語,
the Westminster Confession of Faith offers a helpful summary
我們又可以在《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》中
of how God convinces us to believe
找到一個很有幫助的概括。
that the Bible is God’s authoritative Word.
順便說一句,
And before I quote it,
你們可能也註意到我在課上多次引用了《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》。
you’ve probably noticed, I’m quoting the Westminster Confession a lot.
這是因為在“聖經的屬性”這個主題上,
That’s because Chapter 1 in the Westminster Confession
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》第一章
is one of the best statements
是有史以來神學家們寫過的最精準的幾段話。
about the nature of God’s Word that has ever been written.
所以如果你們想進一步深入研究這個主題,
If you need to study this topic in depth, I highly commend
我強烈建議你們去回顧、研讀威斯敏斯特神學家寫的這一章。
going back and studying Chapter 1 written by the Westminster Divines.
威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第5節說,
The Westminster Confession of Faith Section 1.5 says,
“我們可能受教會的見證的感動與影響,
“We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church
因而高舉聖經、敬重聖經。
to a high and reverend esteem of the Holy Scripture.
對聖經屬天的性質、教義的效力、文體的莊嚴、各部的一致、
And the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style,
整體的要旨(將一切的榮耀歸給上帝),
the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God,
人類唯一得救之道的完整彰顯,
the full discovery it makes of the only way of man’s salvation,
和其他許多無比卓越、全然完美之處,
and many other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof,
都足以證明聖經本身就是上帝的話。
are arguments whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God:
雖然如此,
yet notwithstanding,
最讓我們完全確信聖經無謬真理與上帝權威的原因,
our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof,
是聖靈在我們心中作見證,
is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit,
藉著上帝的話在我們心中所作的見證,
bearing witness by and with
也與上帝的話在我們心中一同作見證。”
the Word in our hearts.
因此,連加爾文在內的改革宗神學家都說,
And so Reformed theologians from including Calvin himself say that
聖經是“它自己的見證”,用希腊語說就是”autopistos”。
the Bible is self authenticated, it’s “autopistos,” to use the Greek word.
換句話說,聖經自身就帶有從上帝而來的標誌,
In other words, the Bible has in itself those marks of divinity
當聖靈打開我們的眼睛、讓我們能夠真正看到這些標誌的時候,
that when the Holy Spirit opens up our eyes so that we can truly see them,
我們就能從心底感受到聖經作為上帝話語的權威性。
we have an inward sense of the Bible’s authority as God’s Word.
有人可能會提出反對意見,說,“這分明就是循環論證”,
One might object to this They say, “Well, that’s a circular argument,”
又說,“那你的意思是說,
and say, “You’re saying
‘我們知道聖經是上帝的話語,是因為聖經是上帝的話語。’”
that we know that the Bible is God’s Word because it’s God’s Word.”
我們應該如何回應這樣的反對意見呢?
Well, how do we answer that?
首先,我們要提醒他們,
Well, first of all, we should note that
一個人若要談論”終極權威”、
whenever you’re talking about ultimate authority,
談論”幫助我們認識真理的終極權威是什麼”,
what is the ultimate authority of how you know what is true,
他的論證必定會變成循環論證。
your argument has to be circular.
因為如果我們在論證時借助了另一個所謂的權威,
Because if you appeal to another authority,
比如一個人說,
“Well, I’m gonna prove to you
“我要通過這些理性論證來向你證明,聖經是上帝的話語”,
that the Bible is God’s Word by these, say, rational arguments.”
那這個人實際上做的,就是表明
Then what have you done? You’ve said, “Well, my ultimate authority
“我的終極權威實際上是’理性論證’。”
is really rational arguments.”
因此,如果我們認為
And so if we’re gonna say
上帝的話語 – 聖經是我們在這個世界上的最高權威,
that the Bible, as God’s Word, is our highest earthly authority,
那麼顯而易見,我們就必須用上帝的話語本身來證明這一點,
then by definition we have to appeal to God’s Word itself to prove it,
否則我們就是自相矛盾。
or we’ve contradicted ourselves.
此外,那些眼睛被聖靈打開的人之所以選擇相信聖經的權威,
Furthermore, for those whose eyes are opened, trusting in the Bible’s authority
不是因為他們有盲目的信心,
is not a blind leap of faith.
而是因為聖靈打開了他們的眼睛,
But because their eyes are opened,
讓他們看到了聖經中上帝的權威,
they see the Bible’s divine authority
那權威如同空中閃耀的太陽一樣清晰可見。
just as surely as we see the sun when it’s shining in the sky.
加爾文說,”聖經本身就是為它自己的真理作證的確鑿證據,
Calvin said, “Scripture exhibits fully as clear evidence of its own truth
就好像黑與白為顏色作證,甜與苦為味道作證。”
as white and black things do of their color, or sweet and bitter things do of their taste.”
弟兄姐妹們,這實在是讓我們鬆了一口氣。
And brothers and sisters, this is very liberating.
請大家不要誤解我的意思,
Don’t misunderstand me,
我並不是說理性論證這類方法一點作用也沒有,
I’m not saying that there’s absolutely no place for rational arguments and things like that.
有時候我們確實需要“照愚昧人的愚妄話回答他”,
There are times to answer a fool according to his folly,
需要讓一個無神論者或提出反對意見的人看到
and to show that the atheist or the other objector
他們的論證其實是站不住腳的。
doesn’t have something to stand on.
但是,我們不需要這些理性論證
But you don’t need those kinds of arguments
來使人相信聖經是上帝的話語。
for people to be convinced that the Bible is the Word of God.
這實在是太好了!
the Bible is the Word of God. And that’s so good.
我們來想象這樣一幅畫面,
Think about the little old lady,
一位滿臉皺紋、身體瘦小的老太太,住在一間小屋裡。
all crumpled up, living in a cottage or a hut. She’s received virtually no education.
她幾乎沒受過什麼教育,雖然能識字,但沒怎麼上過學。
She can read, but she’s never gone to much schooling.
如果我們想給她解釋某個哲學理論,
If you try to give some kind of philosophical argument to her,
她根本連我們在說什麼都聽不懂。
she’d have no idea what you’re even talking about.
但這位慈祥的老太太知道,聖經是上帝的話語。
But that dear little old lady knows that the Bible is the Word of God.
她是怎麼知道的呢?
And how does she know it?
是因為上帝的靈打開了她的眼睛。
Because the Spirit of God has opened up her eyes.
所以她在讀聖經的時候,就認出了那位創造她的上帝的聲音。
And when she reads that Bible, she recognizes the voice of the God who created her.
她的這種確信,是任何理性論證都無法給與的。
And she knows that with a certainty that no rational argument can obtain.
這實在是讓我們得釋放、得自由,
That frees us. It liberates us
我們可以堅定地站在上帝話語的立場上,
to take our stand on the Word of God
不再總是覺得自己需要去捍衛它。
and to not feel like we always have to defend it.
就像司布真說的,我們要做的,就是把獅子從籠子里放出來。
But simply, as Spurgeon said, let the lion out of the cage.
我們不需要試圖去保護那隻獅子,我們只需要把它放出來。
Stop trying to protect the lion. Just let it loose.
我們只需要把上帝的話語放出來,它自己能解決一切問題。
Let the Word of God loose, and it will take care of itself.
在現今世界,聖經的權威性還在另一個方面”得罪”了人,
Now, in the modern world, there is another way in which biblical authority is offensive.
它”違背了”人的個人自主權,
And that is because it is contrary to personal autonomy.
而這裡所說的“自主”顯然是指人們要自己做判斷是非的審判官。
Of course, “autonomy” means people seeking to be a law unto themselves.
卡爾·亨利寫道:
Carl Henry wrote,
“那些激進的世俗主義者,一邊高舉現代人所謂的成熟,
“The radical secularist, vaulting modern man’s supposed maturity,
一邊又對一切從上面來的權威都持懷疑態度。”
is skeptical of all transcendent authority.”
那麼就讓我們來探討一下這個問題。
So let’s think for a moment about this problem.
我們前面也講過,
We’ve talked some about
對那些堅稱教會有絕對權柄的羅馬天主教教徒等人來說,
how the Bible is a stumbling block to people like Roman Catholics
聖經就是一塊絆腳石。
who insist on the authority of the church.
但把聖經為絆腳石的,不只是羅馬天主教教徒,
It’s not just Roman Catholics, it’s modern man as well,
還有持現代懷疑論的人。
skeptical people.
有時候他們會這樣辯解,
And you know, sometimes they justify this.
他們會說,“瞧瞧這些打著宗教權威旗幟的人,
They say, “Look at all the horrible abuses
他們犯下了一樁又一樁的惡行:
that have been committed in the name of religious authority.
家庭中、教會中的惡行,教會和國家政府的濫用職權。
Abuses in families, abuses in churches, abuses by national governments.
這些都是他們以宗教的名義做的。”
All in the name of religion.”
所以他們就下了這樣的結論,
And so they conclude,
“我們應該推翻一切權威。
“We should throw off all authority.
這個世上不該有什麼更高的權威,
There can be no higher authority
因為權威是專制的、行惡的。”
because it’s authoritarian and abusive.”
我們應該怎樣回應他們呢?
Well, how do we respond to that?
首先我們要說,
Well, first of all, we would say
“有時候,我們確實應該質疑權威。
that “Sometimes it’s good to question authority.
比如有人宣稱自己擁有某種權威,卻沒有任何合理依據;
If, for example, that authority is claimed without legitimate warrant,
或者有人在行使權柄時毫無公義可言。
or if it is exercised with gross injustice.
但是,如果沒有一個更高的權柄做我們的審判官,
However, you have no solid basis to question human authority
我們也就沒有任何理由去質疑任何人的權柄。
if you do not have a higher authority to appeal to.
如果我們拒絕一切權柄,那我們也拒絕了上帝。
If you reject all authority, you have rejected God.
而拒絕上帝的後果並非是讓自己得自由,
And you have, instead of liberating yourself,
而是使自己落入殘酷暴君的統治之下。”
you have cast yourself into the cruel hands of tyrannical idols.”
How many times in the 20th century have we seen
就是那些站起來推翻壓迫性政權的人,
that those who set out to overthrow oppressive authority
最後卻變成了下一任壓迫者。
themselves became the next oppressors?
為什麼會出現這樣的事情?
And why was it?
這是因為,他們不承認世上有任何高於他們自己的權柄,
It was because they lacked any supreme authority over themselves which would restrain them,
所以他們不受約束、不服引導,一心想要把自己變成上帝。
which would direct them, which would curb their impulse to turn themselves into gods.
因此,我們若想要阻止有權柄的人行惡或濫用職權,
And so the pathway to overcoming evil and abuse of authority
我們就必須順服以上帝的權威為基礎的真權威。
is submission to true authority, which is grounded in the authority of God.
並且,當那位創造我們、供養我們、
And it is not oppressive that the God who made us
護理我們的上帝要求我們遵行祂的旨意時,
and who has given us everything that we are and everything that we have
這不是壓迫,
should expect us to do His will.
恰恰相反,這是理所應當的事。
Instead, it is right.
然而,現代人又會提出這樣的反對意見:
Oh, but modern man may object again,
“這種把聖經視為絕對的權威的做法不符合科學,
“To accept the Bible as an absolute authority is unscientific.
因為我們必須要用能夠說服我們理性的方式來證實這所有的一切,
The scientific method demands that all things must be proven to the satisfaction
這才是科學的方法。
of our own minds.”
這種理論乍一聽極有說服力、也很合理。
Well, that sounds very strong and very good.
但事實上它非常幼稚。
But in reality it’s quite naive. It’s quite naive.
想一想聖經的本質是什麼:
Think about the nature of the Bible:
聖經自己教導我們,它是從上帝而來的見證。
the Bible identifies itself as a testimony from God.
其實我們每個人都會相信
Well, we all base many of our beliefs
許多未經我們自己親眼見過、或親自驗證過的事情。
upon things that we’ve not personally seen or tested.
我們相信權威見證。
but we trust the testimony of an authority.
歷史就是這樣。
Think of history.
要是沒有書面文獻的記載,
How else can we know who was the president of the United States
我們怎麼知道一百年前的美國總統是誰?
a hundred years ago, if not on the testimony of written documents?
我們難道要在實驗室里做一個實驗,
Are you going to go to do an experiment in your lab
來證明誰是一百年前的總統嗎?
to prove who the president was a hundred years ago?
法律裁定也是這樣。
Or think about legal decisions.
法庭的法律裁決通常是以證人證詞和專家證詞為依據的。
Legal decisions in courts often depend upon eyewitness testimony and expert testimony.
就連科學也是這樣。
Or, this is supposed to be a
既然這是一個”科學的反對意見”,那我們就來說說科學。
scientific objection, think about science.
試問有哪位科學家曾在他的實驗室中
What scientist has gone through and personally tested and proven
把他相信的每一條科學定律都親自研究並驗證一遍?
every single law of science that he believes in his own lab?
沒有一個科學家這樣做過。
None of them.
他們每一個人都相信整個科學界的能力、
They all depend upon the ability of the scientific community
相信那些寫出科學著作、發表科學文章的人所做的見證。
to trust the testimony of those who write scientific books and publish articles.
他們是依靠見證的。
They trust in testimony.
我們每個人都是這樣。
We all do.
因此,一個人如果因為見證而相信,
And therefore, it is not irrational or foolish
這並不是不理性、也不是愚昧。
to base one’s beliefs upon testimony.
其實,相信一位知曉一切、完全公義、
In fact, it is the most rational thing in the world to believe in testimony
永遠誠實的上帝所做的見證,是全世界最合理的事情。
if it is the testimony of an all knowing, perfectly righteous, never lying God.
這才是科學方法的典範。
It is the epitome of the scientific approach.
有些現代主義者試圖建立一種更”科學”的基督教,
Some modern people would try and construct a more scientific Christianity
但是他們不承認聖經有來自上帝的權柄。
and to do so without the divine authority of the Bible.
大家可以在我們上傳到Populi的講義里
And you can read about some of their efforts
讀到這些現代主義者的主張與實踐,
in those published lectures
這些講義討論的都是自由派神學、新正統神學、
on errors concerning special revelation, liberals
以及其他主義在特殊啟示這一教義上的謬誤。
and neo-orthodox and others.
但是,如果他們想要建立一種沒有聖經中上帝權柄的基督教,
But if they try and build a form of Christianity without divine authority from the Bible,
他們做的不過是在沙土上建房子。
they’re only building on sand.
奧古斯丁說過,
Augustine said,
“如果聖經的權威開始動搖,我們的信仰就會搖搖欲墜。
“Now faith will totter if the authority of Scripture begins to shake.
而當我們的信仰搖搖欲墜時,愛本身就會變冷淡。”
And then, if faith totters, love itself will grow cold.”
這些現代主義者又說,
And if such modernists would say that
“我的權柄不是某本書,而是耶穌基督。”
“my authority is not some book, my authority is Jesus Christ.”
對持這樣觀點的人,我們可以借用鐘馬田的話來問他們:
Then we may respond as Martyn Lloyd-Jones did:
“你是怎麼認識主的?”
“How do you know the Lord?”
如果他們說,”我認識主,是因為我自己經歷了祂”,
If it is by personal experience, then we can ask,
我們可以緊接著問,”你怎麼知道你所經歷的這些
“How do you know that what you have seemed to have experienced
看起來與主相關的事情
concerning him is not a figment
不是你自己想象的呢?”
of your own imagination?”
如果他們說, “我認識主,是因為我自身理性的力量,
If they claim that by the powers of their own minds
它讓我們能夠查考聖經、並取其精華。”
to sift through the Bible to separate out what is valuable,
那麼,這就應了鐘馬田所說的,
then, as Lloyd-Jones said,
“這就是現代主義的真面目:‘理性決定一切’。”
“The modern position amounts to this, that it is man’s reason that decides.”
現代主義者拒絕了上帝滿有權柄的話語,
Having rejected the authoritative word of God,
他們走上了一條以人為中心、且充滿謬誤的
the modernist travels the dead-end road of man-centered,
經驗主義和理性主義的道路。
fallible experientialism and rationalism.
而這一切,最終一定會傾塌殆盡。
And the whole thing ultimately falls apart.
好,接下來我們簡要地講一講聖經權威性的實際應用。
Well, let’s talk briefly about some practical implications of biblical authority.
其實,聖經權威性的實際應用是顯而易見的,
The practical implications of biblical authority become very plain
只要我們能好好思想這一點:
when we consider that our response
我們對上帝話語的回應就等同於我們對上帝的回應。
to God’s Word is our response to God as He is speaking to us.
靠著聖經啟示的光照,
In the light of the inspiration of Scripture,
我們可以從以賽亞書66章1節和2節中讀到一個令人震撼的道理。
we can see the awesome logic of Isaiah 66:1 and 2:
“耶和華如此說:‘天是我的座位,地是我的腳凳,
“Thus saith the Lord, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool:
你們要為我造何等的殿宇?哪裡是我安息的地方呢?’
where is the house that ye build unto me? And where is the place of my rest?
耶和華說:‘這一切都是我手所造的,所以就都有了。
For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the Lord:
但我所看顧的就是虛心、痛悔、因我話而戰兢的人。’”
but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.”
弟兄姐妹們,如果聖經是上帝的話語,
Brothers and sisters, if the Bible is the Word of God,
那我們就應該帶著敬畏主的心來聽它、讀它。
then we should hear it and read it with the fear of the Lord.
因為這可是上帝在說話啊!
Because God is speaking, God is speaking.
此外,我們絕對不能成為判斷聖經的審判官。
And we never, ever stand in judgment over the Bible.
相反,當我們聽到聖經的話時,是上帝在審視我們。
Instead, when we hear the Bible, God is standing over us.
因此, 如果要用一種合乎聖經的簡短描述來形容上帝的真子民,
And therefore, a short biblical description of the true people of God is that they tremble
我們可以這樣說:他們”因上帝的話語而戰兢”。
at God’s Word.
我想在這裡停一下,規勸大家一句。
I just wanna pause here and admonish you.
因為在神學院里,我們每天都會接觸到上帝的話語,
Because in seminary, you work with God’s word constantly,
我們會學習與之相關的各類知識,
and you study all these things,
如希腊語語法、希伯來語句法,我們會閱讀聖經註釋書,
you learn Greek grammar, you learn Hebrew syntax, reading commentaries.
而”學習上帝話語”這件事本身並沒有任何問題,
It is very easy, not because of the nature of our work itself,
但是因為我們裡面的罪性,
but because the sinfulness of our hearts,
我們很容易因為熟悉而輕看上帝的話語。
for familiarity to breed contempt.
親愛的各位朋友,我想提醒大家,
My dear friends, let me just remind you,
我們所學習的是神聖的,它是上帝的話語。
that what you are handling is holy. It is the word of God.
我們絕不能忘記這一點。
Never forget that.
如果有一天,我們發現自己在面對上帝的話語時,心裡冰冷剛硬,
And if you find yourself ever becoming cold and callous, the answer is not to quit seminary,
我們要做的不是離開神學院,而是跪下來向上帝呼求,
but the answer is to fall on your knees and to cry out to God
求祂更新我們的心意。
that He’ll renew your heart.
好,“聖經的權威性”就講到這裡。
That’s the authority of the Bible.
我們接下來要探討的是“聖經的清晰性”。
Let’s move on and consider “The clarity of the Bible” now, the clarity of the Bible.
這位同學有問題,你請說。
Yes, question.
學生:“我有一個問題。
Student: “I have a question.
剛纔您提到,天主教會在沒有合理根據的情況下,
You spoke about the Catholic Church taking basically what the Bible says
把聖經的話應用到了自己身上。
and they claim to themselves without a foundation.
當然,我很贊同您說的這一點,但我同時也有一個問題。
And obviously, I agree to that. But then I have the question, too.
就是我們自己也會做同樣的事情,
Like, we do the same thing
我們也會把舊約中上帝給以色列人的應許應用到自己身上。
for Old Testament promises that were meant for Israel.
那麼您是否認為,舊約中的所有應許都有兩種應用方式,
Do you say, then, that all the Old Testament promises, they have a double fulfilments
所以我們可以把它們用在我們自己身上?
that we can take them to ourselves. Or are we…
比如,上帝曾應許說,當我們經歷水火時,
Because, for example, the promise like when we go through water,
水不會淹沒我們,火也不會燒滅我們。
the water will not overflow us, and when we go through fire…
這個應許是上帝賜給以色列人的,
God gives that to Israel as a promise,
但我們確實常把它應用到我們自己身上。”
but we do take it to ourselves so often.
斯莫利牧師:“嗯,這是一個很好的問題。
Pastor Smalley: “Right, right. Okay, good question.
你註意到我批判羅馬天主教,
So you’re picking up on the fact that I was critical of the Roman Catholic Church,
因為他們將上帝特別賜給使徒的應許應用到了教皇身上。
because they took promises that pertained to the apostles and they applied them to the pope.
是的,我們也可能犯這樣的錯誤,
Right, okay. Well, it is possible for us, not just with the Old Testament,
把上帝特別賜給某些人的應許應用到自己身上,
but with any part of the Bible to take promises that were directed towards
而且不只是舊約的應許,而是聖經中的任何一個應許。
particular individuals and to misapply them in the way we apply them to ourselves.
給大家舉個例子。
I’ll tell you an example. I had a friend one time who,
我曾經有一位朋友,他和他的妻子很長一段時間都膝下無子。
he and his wife had gone a long time, they hadn’t had any children.
然後有一天,他讀經的時候讀到上帝應許亞伯拉罕,
And he was reading through his Bible, he came across God’s promise to Abraham
說要賜給亞伯拉罕一個兒子。
that He would give him a son.
我這位朋友就說,“我要相信上帝的話,我要相信上帝的這個應許,
He said, I will believe in the Word of God, and I’m gonna trust that promise
上帝一定會賜給我一個孩子。”
that God will give me a child.
這樣的想法對嗎?
Well, is that legitimate?
顯然不對。
No, it’s not legitimate.
這個應許是上帝特別賜給亞伯拉罕的,
God had given that specific promise to Abraham.
不是給所有人的,
God has not given that particular promise to every single
所以我們不能把它應用到自己身上。
married or unmarried man and woman that we can claim for ourselves.
這是一個錯誤應用聖經應許的例子。
So that would be an example of misapplying the Scriptures, okay?
但與此同時,我又想到另一位牧師朋友,
However, at the same time, I remember a pastor friend of mine,
有一天我們在打電話,
I was talking to him on the phone one time
他跟我分享說,他的教會中有人問他,
and he said that some people in his church were asking him that
‘我們怎麼才能知道聖經里的應許到底適不適用於自己呢?’
‘Well, how do we know if promises in the Bible apply to us or not?’
我就對他說,‘弟兄,其實這個問題本身是有問題的。
And I said, ‘You know, brother, that’s the wrong question.
我們要問的不應該是‘這個應許是否可以應用在我們身上?’
The question is not whether or not the promise applies to us,
而是‘這個應許是怎樣應用在我們身上的?’
the question is how does it apply to us?’
因為整本聖經都是上帝默示的,是有益處的。
Because all Scripture is God-breathed and is profitable.
那我們再來看亞伯拉罕的這個例子,好吧?
And so let’s go back to Abraham, okay?
上帝應許亞伯拉罕,說祂會使他後裔眾多。
God promised Abraham that He would multiply his seed.
當我們通過聖經神學研讀整本聖經、追溯這一應許的蹤跡時,
Now we trace that promise through biblical theology, through the Scriptures.
我們會讀到
And we discover, for example, in Isaiah 54, that God took that image
以賽亞書54章中,上帝用‘不懷孕不生養’的女子來做比喻,
in Isaiah 54, that God took that image of the barren woman and applied it
祂應許祂的子民,將來必定使他們後裔繁多。
to the future of the people of God to multiply them greatly.
然後,如果我們把這一章
And you connect that Isaiah 54
與以賽亞書53章的耶穌受死與”他必看見後裔”的應許聯繫起來,
with Isaiah 53 in the death of Jesus and the promise that he shall see his seed,
或是與羅馬書第4章和一些其他的經文聯繫起來,
and you realize, you can connect it with Romans 4
我們就會看到,
and other places as well,
上帝給亞伯拉罕的應許不只是要賜給他一個地上的國度,
that what God promised to Abraham was not just a promise of a physical nation
而是更要賜給他一群屬靈的後裔。
that would come to him,
上帝應許,會讓他們生養眾多、佈滿地面。
it was a promise of a spiritual people that God would multiply and use to fill the earth.
因此,保羅在加拉太書第3章中說,
And therefore, Paul in Galatians chapter 3 says that
哪怕我們是完完全全的外邦人,
if we trust in Christ, even if we’re as gentile as a gentile can be,
只要我們相信基督,我們就是‘亞伯拉罕的後裔’。
we are children of Abraham. And so that promise then
所以,這個應許並不是說某對夫婦最終一定能生養孩子,
doesn’t become a promise that my wife and I are therefore going to have children.
而是‘上帝一定會讓祂的子民佈滿地面’。
That promise becomes a promise that God will multiply His people.
而因為我自己就是這裡面的一員,所以我為這個應許而歡喜。
And that brings me joy, because I am one of those people
上帝的子民會像天上的繁星一樣多。
and God’s people will be multiplied like the stars of the sky.
所以這個應許確實是上帝給我的應許,
That promise is a promise for me,
但它是以不同的方式應用到我身上的。
but in a different way.
那我們現在再來看看你剛剛提到的那個例子,
Now, let’s go back to the other example that you gave,
就是上帝應許以色列,說他們雖要經過烈火,卻不會被燒滅。”
the promise that God gave to Israel that they will pass through the fire and not be burned.”
學生:“還有一個人們常用的應許,
Student: “Another one’s that,
就是‘我知道我向你們所懷的意念,是賜平安的意念,
‘I have good plans for you, not plans to harm you,
不是降災禍的意念,為要叫你們末後有指望。’”
but plans to give you good future.'”
斯莫利牧師:”恩, 這些都是常常印在明信片和賀卡上面的應許。”
Pastor Smalley: “Oh okay, now we’re getting into Hallmark card promises.”
學生:“我想說的是,人們濫用得最多的就是這個應許。
Student: “I mean, that is the most cliche promise basicly
人們常常把它用到非常個人的事情上,
that is applied to very personal situations,
甚至用到一些並沒有在面臨某種未來的人身上。”
even to people who are perhaps not facing the future.”
斯莫利牧師:“好,那我們來說說這個應許。
Pastor Smalley: “Right, right, okay.
這個應許是上帝在以色列人流亡的時候賜給他們的。
So this is a promise that’s given to Israel while they’re in exile.
耶利米書29章中的這個應許
It’s a promise specifically, this is Jeremiah 29,
是上帝特別賜給那些被擄到巴比倫的以色列人的。
a promise specifically written to the Israelites who’ve been carried off to Babylon.
藉著這個應許,上帝在對那些以色列人說:
And God is saying to them that:
‘你們只管在巴比倫安頓下來,在那裡建造房屋、住下來。
You just settle down, build your houses, live there.
等到時候滿足的時候,我自會帶你們出來。
In due time, I will bring you out.
但是現在,你們要做當地居民的祝福。
But for now, be a blessing to the people that you’re with.
你們要相信我,因為我知道我向你們所懷的意念,
But trust me, because I have plans for you,
是賜平安的意念,不是降災禍的意念。’
plans to do you good and not harm.
好,我們如何通過聖經神學把這個應許與我們今天聯繫起來呢?
So using biblical theology, how do we connect that with us today?
讓我們想一想,新約聖經中有沒有什麼地方提到說,
Well, is there anything in the New Testament that would suggest to us
我們可以在某種程度上與當時流亡在外的猶太人感同身受?
that we in some way can identify with the Jews who were in exile?
當然有。
Yes, of course.
彼得前書說,我們是在各國流亡寄居的人。
因此,我們通過聖經神學、通過研究彼得前書可以看到,
and builds a biblical theology whereby we see
上帝所描繪的這幅以色列人流亡的畫面
that Israel’s exile is a picture that God was giving
就是如今來自各國的上帝子民流亡各地的境況。
of how His people from many nations are exiles today amongst the nations.
因此,我們不應該在應用這個應許時,
And so, now we don’t claim that promise
認為上帝的意思是有一天祂會把我們帶回巴勒斯坦的土地上。
to say that one day God will bring me back to the land of Palestine.
不,這樣的想法是在錯誤地應用這個應許,是不是?
No, that would be a misappropriation of it, wouldn’t it?
上帝沒有應許說,有一天我們都要坐在以色列的無花果樹下。
And I’m gonna sit under my fig tree there in the land of Israel.
上帝在多年前就已經實現了這一應許,
No, God fulfilled that promise in a physical way
祂已經把當時被俘的以色列人帶回了他們的家鄉。
when He brought the exiles back home.
但是,如果我是一個流亡他地的上帝選民,
But if I’m one of the elect exiles of God,
那麼上帝賜給祂的以色列選民的這些應許也同樣適用於我。
then I have the right to claim promises that God made to His elect amongst Israel.
彼得甚至在彼得前書2章9節中
Peter even takes in 1 Peter 2:9 things
把上帝對以色列說的“你們是君尊的祭司,是聖潔的國度”
that God said to Israel, “You’re a royal priesthood, you’re a holy nation.”
應用到了我們 – 上帝的教會身上。
And he applies them to us, the Church.
所以我們需要研究聖經神學,
And so once again, you need to do biblical theology,
我們需要追溯上帝的應許在歷史中運行的軌跡,
you need to trace the promise as it moves through history
查看新約聖經是如何應用舊約聖經的。
and see how the New Testament uses the Old Testament.
但問題的關鍵不在於‘這個應許是否適用於我們’,
But it’s not a question of whether or not those things apply to us.
而在於‘我們如何應用這個應許’。
It’s a question of how do they apply.
因為這些應許應用在我們身上的方式
Because they apply to us not as physical Jews,
與應用在猶太人身上的方式不同,
but as people who are joined to,
我們是一群與那位’大猶太人’ (如果我可以這樣說的話) 連接的人,
if I may say so, the Great Jew, the Lord Jesus Christ,
就是主耶穌基督、猶大支派的獅子。
the Lion of the Tribe of Judah.
希望我的回答還算讓你滿意。”
So I hope that answer suffices.
(學生:“謝謝。”) 斯莫利牧師:“不客氣。”
Okay, you’re certainly welcome.
好,我們來講講“聖經的清晰性”。
Okay, well, let’s talk about the clarity of the Bible.
聖經教導我們的真理,遠超我們的理解範圍。
The Bible teaches us about realities that go way beyond our understanding.
保羅在羅馬書11章33節中這樣寫道,
Paul writes in Romans 11:33,
“深哉,神豐富的智慧和知識!
“O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God!
他的判斷何其難測,他的蹤跡何其難尋!”
How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!”
我特別感謝彼得,因為他在彼得後書3章16節中說,
I’m so grateful for Peter, who wrote in 2 Peter 3:16, saying,
聖經中“有些難明白的”內容。
the Holy Scriptures contain “some things hard to be understood.”
弟兄姐妹,這讓我們很得安慰,對不對?
Isn’t that a comfort, brothren?
大家在讀經時都會遇到困難。
You’re not alone. You’re not alone.
但是彼得的話讓我有些意外,
Although I always found it ironic because
因為我覺得彼得寫的某些內容比保羅寫的更難懂。
I find some things that Peter wrote more hard to understand than the things that Paul wrote.
不過那就另當別論了。
But that’s a whole other story.
此外,聖經是一本包羅萬象、深刻又複雜的書。
Furthermore, the Bible is a vast and complicated Book.
聖經中其實共有六十六捲書、
It’s really a collection of 66 different books written by many authors,
由多位作者跨時一千五百年、使用多種語言寫成的。
written over the span of about fifteen hundred years, written in more than one language.
所以,我們若要教導上帝的話語,
And so God’s Word calls for
不僅需要恩賜、也需要勤奮的學習,
gifted, studious teachers,
這就是為什麼你們會在神學院進修的原因。
which is why you’re here in seminary.
但是我們一定要記得,
However, the Bible is not the sole property
聖經不是一本僅供精英教師群體閱讀的書。
of an elite guild of teachers, and we must never forget that.
所以我們首先要探討的, 是”聖經能讓家庭里的各個成員都得益處”。
Let’s talk, first of all, about the usefulness of Scripture for the whole family.
在申命記6章7節中,
In Deuteronomy 6:7,
上帝教導以色列民 – 不只是以色列的祭司,還有所有做父母的人,
God commanded the people, not just the priests, but all the parents in Israel
要他們默想上帝的話語,“也要殷勤教訓你的兒女”。
to meditate on his words and “teach them diligently unto thy children.”
我們在摩西五經中反覆讀到
As you read through the Pentateuch, you see repeatedly
上帝要求以色列人中做父母的要教導孩子,
how there was an expectation that parents would be teaching the children
用家長和孩子之間互動問答的方式來教導孩子。
with questions and answers, going back and forth between them.
詩篇78篇第7節說,
Psalm 78:7 says that generations to come
要使“將要生的後代子孫可以曉得”主的作為,
must be taught the deeds of the Lord “that they might set their hope in God,
“好讓他們仰望上帝,不忘記上帝的作為,唯要守他的命令。”
and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments.”
提摩太顯然就是一個最好的例子。
And of course, Timothy is the preeminent example of this.
因為提莫太的祖母羅以在他的母親友尼基還小的時候,
Because Timothy’s grandmother, Lois,
就以基督教信仰來教導她,
brought up her daughter Eunice in the faith,
隨後友尼基又以此信仰來教導她的兒子提摩太,
and Eunice brought up her son Timothy in the faith,
因此提摩太從小就開始學習聖經。
and so he has been learning the Bible since he was a child.
而這個快樂的使命 – 讓我們教導子女的快樂使命
And this joyful mandate to teach our children is grounded implicitly
其實是以聖經清晰性的教義為基礎的。
in the doctrine of the clarity of the Holy Scriptures.
聖經中最基本的主題 – 上帝、律法、福音
The Bible, in its basic themes of God, law, gospel,
雖然極其深刻,但它們是簡單清晰的,
which are profound in depth, nevertheless, is simple and clear enough
足以讓孩子們學習、理解、並將之用到他們自己身上。
for children to learn, understand and personally appropriate.
有人將聖經比作一條河,
Someone has compared the Bible to a river
說這條河既深得足以讓一頭大象暢游其中,
that is deep enough for an elephant to swim in it,
也淺得能讓一隻小羊羔安心踏入飲水。
and yet a river shallow enough at its shores for a lamb to safely wade in and drink.
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第7段說,
And so the Westminster Confession of Faith 1.7 says,
“聖經的內容並不是每個地方都同樣清楚,
“All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves,
也不是對每個人都同樣明白;
nor alike clear until all:
但是得救所必須知道、相信、遵守的事,
yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed for salvation,
我們總能在聖經找到,而且解釋得非常清楚明白;
are so clearly propounded, and opened in some place of Scripture or other,
不但有學問的人”, 就是受過教育的人,
that not only the learned,” or educated,
“就是無學問的人”, 即沒有受過教育的人,
“but the unlearned,” or uneducated,
“不必用什麼巧妙的辦法,只要用一般的方法,就能充分理解。”
“in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.”
但是,這個教義在宗教改革期間引起了極大的爭議,
Now, this was controversial during the Reformation,
所以我們接下來就來看一看這場關於聖經清晰性的爭議。
which leads us to the Perspicuity controversy.
大家不要被“perspicuity”(“清晰性”)這個詞唬住了。
Now don’t be thrown off by that word “perspicuity”.
我們來上神學院的好處之一,
One of the great things about seminary
就是可以順便學到這些聽起來很宏大、很了不起的詞彙。
is you can pick up all these grand words that sound so impressive,
其實“perspicuity”就是一個拉丁語詞,
but “perspicuity” just is basically
基本上表達的意思就是“清晰性”(英文是“clarity”),好嗎?
a Latin word that means “clarity.” Okay?
我講課時有時候必須要用到這個詞,
So don’t, you know, don’t injure yourself
但是你們大可不用像我這樣費力勞神地說它,
trying to say the word, as I may do at some point in this lecture.
你們就說“聖經的clarity(清晰性)”就可以了。
Instead, just talk about the clarity of Scripture.
好,宗教改革時期的改教家們非常強調這個教義,
Now, the Reformers were very strong on this point,
這是因為當時羅馬天主教只允許教會神職人員讀經,
because the Roman Catholic Church sought, and sometimes with great violence,
不允許一般人讀聖經,
to withhold the Bible from people
有時候甚至會採用過激的手段來限制人讀經。
who were outside of the church’s hierarchy of official teachers.
羅馬天主教認為,允許一般人讀經是一件非常危險的事情。
They did not believe that the Bible was safe in the hands of ordinary people.
他們之所以會有這樣的觀點,其中一個原因就是
And part of the reason that they believed that is because
他們的解經已經偏離了字義解經的方向。
they had departed from literal interpretation of the Scripture.
相反,他們採用了各式各樣的靈意解經法。
Instead, they employed various allegorical readings.
例如羅馬天主教神學家約翰· 艾克
So, for example, the Romanist, or at least one Romanist, John Eck,
將好撒瑪利亞人付給旅店店主的二錢銀子
interpreted the two coins that were given by the good Samaritan to the innkeeper
解讀為聖經的新舊約兩本書。
as the two Testaments of the Bible.
宗教改革時期的改教家們則回到了字義解經的路上,
Well, the Reformers returned to the literal sense of Scripture,
他們還說,聖經常常被稱為”光”,
and they also appealed to the way the Bible is frequently called,
這光引領我們,讓我們看到它的清晰。
“a light,” to guide us, to show its clarity.
我們都讀過詩篇119篇的第105節,
And we all know Psalm 119:105,
“你的話是我腳前的燈,是我路上的光。”
“Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.”
箴言6章23節說,“因為誡命是燈,法則是光”,等等。
Proverbs 6:23 says, “The commandment is a lamp; and the law is light,” and so forth.
我們在彼得後書1章19節中也讀到了類似的話。
We saw the same in 2 Peter 1:19.
光的特性就是讓事物變得可見,
Light has an inherent quality of making things visible.
光讓我們能夠看見。
Light enables us to see.
因此,當聖經作者將聖經比作光的時候,他們的意思是,
And therefore, when the Bible is compared to light, it’s saying that
聖經不是一本神秘不明、需要人來照亮它的書;
it’s not a dark and cloudy book which men must come along and illuminate,
相反,聖經是上帝賜下的光,它要穿透人無知的黑暗。
but instead, it is a divine light that penetrates the darkness of men’s ignorance.
我們需要記得,聖經是上帝的啟示,
Let’s remember here that this is revelation.
上帝的心意是藉著聖經與我們交通。
God intends to communicate to us through the Bible,
既是上帝選的方式,那它就一定是最明智的。
and He is wise in the way that He’s chosen to do it.
然而,這並不表示,我們可以很容易地讀懂聖經、相信聖經,
Now, that doesn’t mean that the Bible is easy for us to understand or accept.
但是我們的攔阻,不是聖經本身,
But the great obstacle to our understanding of the truths
而是如耶穌在約翰福音8章43節至45節中對猶太人所說的,
of God is not the Bible itself, it’s the sin
也如保羅在哥林多後書4章4節中所寫的,
and satanic unbelief that dominates the wicked,
阻攔我們理解上帝真理的最大阻礙,
as Jesus said to them in John 8:43-45,
是占據著罪人生命的罪與他們邪惡的不信,
or Paul wrote of in 2 Corinthians 4:4,
可悲的是,即使在信徒身上,
and sadly the sin and unbelief
我們也能看到殘留下來的一定程度的罪與不信。
that remains to some extent even in the godly.
還記得耶穌從死里複活後,是怎樣責備他的門徒的嗎?
Remember how Jesus rebuked his disciples after he rose from the dead?
他責備他們,是因為他們心裡遲鈍,
Because they were so slow to believe
不明白、也不相信先知所教導的。
what all the prophets had spoken?
但是保羅在哥林多前書2章的末尾說,
But those who have the Spirit of God dwelling in them
那些有上帝之靈內住的人,他們“是有基督的心了”。
“have the mind of Christ, Paul says at the end of 1 Corinthians 2.
因此,我們是屬靈的人,我們能夠讀懂聖經,
And therefore we are spiritual people, we are able to understand the Scriptures, especially
特別是當我們日益成熟、不再只是做基督里永遠的嬰孩。
if we are pressing on towards maturity, and not living on as perpetual babes in Christ.
蒙在我們心上的帳幕已被揭開。
The veil has been lifted from our hearts,
藉著聖靈,我們得以在上帝的聖言中瞻仰基督的榮光。
by the Spirit we behold the glory of Christ in the Word,
並且,上帝也在不斷改變我們,讓我們越來越有基督的樣式。
and we’re being transformed in his likeness. And that’s why, for example,
而這就是為什麼,保羅的書信是寫給整個教會的。
when Paul wrote his Epistles, he addressed the whole church with his Epistles.
因為他堅信,不只是牧師需要聽上帝的聖言,
He believed it wasn’t just the ministers,
教會裡的每一個人都需要。
but the whole church who should hear what the Word says.
有人反對這樣的觀點,他們說,“因為上帝是無限不可測透的,
Now, it may be objected against us that that God is infinite and He’s incomprehensible,
所以聖經中到處都是奇怪又隱晦的教義,比如說預定論,
and therefore the Bible is full of strange and obscure teachings like predestination.
所以我們最明智的做法是不理會這些東西。”
And therefore it would be wisest for us just to ignore those things.
我們可以用路德說過的一句話來回應這樣的反對意見,
But if that objection comes up, we may reply with Luther,
“上帝和上帝的話語是兩回事。”
“God and the Scripture of God are two things.”
也就是說,我們的確無法測透上帝,
In other words, yes, God is incomprehensible.
祂的榮耀深不可測,我們永遠無法完全測透上帝。
He’s an infinite depth of glory that we could never fully penetrate.
但聖經並不是上帝,
But the Bible is not God.
它是上帝的話語,是祂的啟示。
The Bible is God’s Word. It’s His revelation.
因此,我們的答案出自類似申命記29章29節這樣的經文,
And so we rest in texts like Deuteronomy 29:29 that says “The secret things
“隱秘的事是屬耶和華我們神的,
belong unto the Lord our God: but those things
唯有明顯的事是永遠屬我們和我們子孫的,
which are revealed belong to us and to our children for ever,
好叫我們遵行這律法上的一切話” 。
that we may do all the words of this law.”
所以就像路德說的,聖經中的一切教導都出自上帝的道,
And so as Luther said, all things that are in the Scriptures are by the Word,
上帝用最清晰明瞭的方式來傳遞這些教導、使之在全世界傳揚。
brought forth into the clearest light and proclaimed to the whole world.
那麼,聖經的清晰性有哪些實際應用呢?
Well, what are some practical implications of biblical clarity?
首先,我們應該滿懷期待。
One is anticipation.
如果我們帶著謙卑的心來讀聖經,
If you come to the Bible humbly,
如果我們渴望有所成長、有所收穫,
desiring to grow and to learn,
如果我們像詩篇作者在詩篇119篇第18節中那樣來禱告,
and praying as the Psalmist prays in Psalm 119:18,
“求你開我的眼睛,使我看出你律法中的奇妙”,
“Open my eyes that I may behold wonderous things in thy law.”
那我們完全有理由相信並期待,
You have every reason to expect
上帝一定會藉著祂的話語賜福我們。
that God will bless you through His Word.
啟示錄 – 這本可以說是整本聖經中最難懂的書卷之一
Revelation, which is frankly one of the most difficult books in the entire Bible to interpret,
在它開篇的第1章第3節中應許說:
starts with a promise in Revelation 1:3,
“念這書上預言的和那些聽見又遵守其中所記載的,
“Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy,
都是有福的。”
and keep those things which are written therein.”
聖經清晰性的第二個應用體現在翻譯上。
Furthermore, another application is translation.
聖經既然有清晰性,足以讓人明白它的教導,
Since the Bible is clear enough for people to understand its doctrines,
教會就有義務將原文聖經 (希伯來語、亞蘭語、希腊語)
the church has an obligation for the translation of the original Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek texts
譯成世界各國的語言。
into the languages of all the nations of the world.
你們可能會問,“聖經翻譯有什麼聖經依據嗎?”
And you might say, “Well, what biblical basis do we have for Bible translation?”
請大家回想一下,
Well, let me ask you,
當主耶穌和他的使徒引用舊約聖經時,他們引用的是什麼?
when the Lord Jesus and his apostles quoted the Old Testament, what were they quoting?
他們引用的是七十士譯本 – 希伯來語舊約聖經的希腊語譯本。
The Septuagint. They were quoting a Greek translation of the Hebrew text,
至少新約作者就是這樣記錄的。
at least that’s the way that the New Testament writers present things to us.
所以我們從主耶穌和他門徒的這一舉動看出,
And so they were operating with the belief that
他們是認可將聖經譯為通用語的。
it is legitimate to translate the Bible into the common language,
因為當時除了當地人用的亞蘭語外,
because Koine Greek was the common language at the time,
通用希腊語就是那時候他們通用的語言。
in addition to the Aramaic that was spoken around that area.
當然,羅馬天主教一度是反對這個教義的,
This, again, was opposed by the Roman Catholic Church,
但值得感恩的是,他們現在已經改變了他們的觀點。
though thankfully it has changed its stance on it.
但是曾經有很長一段時間,羅馬天主教都強烈反對聖經翻譯。
But for many years, the Romanists fiercely opposed biblical translation.
他們堅持認為當時的拉丁語武加大譯本是唯一權威的聖經譯本。
They insisted that the Latin Vulgate was the only authoritative translation.
但是改教家們卻將聖經譯成了德語、法語、英語、
But the Reformers translated the Bible into German, French, English,
波蘭語、西班牙語、以及其他語言。
Polish, Spanish and other languages,
他們的做法是對的。
and rightly so.
其實在今天,聖經翻譯仍在繼續著。
In fact, Bible translation, as many of you know
我們中也有許多人在聖經翻譯事工中服侍。
very, very personally, is an ongoing task.
全世界還有許多種 – 可能上千種人們仍在使用的語言里
There are many languages, perhaps even thousands of languages, that people speak
沒有相應的聖經譯本。
that have no translation of the Bible.
我們應該支持與鼓勵這樣的聖經翻譯的事工。
We should support and encourage that work. Furthermore,
此外,聖經清晰性的另一個實際應用體現在解讀聖經的原則上,
another practical implication of the clarity the Holy Scriptures is the principle of interpretation,
就是我們常說的”以經解經“。
known as the “analogy of Scripture.”
“以經解經”是什麼意思呢?
The analogy description, what that means is…
我給大家讀一下威斯敏斯特信仰告白的第1章第9段。
Well, I’ll just read the Westminster Confession of Faith 1.9.
“只有一個解釋聖經的規則不會產生錯誤,就是以經解經。
“The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself.
所以當我們對任何一處聖經的真實完整意義
And therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture,
(每處聖經都只有一個意思,而沒有多種意思)有疑問時,
which is not manifold, but one, it must be searched
就當查考聖經其他比較清楚的經文,以明白其真義。”
and known by other places that speak more clearly.”
聖經中的確有一些難懂的經文,
Yes, there are places in the Bible that are difficult to understand,
但是因為我們相信聖經的清晰性,
but because we believe in the clarity of Scripture,
所以我們也相信,聖經所教導的每一個教義都有經文的支持,
we also believe that on any doctrine, you can go to other places of the Bible,
而其中一些經文比另一些經文的教導更清晰。
and you will find a more clear statement of what is being taught.
好,我們接下來講一講“聖經的必須性”。
Okay, let’s move on to consider “The necessity of the Bible,” the necessity of the Bible.
聖經之所以是必須的,
The necessity the Bible is grounded in the fact
是因為只有藉著上帝的話語,
that it is only through the Word of God
我們才能知曉藏於耶穌基督里的救恩之道。
that we can know the way of salvation in Jesus Christ.
宗教多元主義是人類犯的重大錯誤之一。
One of the great errors that people make is the error of religious pluralism.
大家可以在我們發到Populi上的講稿中讀到相關內容。
You can read about that in the lectures posted on Populi.
那種說“所有宗教都能使人認識上帝”的話是謊言。
It is false to say that all religions lead men to God.
只有合乎聖經的宗教才能使人與這位真上帝和好。
Only biblical religion brings about reconciliation with the true God.
所以對每個人來說,福音都是必須的。
We see this in the necessity of the gospel for all mankind.
這一點正是保羅在羅馬書中逐步闡明的教義。
This is something that’s developed through the Book of Romans.
保羅在羅馬書1章16節中說,他“不以基督的福音為恥”。
Paul said in Romans 1:16 that he was “not ashamed of the gospel of Christ.”
保羅為什麼會這樣說呢?
Well, why is that?
我們看到,保羅不惜筆墨,從羅馬書1章逐步闡述至第3章,
Well, Paul develops at great length in Romans 1 through 3 the fact
他強調說:人所需要的,是唯獨在福音中顯明的義。
that people need a righteousness that only the gospel reveals.
雖然藉著創造之工,上帝已將祂的榮耀顯明給人,
Although they’ve been granted the plain manifestation of God’s glory
上帝也將祂的道德律刻在了人的良心上,
through His created works, and they have the inward witness of God’s moral law
但是面對上帝的普遍啟示,人的回應卻是犯下更多的罪惡、
in their consciences, mankind responds to general revelation with more sin,
敬拜更多的偶像,心也變得更加剛硬。
and idolatry, and harden a darkened hearts.
因此,普遍啟示就好像上帝的律法,
And so general revelation is akin to God’s law.
它無法使罪人稱義,
It can’t justify sinners,
它只能使他們知罪、讓他們對自己的罪無可推諉。
but it can only give them a knowledge of sin to remove their excuses.
但是保羅在羅馬書第3章中指出,
But as Paul traces out in Romans Chapter 3,
儘管全世界盡顯上帝創造的榮美,但全人類都犯了罪,
though the whole world, despite the beauty and glory of God’s creation,
沒有人明白上帝的話語,沒有人尋求上帝,也沒有人行善。
has become utterly unrighteous, no one understands, no one seeks God,
但是,即便如此,上帝還是賜下了福音,賜下了特殊啟示。
no one does what is good, there is the gospel, God’s special revelation.
這就是保羅在羅馬書3章21節中所說的,
It is “the righteousness of God without the law that is manifested,”
“上帝的義在律法以外已經顯明出來”。
as he says in Romans 3:21.
而上帝的福音是一個特殊的福音,
And it is a particular gospel.
它不是僅僅向人們啟示一些道德原則,
It is not simply a revelation of certain moral principles,
不是說如果人做了這個、做了那個,就會得救。
that if you do this and you do that, you will be saved.
上帝的福音是與一個特定的人有關 – 這個人就是主耶穌,
The gospel is the announcement about a particular person, the Lord Jesus,
他來到世上,在特定時間、特定地點死去,
who came and died at a particular place, in a particular time,
他為施行拯救,將自己的生命獻上作罪的贖罪祭。
and the significance of his saving death as a sacrifice for sins.
因此,如果人們是因為相信耶穌所成就的一切而得救,
And therefore, if people are going to be saved through faith in his work,
那麼他們就必須要聽到福音。
they must hear the gospel.
保羅在羅馬書10章14節中指出的就是這個道理,
And Paul traces out that logic in Romans 10:14, when he says,
“然而,人未曾信他,怎能求他呢?
“How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed?
未曾聽見他,怎能信他呢?
And how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard?
沒有傳道的,怎能聽見呢?”
And how should they hear without a preacher?”
因此,聖經具有必須性的最基本的原因
And therefore, the deepest root of the Bible’s necessity
是因為人們需要聽到福音,
is that people need to hear the gospel,
因為他們無法憑藉觀察日月星辰來明白福音,
and they can’t get the gospel by looking at the moon and the stars.
他們需要認識耶穌。
They need to hear about Jesus.
而上帝的話語所見證的,就是這位耶穌。
And it’s of Jesus that the Word of God witnesses to us.
關於這一點,
You can find an excellent statement about that
威斯敏斯特信仰告白第一章第一段中又有一段非常精彩的描述。
in the, again, in Chapter 1 of the Westminster Confession of Faith, the very first section.
我們同時也看到,上帝用書面記載的方式將福音記錄了下來。
And this gospel is been published in written form.
從某種意義上來說,福音確實早於聖經。
It is true that there is a sense in which the gospel predates the Holy Scriptures.
我們在讀羅馬書的時候就能發現,
When you look at the Book of Romans,
保羅追溯福音,一直到人類歷史的最開始。
you realize that for Paul, the gospel goes all the way back to the beginning of time.
他在羅馬書16章20節中
In Romans 16:20, Paul alludes
提到了上帝在創世紀3章15節中許下的福音的應許,
to the ancient gospel promise of Genesis 3:15
即女人的後裔要將蛇踐踏在他的腳下。
that the seed of the woman will crush the serpent under his heel.
保羅相信,當亞當最初在伊甸園中犯罪時,福音就出現了。
Paul believes in the gospel that starts in the garden when man first fell.
當然,保羅又在羅馬書第4章中提到,
And of course, Paul in Romans 4 talks about the gospel
早在摩西寫出摩西五經之前,
that was revealed to Abraham
上帝就已經向亞伯拉罕啟示了祂的福音。
long before Moses ever wrote the Pentateuch.
但保羅也一再強調,
But Paul repeatedly emphasizes that
聖經才是上帝指定的傳揚福音、保存福音的方式。
the Holy Scriptures are God’s ordained means of propagating and preserving the gospel.
在羅馬書第1章的1節和2節里,
In the first two verses of Romans 1,
保羅將自己稱作為“上帝的福音”服侍的僕人,
he says that he served “the gospel of God,”
“這福音是上帝從前借眾先知在聖經上所應許的。”
which He has promised afore by His prophets “in the Holy Scriptures.”
雖然嚴格意義上來說,福音不是律法,
Though the gospel is not, strictly speaking, a law,
但是羅馬書第3章第21節說,福音“有律法和先知”為之作證。
it was “witnessed by the law and the prophets,” Romans 3:21.
因此,保羅在羅馬書3章2節中也提到,
And therefore Paul speaks of the great advantage
與外邦人相比,猶太人有著極大的優勢,
that the Jews had over the Gentiles,
因為“上帝”將“聖言交托”給了“他們”。
“that unto them were committed the oracles of God.”
事實上,保羅之所以能寫出這封給羅馬人的書信、
And as Paul writes this, the very fact that he is writing the epistle to the Romans,
這個講解福音的偉大篇章,
this great treatise on the gospel,
是因為他相信,
shows that he believes
將福音記錄下來,是他服侍各國事工的一部分。
that part of his ministry to the nations is committing the gospel to writing.
當我們靜下心來思想,
And there are many good reasons
思想上帝為什麼不是只讓使徒傳講福音,而是要將福音寫下來,
that we can think of when we consider why would God want the gospel,
我們其實可以想到許多好的原因。
not just to be something that’s preached by the apostles, but written down.
畢竟隨著基督的到來,上帝在這個世代的啟示已達巔峰。
After all, with the coming of Christ, revelation in this age came to a climax.
上帝將這一啟示交付給了新約的先知與使徒,
And that revelation was entrusted to the new covenant prophets and apostles,
他們由此奠定了教會的根基。
and those apostles laid the foundation of the church.
但是,當使徒時代成為過去時後,
But when the apostolic generation died, how was God’s church
上帝的教會要怎樣才能聽到耶穌基督帶來的全備的啟示呢?
going to have access to the full revelation that had come with Jesus Christ?
上帝繼續護理著祂的教會,
God provided for His church,
祂沒有繼續差派先知來給我們新的啟示,
not with a continuing sequence of prophets to bring new revelation,
而是將祂自己的啟示永久地記錄了下來。
but with a permanent record that is itself divine revelation,
這就使得今天的人們,無論是在非洲的馬拉維、是在中國、韓國、
so that today, you in Malawi, Africa, or China, or Korea,
荷蘭、我們現在所在的美國,還是在委內瑞拉、巴西等,
or the Netherlands, or here in the United States, or Venezuela, or Brazil,
都能夠直接讀到耶穌基督的福音,
you have direct access to the revelation of Jesus Christ,
讀到記載成文的上帝的話語。
the written Word of God.
這是上帝賜給祂子民的一份多麼珍貴的禮物啊!
What a gift God has given to His people!
我們從哪裡知道,
We are not slaves
自己可以脫離這些可能在千年以前就被人的罪腐化的傳統,
to some ancient tradition that people may have corrupted
知道自己可以不再受它們的奴役了呢?
a thousand years ago, and how would we know?
我們是從上帝的話語中知道的。
We have the Word of God.
藉著上帝賜給我們的聖經,
And because of it, the gift of the scriptures, the Gospel,
全世界千千萬萬的人能夠直接接觸到福音及福音中一切的豐盛。
in all its revealed richness, is directly accessible to millions of people around the world.
這就是聖經的必須性。
This is the necessity of the Scriptures.
上帝也已經應許了,祂會保存祂的福音。
And God has promised to preserve His gospel.
要知道,雖然古時以色列的敵人極其殘暴,
You know, it is striking, that despite the violence of Israel’s ancient enemies,
儘管耶路撒冷城慘遭攻擊與摧毀,
despite the fact that Jerusalem itself was attacked and destroyed,
雖然上帝的子民在上帝的審判之下流亡在外,
despite the fact that God’s people fell under God’s own judgment
但是上帝沒有允許舊約聖經丟失或者殘缺。
and were carried off into exile, God did not permit the Old Testament Scriptures
這實在是令人震撼與驚奇。
to be lost or mutilated.
上帝將聖經書卷存留了下來。
But He preserved them,
祂的保護是如此完善,以至於在摩西五經成書1500年之後,
and he preserved them so well that the Lord Jesus Christ, walking upon this earth,
行在世上的主耶穌仍然可以引用摩西的話,
a millennium and a half after Moses wrote the Pentateuch, could still quote
完全相信這就是永生上帝自己的話語。
the words of Moses with the confidence that they were the living word of God.
主耶穌基督也應許,教會絕不會被摧毀,
And the Lord Jesus Christ promised that the church would never fail,
陰間的權柄也絕不可能勝過她。
but it would prevail over the powers of hell.
主耶穌基督還說,
And that church, he said,
使徒為耶穌基督的身份所做的見證,就是教會存在的根基。
was grounded upon the apostolic testimony to who he was.
耶穌在馬太福音24章14節中說,
Jesus said in Matthew 24:14, “this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached
“這天國的福音要傳遍天下,對萬民作見證,然後末期才來到”,
in all the world for a witness and to all nations; and then shall the end come,”
他的意思顯然是,
which, of course, implies
福音絕不會丟失,上帝的話語一定會存留到最後。
that the gospel will not be lost, that the Word of God will continue to the end.
這可能嗎?
And how is that possible?
這是可能的,因為主耶穌在馬太福音28章的末尾這樣應許,
It’s possible because as the Lord Jesus promised at the end of Matthew 28,
當教會履行使命時,當我們傳講聖經、培養門徒時,
as the church goes forth to perform its mission of teaching the Bible and making disciples,
主耶穌基督會與我們同在。
the Lord Jesus Christ is with us.
他會與我們同在,“直到世界的末了”。
He is with us even to the end of the age.
因此,直到最後,上帝的話語也絕不可能從世界上消失。
And therefore the word of God will not be ultimately destroyed from the face of the Earth.
這是無論倫比的恩典!
And that’s such a blessing.
因為我們實在、實在是太需要聖經了。
Because we need the Bible. We need the Bible.

我們接下來要探討的,
In your outline is point 17,
是我們課程大綱上的第17大點,“聖經的屬性”。
“The properties of the written word of God.” So what I want to do now
在討論這些屬性的時候,
is I want to start to look at those properties, I want to look at…
我不會完全按照大綱上羅列的順序來講,
I’m gonna look at them not in the exact same order
我們會在講的時候先暫且跳過其中兩個屬性,
that they were presented just now, we’re gonna take two of them out,
“聖經的準確無誤性”和“聖經的充分性”,
the inherent veracity of Scripture and also its perfect sufficiency,
把它們留到最後來講。
and we’ll delay those to the end.
之所以這樣做,是因為這兩個教義(聖經的無誤性和充分性)
And the reason we’re doing this is because those inherency and sufficiency
在過去的一百年裡備受批判與攻擊。
have been very much under attack within the last century.
所以對這兩個屬性,我們要多花一點時間。
So we’re gonna give those special attention.
但在此之前,我們先來看看聖經的其他屬性:
But let’s move through the other properties of Scripture.
聖經的”權威性”、”清晰性”、”必須性”、”在基督里的合一性”、
Its authority, clarity, necessity, unity in Christ
以及”在聖靈工作中的有效性”。
and efficacy by the Holy Spirit.
好,我們首先來看”聖經的權威性”。
So first of all, let’s talk about the authority of the Bible.
我們在讀馬太福音7章29節以及其他對照經文時發現,
One of the things about the Lord Jesus Christ that really astonished people
每當主耶穌講話時,
as they heard him speak
最令聽眾稀奇的是他總是帶著“權柄”說上帝的話。
was that he spoke God’s Word with “authority.” Matthew 7:29 and parallel texts.
上帝的話中有一種使人”理所應當要順服它”的力量。
There is something about the Word of God that brings people into rightful subjection to it.
保羅把它視為一個人悔改信主的標誌,
Paul considered it a mark of conversion
就是那些曾經是罪的奴僕的人,
that those who formerly were servants of sin
“現今卻從心裡順服了所傳給你們道理的模範”,
have now “obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you,”
羅馬書6章16節(修正:6章17節)。
Romans 6:16 (Correction: 6:17).
保羅說的”信服真道”(羅馬書1章5節的希腊語原文,羅馬書16章26節)
Paul could write of a proper response to the gospel as the “obedience of faith,”
就是人們對福音的一種恰當的回應。
Romans 1:5 in the Greek and Roman 16:26.
使徒們在傳福音時不斷引用聖經、指向聖經,
And the apostles modeled this obedience when they preach the gospel
這就是“信服真道”的典範。
by repeatedly quoting and alluding to the Holy Scriptures.
因此我們所說的“聖經的權威性”,
So when we speak of the Bible’s authority,
是指聖經有權柄讓它的聽眾順服於它的教導,
we refer to its property as the Word of God
而這種順服本是它的聽眾應盡的義務。
to obligate its readers or hearers to submission.
因為聖經是上帝的話語,
Because it is God’s Word.
它有權柄管理我們,我們也有義務要順服於它。
It places you under authority, under obligation.
聖經有權約束我們的一切思想與行為。
It binds you both in what you believe and in how you behave.
因此,聖經約束著我們的良心,
And so if the Bible teaches some doctrine
使我們有義務相信
or report some event,
聖經中的一切 – 無論是教導還是歷史事件,都是真實無誤的。
it binds our consciences to believe that what the Bible has said is true.
如果聖經要求我們應有某種態度、某種情感、或某種行為,
If it commands some attitude, affection or action,
我們也有義務要順服。
it binds our consciences to obey.
雖然有一定權柄的人也可以規範人的某些行為,
Men who have proper authority can regulate some of our actions, but only the Word of God
但唯獨上帝的話語有權力在教義、道德、敬拜上約束我們的良心。
has the authority to bind our consciences with regard to doctrine, morality, and worship.
威斯敏斯特信仰告白說,
The Westminster Confession of Faith says, “God alone is Lord of the conscience,
“唯獨上帝是良心的主,在信仰或敬拜的事上,
and hath left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men,
要使人脫離一切與聖經相離或相悖之人的道理與吩咐。”
which are, in anything, contrary to his word; or beside it, in matters of faith or worship.
這是信仰告白第1章中的第2段(修正:第20章的第2段)。
That’s Chapter one, paragraph two.
我們現在來進一步看看這個教義。
So let’s discuss this a little bit.
首先,“聖經權威的源頭”。
First of all, “The source of the Bible’s authority.”
聖經有權威性的直接原因在於它是上帝的話語。
The Bible’s property of authority arises directly from its divine origin: it is God’s Word.
約翰在約翰一書5章9節中寫道,
As John wrote in 1 John 5:9, the testimony of God has
上帝的見證遠比人的見證更有權威性。
far more authority than the testimony of man.
保羅在帖撒羅尼迦前書2章13節中說,
Paul said in 1 Thessalonians 2:13 that apostolic doctrine should be received
使徒所教導的教義“不是人的道”,實乃“上帝的道”。
“not as the word of men,” but as it truly is “the word of God.”
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第4段說,
And therefore the Westminster Confession of Faith Section 1.4 Says,
“我們應信服聖經的權威,這權威不在乎任何人或教會的見證,
“The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, and obeyed,
乃完全在乎上帝(祂自己就是真理)。
dependeth not upon the testimony of any man, or Church;
上帝是聖經的作者,所以我們應當接受聖經,
but wholly upon God, who is truth itself, the author thereof: and therefore, it is to be received,
因為聖經是上帝的話。”
because it is the Word of God.”
我們在前面的課上也提到過,
We’ve already noted in these lectures
“耶和華如此說”這個短語以及類似的語句在聖經中出現了400多次。
that the Bible says more than 400 times, “Thus saith the Lord,” or some equivalent phrase.
要知道,只有統治者才會使用這樣的語句。
This is a formula that’s used by a ruler.
我們發現,這個語句也可以用在人身上,
You can find it being used by people who aren’t God,
比如在列王記上2章30節和一些別的經文中, 我們讀到”王吩咐說”。
for example, the expression “Thus saith the King” in 1 Kings 2:30 and other places.
再給大家舉個例子。
To give you an example,
在出埃及記5章10節和11節中,
the king of Egypt, when he sent out his servants
埃及王差派他的僕人去向當時做埃及人奴僕的希伯來人傳話,
to speak to the Hebrew slaves, gave them this message in Exodus 5:10 and 11,
僕人說,“法老這樣說:我不給你們草,
“Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you straw.
你們自己在哪裡能找草,就往哪裡去找吧!
Go ye, get you straw where ye can find it:
但你們的工一點不可減少。”
yet not aught of your work shall be diminished.”
所以在聖經中,人們常常用“某某如此說”的語句來傳達國王的話。
And so the expression “Thus saith” is commonly used in the Bible as the word of the king.
這話是不容置疑、不容爭議的,人們只能順服國王的話。
It’s not to be questioned. It’s not to be disputed. It is only to be obeyed.
因此,通過使用“某某如此說”這個說法,主要我們知道,
And when, therefore, the Lord uses this expression, he is communicating
祂是那位至高的主與大君王,凡聽見祂話語的人都必須順服。
that He speaks as the Supreme Lord and King and all who hear must submit to His words.
我們所說的“權威”,並不只是指賞罰的權力,
And when we speak of authority, we’re not just talking about the power to reward or punish.
更多是指某種約束道德權利和道德義務的權力。
We’re speaking more specifically to moral right and obligation.
上帝有權命令我們,因為祂造了我們,祂造了萬物。
God has the right to command us, because He made us, and He made all things.
詩篇95章3至5節說,
Since He made all things,
既然上帝造了萬物,祂就是萬物的主。
he owns all things, as Psalm 95:3 through 5 says.
而正如陶匠有權隨己意支配他手中的土,
And like the potter over the clay,
造物主也有權按祂自己的心意來使用我們。
the Creator has the right to do with us what he pleases.
所以,聖經天生就有這種權威,它有權讓人順服於它。
And therefore the Bible has inherent authority that rightly demands our submission.
但是,我們所說的“聖經的權威性”,
It’s not just, when we say the authority of the Bible
不只體現在它對人的影響上,
that we’re describing the effect that it has on people,
因為就算人沒有認識到這種影響、體會不到這種影響,
whether or not people acknowledge it, whether or not people experience it.
聖經仍舊是上帝的話語。
This is God’s Word.
因此,人有義務要順服聖經的話。
And therefore, they are obligated to submit.
所以我們接下來要講的就是 “聖經的權威與教會”。
Now this brings us to consider “Biblical authority and the church.”
在宗教改革時期,羅馬天主教教會宣佈:
During the Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church claimed that for all practical purposes,
由教皇領導的羅馬訓導當局實際上擁有全世界的最高權威。
the Roman Magisterium, led by the Pope, held supreme authority on Earth.
他們說,教皇有約束人良心的權柄,
The Pope had the authority, they said, to bind the conscience
也有解決教義紛爭、處理順服與敬拜上的分歧的權柄。
and to arbitrate disagreements over doctrine, obedience and worship.
顯然,羅馬天主教援引基督的應許來支持他們的這一觀點,
And of course, the Roman Catholic Church pointed to Christ’s promise
基督在馬太福音16章19節中應許,
to give “the keys to the kingdom” to Peter
要把“天國的鑰匙”給彼得,讓彼得可以”捆綁”或”釋放”。
so that he can “bind” or “loose,” in Matthew, 16:19.
我們在回應羅馬天主教的時候應該認識到,
Well, in response to that, we recognize that, of course,
顯然,彼得自己並沒有任何權柄,這個權柄是出自聖靈的默示。
it wasn’t Peter himself who had that authority, it is only by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit.
但是,我們在聖經中看不到任何應許,
But there is no promise in the Bible
說上帝會把聖靈的默示賜給使徒之後的任何人。
that God would grant that kind of inspiration to anyone after the apostles.
所以,羅馬天主教所做的,
So what the Roman Catholic Church does is,
是把上帝賜給彼得或使徒的應許挪用到了教皇身上。
they take promises given to Peter or the apostles and then they apply them to the Pope.
所以我們理應問他們:
And we rightly say,
“你們把上帝賜給彼得的應許用在教皇身上的做法,有何依據?”
what gives you the warrant to say that promises made to Peter apply to the pope?
聖經中並沒有這樣的教導,說使徒的權柄是可以繼承沿襲的。
There’s nothing in the Bible that would indicate any kind of apostolic succession.
此外,
Furthermore,
我們也決不能把某一領袖或某一委員會視為我們的最終權威,
we cannot make any leader or council of leaders into our final authority,
因為歷史已經向我們顯明,
because history has shown that
這些領袖、這些委員會都會犯錯,也會提出相互矛盾的觀點。
such leaders and councils have errored and contradicted each other.
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第10段說,
Therefore, the Westminster Confession of Faith in Section 1:10 says,
“在處理信仰上一切爭論,教會會議一切決議、
“The supreme judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined,
古代作者意見,人的道理、個人屬靈領受事務時,
and all decrees of counsels, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits,
我們可以放心:其裁判最高審判者只有一位,
are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other
就是在聖經中說話的聖靈。”
but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.”
信仰告白在這裡引用的經文是馬太福音22章29至31節
And it’s interesting, because the Confession at this point cites Scriptures like Matthew 22:29-31,
和使徒行傳28章23至25節。
and Acts 28:23-25.
有意思的是,如果我們研讀這幾節經文,
And if you go to those scriptures, you find that the apostles,
查看使徒、乃至耶穌在卷入宗教紛爭時的做法,
even Jesus himself, when they’re involved in religious controversy, what do they do?
我們會發現:他們回到了聖經、回到了上帝的話語中去。
They go back to the Book. They go back to the Scriptures.
還有一個關於“聖經權威性”的爭議,
Now, there’s another controversy that was involved with regard to the authority of the Bible,
它與“聖經鑒別”有關。
and that has to do with “The authentication of the Bible.”
羅馬天主教稱,聖經確實是上帝的話語,
The Roman Catholic Church also claimed that while the Bible is the Word of God,
但教會的權柄是我們接受聖經、接受它是上帝話語的基礎。
we receive it as the Word of God only on the authority of the church.
他們的意思是,只有教會才能辨別聖經的真偽,
In other words, they say we need the church to authenticate the Bible for us,
只有通過教會,我們才能確認聖經是上帝的話語。
so that we know for sure that it’s the Word of God.
他們常常會援引奧古斯丁說過的一句話,
They often quote Augustine’s statement when he said, “For my part,
“對我來說,若不是因為教會的權柄,我就不會相信福音。”
I should not believe the gospel except as moved by the authority of the Catholic Church.”
這句話出自奧古斯丁的《答基要派摩尼的書信》,
That, by the way, comes from his epistle, or his writing Against the Epistle of Manichaeus
它被收錄在《尼西亞及尼西亞後期教父》一書中。
Called Fundamental. And you can find it in the Nicene and post-Nicene fathers.
羅馬天主教還試圖引用保羅在提摩太前書3章15節的話
Roman Catholics also try to prove the dependence of the Bible upon the church
來證明教會是聖經權威的基礎,
by quoting Paul’s statement in 1 Timothy 3:15,
保羅說,“永生上帝的教會”是“真理的柱石和根基”。
that “”the church of the living God is “the pillar and ground of the truth.”
所以,羅馬天主教並不否認聖經的權柄,
And so they say, “The Bible? Oh, yes, oh, yes.”
他們會說,“聖經有權威性,聖經有上帝的權柄。”
They say that “The Bible has authority. It has divine authority.
但是如果我們問他們, “聖經的權柄是從哪裡來的?”
But where does it get that authority from?
他們會說,“聖經的權柄出自教會。”
It gets it from the church.”
那麼我們應該如何回應羅馬天主教呢?
Well, how do we respond to that?
首先我們承認,
First of all, we agree
上帝的確會使用真教會的見證、
that the witness of the true church, combined with its holy life and good works,
結合它敬虔的生命和善工來吸引人、使人開始留意祂的話語。
is an instrument by which God often moves people to pay attention to His Word.
我們中的許多人就有這樣的經歷。
How many of us can acknowledge in our own lives
我們可能結識了某位非常敬虔的基督徒,
that we knew some godly Christian person, and it was through that person
通過這個人的影響,我們開始讀經、開始去聽合乎聖經的講道。
that we started to pay attention to the Bible or to attend biblical preaching.
在古時候,
This is what Paul seems to mean
人們會把皇家法令和特別公告張貼在建築物的支柱上,
when he called the church “the pillar and grounded the true truth.”
以供公眾閱覽;
In the ancient world,
所以,當保羅說教會是“真理的柱石和根基”時,
royal edicts and special announcements were posted
他的意思好像是說,
on pillars for public viewing.
教會就像那時候張貼公告的柱石一樣,
And so in the same way,
將上帝的話語舉起,給世人觀看。
the church holds up the Word.
因此,不是我們賜給上帝的話語權柄,
Not that we are the ones that give the Word its authority,
我們要做的,是把它舉起來,讓世人看到這話語、認識這話語。
but we publicly hold it up for people to see it and to know it.
這也是為什麼
This is one reason why
教會成員、特別是教會的神職人員需要言行聖潔、行為無可指摘,
it’s crucial for church members and especially church officers, to conduct themselves
這一點極其重要。
in a holy and blameless manner.
正如保羅在提多書2章中所說的,
As Paul says, for example, in his Epistle to Titus in chapter 2,
我們要過聖潔的生活,“免得上帝的道理被毀謗”。
we need to live holy lives so that people won’t slander the Word of God.
但這並不代表教會有鑒定上帝話語真偽的權柄。
But this does not mean that the church authenticates God’s Word.
教會不是聖經的根基,事實是,聖經是教會的根基。
The Bible is not built on the church. The church is built on the Bible.
保羅在以弗所書2章20節中說,
Paul says in Ephesians 2:20 that the church
教會是建造於“使徒和先知的根基上”的。
is “built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets.”
保羅又在以弗所書3章5節中說,
And he explains in Ephesians 3:5 that these apostles and prophets
上帝把祂啟示的奧秘賜給了使徒和先知。
function as the bearers of divine revelation.
因此,威廉默斯·阿·佈雷克有句話說得好,
And so Wilhelmus a Brakel rightly says,
他說,“教會的一切權威都出自上帝的話語。
“The church derives all authority from the Word.
只有藉著上帝的話語,我們才能認出真教會。”
We cannot acknowledge a church to be the true church except by means of the Word of God.”
這也正是羅馬天主教的論點的問題所在,
And this is a real problem for the Roman Catholic argument,
因為他們認為,我們必須通過教會的鑒別
because they argue that to know that the Bible is the Word of God,
才能知道聖經到底是不是上帝的話語。
it must be authenticated by the true church.
我們可以反過來問他們:
But we then respond by saying,
你們如何知道哪個教會是真教會呢?
how do you know which church is the true church?
因為很顯然,我們認出真教會的唯一方法
And of course, the only answer is,
就是用上帝的話語去查驗那間教會的教導。
by comparing what that church teaches to the Word of God. It is the word of God
我們需要用上帝的話語來鑒別教會的真偽、來辨別真教會。
that we use to authenticate the true church, to know which is the true church.
坦白說,這也是為什麼我們必須否認羅馬天主教是真教會。
And frankly, that is one reason why we should reject the Roman Catholic Church.
羅馬天主教不是真理的柱石,
It is not a pillar of the truth.
相反,它的教導常常違背上帝的聖言。
Instead, it often contradicts the doctrines of God’s holy Word.
那麼,如果不靠教會的認證,
So how then do we know that the Bible is God’s Word,
我們怎樣才能確定聖經就是上帝的話語呢?
if not from the testimony of the church?
加爾文對此給出了一個很有意思的回答。
Interestingly, Calvin answered that question by going back to the same treatise
他同樣引用了奧古斯丁的話,且就是羅馬天主教引用的那篇,
that Augustine wrote, that the Roman Catholics had quoted earlier.
加爾文指出,如果我們繼續往下讀,我們就能讀到奧古斯丁說,
Calvin pointed out that if you read on a little bit further in that,
教會的見證指引我們,讓我們看到一個高於教會的權威,
Augustine says that the church’s witness leads us to an authority
“這個權威通過上帝在我們心中賜下的光照和確信,
that is higher than the church, “to know what we believe
讓我們知道自己所信的是什麼。
by the inward illumination and confirmation of our minds,
這光照與確信出自上帝自己,而非人。”
due no longer to men, but to God Himself.”
我們之所以能夠帶著得救的信心、
The way in which a person becomes convinced
堅定不移地相信聖經是上帝的話語,
that the Bible is the Word of God with that deep inward certainty of saving faith
是因為聖靈的工作、因為祂光照我們的內心。
is when the Holy Spirit works to inwardly illuminate us,
聖靈的光照讓我們看到,聖經確實有出自上帝的神聖屬性,
so that we are able to see the divine characteristics that the Bible actually has,
所以我們確認,聖經就是上帝的話語。
so that we receive it as the Word of God.
保羅在哥林多前書2章4節至5節中就是這樣教導的,
This is what Paul taught in 1 Corinthians 2:4 and 5, where he said,
他說,“我說的話、講的道,不是用智慧委婉的言語,
and “My speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man’s wisdom,
乃是用聖靈和大能的明證,
but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power:
叫你們的信不在乎人的智慧,只在乎神的大能。”
that your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God.”
保羅在這裡說的“聖靈…… 的明證”是指什麼?
Now what did Paul mean when he said the “demonstration of the Spirit?”
有些人會說,保羅是指神跡奇事,
Well some people might say that he meant miracles,
是因為保羅行了神跡奇事,人們才相信聖經是上帝的話語。
Paul worked miracles so that people would know that this is the Word of God.
但這是不可能的,
But that can’t be the case,
因為就在前面的哥林多前書1章24節中,保羅寫道,
because Paul had just written in 1 Corinthians 1:24,
因為猶太人求神跡,所以他們根本就不信福音。
that the Jews require a sign, and therefore they don’t believe in the gospel.
所以,如果神跡就能夠解決人不信的問題,
And so if it was a problem to be solved by miracles,
保羅不會在前一章中寫下這樣的話。
he wouldn’t have written that before.
相反,保羅在哥林多前書2章12節中說,
Instead, Paul writes in 1 Corinthians 2:12 that the Holy Spirit works inwardly
聖靈在人的心裡動工,將福音的真理展示給人,
to exhibit the truth of the Gospel with the result
使人能夠從心底承認耶穌是主。
that people confess from the heart that Jesus is Lord.
我們在哥林多前書12章3節中也讀到同樣的內容,
We see that in 1 Corinthians 12:3, where Paul says that
保羅說,若非是聖靈感動人,沒有人能說“耶穌是主”。
apart from the Holy Spirit, no one can say that Jesus is Lord.
同樣,保羅在帖撒羅尼迦前書1章5節中對帖撒羅尼迦人說,
In a similar way, Paul wrote to the Thessalonians in 1 Thessalonians 1:5,
聖靈帶著使人有“信心”的“權能”賜下福音。
that the Holy Spirit accompanied the gospel with power to produce “assurance.”
保羅在這裡所說的“信心”,不是指“得救的確據”,
Now that word “assurance” in that context does not refer to “assurance of salvation.”
而是指“’相信上帝的話是真理’的確據或信心”。
Instead, it refers to the assurance or confidence that God’s Word is true.
在這一點上,
And so, again,
即上帝如何使我們確信聖經就是祂滿有權柄的話語,
the Westminster Confession of Faith offers a helpful summary
我們又可以在《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》中
of how God convinces us to believe
找到一個很有幫助的概括。
that the Bible is God’s authoritative Word.
順便說一句,
And before I quote it,
你們可能也註意到我在課上多次引用了《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》。
you’ve probably noticed, I’m quoting the Westminster Confession a lot.
這是因為在“聖經的屬性”這個主題上,
That’s because Chapter 1 in the Westminster Confession
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》第一章
is one of the best statements
是有史以來神學家們寫過的最精準的幾段話。
about the nature of God’s Word that has ever been written.
所以如果你們想進一步深入研究這個主題,
If you need to study this topic in depth, I highly commend
我強烈建議你們去回顧、研讀威斯敏斯特神學家寫的這一章。
going back and studying Chapter 1 written by the Westminster Divines.
威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第5節說,
The Westminster Confession of Faith Section 1.5 says,
“我們可能受教會的見證的感動與影響,
“We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church
因而高舉聖經、敬重聖經。
to a high and reverend esteem of the Holy Scripture.
對聖經屬天的性質、教義的效力、文體的莊嚴、各部的一致、
And the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style,
整體的要旨(將一切的榮耀歸給上帝),
the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God,
人類唯一得救之道的完整彰顯,
the full discovery it makes of the only way of man’s salvation,
和其他許多無比卓越、全然完美之處,
and many other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof,
都足以證明聖經本身就是上帝的話。
are arguments whereby it doth abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God:
雖然如此,
yet notwithstanding,
最讓我們完全確信聖經無謬真理與上帝權威的原因,
our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof,
是聖靈在我們心中作見證,
is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit,
藉著上帝的話在我們心中所作的見證,
bearing witness by and with
也與上帝的話在我們心中一同作見證。”
the Word in our hearts.
因此,連加爾文在內的改革宗神學家都說,
And so Reformed theologians from including Calvin himself say that
聖經是“它自己的見證”,用希腊語說就是”autopistos”。
the Bible is self authenticated, it’s “autopistos,” to use the Greek word.
換句話說,聖經自身就帶有從上帝而來的標誌,
In other words, the Bible has in itself those marks of divinity
當聖靈打開我們的眼睛、讓我們能夠真正看到這些標誌的時候,
that when the Holy Spirit opens up our eyes so that we can truly see them,
我們就能從心底感受到聖經作為上帝話語的權威性。
we have an inward sense of the Bible’s authority as God’s Word.
有人可能會提出反對意見,說,“這分明就是循環論證”,
One might object to this They say, “Well, that’s a circular argument,”
又說,“那你的意思是說,
and say, “You’re saying
‘我們知道聖經是上帝的話語,是因為聖經是上帝的話語。’”
that we know that the Bible is God’s Word because it’s God’s Word.”
我們應該如何回應這樣的反對意見呢?
Well, how do we answer that?
首先,我們要提醒他們,
Well, first of all, we should note that
一個人若要談論”終極權威”、
whenever you’re talking about ultimate authority,
談論”幫助我們認識真理的終極權威是什麼”,
what is the ultimate authority of how you know what is true,
他的論證必定會變成循環論證。
your argument has to be circular.
因為如果我們在論證時借助了另一個所謂的權威,
Because if you appeal to another authority,
比如一個人說,
“Well, I’m gonna prove to you
“我要通過這些理性論證來向你證明,聖經是上帝的話語”,
that the Bible is God’s Word by these, say, rational arguments.”
那這個人實際上做的,就是表明
Then what have you done? You’ve said, “Well, my ultimate authority
“我的終極權威實際上是’理性論證’。”
is really rational arguments.”
因此,如果我們認為
And so if we’re gonna say
上帝的話語 – 聖經是我們在這個世界上的最高權威,
that the Bible, as God’s Word, is our highest earthly authority,
那麼顯而易見,我們就必須用上帝的話語本身來證明這一點,
then by definition we have to appeal to God’s Word itself to prove it,
否則我們就是自相矛盾。
or we’ve contradicted ourselves.
此外,那些眼睛被聖靈打開的人之所以選擇相信聖經的權威,
Furthermore, for those whose eyes are opened, trusting in the Bible’s authority
不是因為他們有盲目的信心,
is not a blind leap of faith.
而是因為聖靈打開了他們的眼睛,
But because their eyes are opened,
讓他們看到了聖經中上帝的權威,
they see the Bible’s divine authority
那權威如同空中閃耀的太陽一樣清晰可見。
just as surely as we see the sun when it’s shining in the sky.
加爾文說,”聖經本身就是為它自己的真理作證的確鑿證據,
Calvin said, “Scripture exhibits fully as clear evidence of its own truth
就好像黑與白為顏色作證,甜與苦為味道作證。”
as white and black things do of their color, or sweet and bitter things do of their taste.”
弟兄姐妹們,這實在是讓我們鬆了一口氣。
And brothers and sisters, this is very liberating.
請大家不要誤解我的意思,
Don’t misunderstand me,
我並不是說理性論證這類方法一點作用也沒有,
I’m not saying that there’s absolutely no place for rational arguments and things like that.
有時候我們確實需要“照愚昧人的愚妄話回答他”,
There are times to answer a fool according to his folly,
需要讓一個無神論者或提出反對意見的人看到
and to show that the atheist or the other objector
他們的論證其實是站不住腳的。
doesn’t have something to stand on.
但是,我們不需要這些理性論證
But you don’t need those kinds of arguments
來使人相信聖經是上帝的話語。
for people to be convinced that the Bible is the Word of God.
這實在是太好了!
the Bible is the Word of God. And that’s so good.
我們來想象這樣一幅畫面,
Think about the little old lady,
一位滿臉皺紋、身體瘦小的老太太,住在一間小屋裡。
all crumpled up, living in a cottage or a hut. She’s received virtually no education.
她幾乎沒受過什麼教育,雖然能識字,但沒怎麼上過學。
She can read, but she’s never gone to much schooling.
如果我們想給她解釋某個哲學理論,
If you try to give some kind of philosophical argument to her,
她根本連我們在說什麼都聽不懂。
she’d have no idea what you’re even talking about.
但這位慈祥的老太太知道,聖經是上帝的話語。
But that dear little old lady knows that the Bible is the Word of God.
她是怎麼知道的呢?
And how does she know it?
是因為上帝的靈打開了她的眼睛。
Because the Spirit of God has opened up her eyes.
所以她在讀聖經的時候,就認出了那位創造她的上帝的聲音。
And when she reads that Bible, she recognizes the voice of the God who created her.
她的這種確信,是任何理性論證都無法給與的。
And she knows that with a certainty that no rational argument can obtain.
這實在是讓我們得釋放、得自由,
That frees us. It liberates us
我們可以堅定地站在上帝話語的立場上,
to take our stand on the Word of God
不再總是覺得自己需要去捍衛它。
and to not feel like we always have to defend it.
就像司布真說的,我們要做的,就是把獅子從籠子里放出來。
But simply, as Spurgeon said, let the lion out of the cage.
我們不需要試圖去保護那隻獅子,我們只需要把它放出來。
Stop trying to protect the lion. Just let it loose.
我們只需要把上帝的話語放出來,它自己能解決一切問題。
Let the Word of God loose, and it will take care of itself.
在現今世界,聖經的權威性還在另一個方面”得罪”了人,
Now, in the modern world, there is another way in which biblical authority is offensive.
它”違背了”人的個人自主權,
And that is because it is contrary to personal autonomy.
而這裡所說的“自主”顯然是指人們要自己做判斷是非的審判官。
Of course, “autonomy” means people seeking to be a law unto themselves.
卡爾·亨利寫道:
Carl Henry wrote,
“那些激進的世俗主義者,一邊高舉現代人所謂的成熟,
“The radical secularist, vaulting modern man’s supposed maturity,
一邊又對一切從上面來的權威都持懷疑態度。”
is skeptical of all transcendent authority.”
那麼就讓我們來探討一下這個問題。
So let’s think for a moment about this problem.
我們前面也講過,
We’ve talked some about
對那些堅稱教會有絕對權柄的羅馬天主教教徒等人來說,
how the Bible is a stumbling block to people like Roman Catholics
聖經就是一塊絆腳石。
who insist on the authority of the church.
但把聖經為絆腳石的,不只是羅馬天主教教徒,
It’s not just Roman Catholics, it’s modern man as well,
還有持現代懷疑論的人。
skeptical people.
有時候他們會這樣辯解,
And you know, sometimes they justify this.
他們會說,“瞧瞧這些打著宗教權威旗幟的人,
They say, “Look at all the horrible abuses
他們犯下了一樁又一樁的惡行:
that have been committed in the name of religious authority.
家庭中、教會中的惡行,教會和國家政府的濫用職權。
Abuses in families, abuses in churches, abuses by national governments.
這些都是他們以宗教的名義做的。”
All in the name of religion.”
所以他們就下了這樣的結論,
And so they conclude,
“我們應該推翻一切權威。
“We should throw off all authority.
這個世上不該有什麼更高的權威,
There can be no higher authority
因為權威是專制的、行惡的。”
because it’s authoritarian and abusive.”
我們應該怎樣回應他們呢?
Well, how do we respond to that?
首先我們要說,
Well, first of all, we would say
“有時候,我們確實應該質疑權威。
that “Sometimes it’s good to question authority.
比如有人宣稱自己擁有某種權威,卻沒有任何合理依據;
If, for example, that authority is claimed without legitimate warrant,
或者有人在行使權柄時毫無公義可言。
or if it is exercised with gross injustice.
但是,如果沒有一個更高的權柄做我們的審判官,
However, you have no solid basis to question human authority
我們也就沒有任何理由去質疑任何人的權柄。
if you do not have a higher authority to appeal to.
如果我們拒絕一切權柄,那我們也拒絕了上帝。
If you reject all authority, you have rejected God.
而拒絕上帝的後果並非是讓自己得自由,
And you have, instead of liberating yourself,
而是使自己落入殘酷暴君的統治之下。”
you have cast yourself into the cruel hands of tyrannical idols.”
How many times in the 20th century have we seen
就是那些站起來推翻壓迫性政權的人,
that those who set out to overthrow oppressive authority
最後卻變成了下一任壓迫者。
themselves became the next oppressors?
為什麼會出現這樣的事情?
And why was it?
這是因為,他們不承認世上有任何高於他們自己的權柄,
It was because they lacked any supreme authority over themselves which would restrain them,
所以他們不受約束、不服引導,一心想要把自己變成上帝。
which would direct them, which would curb their impulse to turn themselves into gods.
因此,我們若想要阻止有權柄的人行惡或濫用職權,
And so the pathway to overcoming evil and abuse of authority
我們就必須順服以上帝的權威為基礎的真權威。
is submission to true authority, which is grounded in the authority of God.
並且,當那位創造我們、供養我們、
And it is not oppressive that the God who made us
護理我們的上帝要求我們遵行祂的旨意時,
and who has given us everything that we are and everything that we have
這不是壓迫,
should expect us to do His will.
恰恰相反,這是理所應當的事。
Instead, it is right.
然而,現代人又會提出這樣的反對意見:
Oh, but modern man may object again,
“這種把聖經視為絕對的權威的做法不符合科學,
“To accept the Bible as an absolute authority is unscientific.
因為我們必須要用能夠說服我們理性的方式來證實這所有的一切,
The scientific method demands that all things must be proven to the satisfaction
這才是科學的方法。
of our own minds.”
這種理論乍一聽極有說服力、也很合理。
Well, that sounds very strong and very good.
但事實上它非常幼稚。
But in reality it’s quite naive. It’s quite naive.
想一想聖經的本質是什麼:
Think about the nature of the Bible:
聖經自己教導我們,它是從上帝而來的見證。
the Bible identifies itself as a testimony from God.
其實我們每個人都會相信
Well, we all base many of our beliefs
許多未經我們自己親眼見過、或親自驗證過的事情。
upon things that we’ve not personally seen or tested.
我們相信權威見證。
but we trust the testimony of an authority.
歷史就是這樣。
Think of history.
要是沒有書面文獻的記載,
How else can we know who was the president of the United States
我們怎麼知道一百年前的美國總統是誰?
a hundred years ago, if not on the testimony of written documents?
我們難道要在實驗室里做一個實驗,
Are you going to go to do an experiment in your lab
來證明誰是一百年前的總統嗎?
to prove who the president was a hundred years ago?
法律裁定也是這樣。
Or think about legal decisions.
法庭的法律裁決通常是以證人證詞和專家證詞為依據的。
Legal decisions in courts often depend upon eyewitness testimony and expert testimony.
就連科學也是這樣。
Or, this is supposed to be a
既然這是一個”科學的反對意見”,那我們就來說說科學。
scientific objection, think about science.
試問有哪位科學家曾在他的實驗室中
What scientist has gone through and personally tested and proven
把他相信的每一條科學定律都親自研究並驗證一遍?
every single law of science that he believes in his own lab?
沒有一個科學家這樣做過。
None of them.
他們每一個人都相信整個科學界的能力、
They all depend upon the ability of the scientific community
相信那些寫出科學著作、發表科學文章的人所做的見證。
to trust the testimony of those who write scientific books and publish articles.
他們是依靠見證的。
They trust in testimony.
我們每個人都是這樣。
We all do.
因此,一個人如果因為見證而相信,
And therefore, it is not irrational or foolish
這並不是不理性、也不是愚昧。
to base one’s beliefs upon testimony.
其實,相信一位知曉一切、完全公義、
In fact, it is the most rational thing in the world to believe in testimony
永遠誠實的上帝所做的見證,是全世界最合理的事情。
if it is the testimony of an all knowing, perfectly righteous, never lying God.
這才是科學方法的典範。
It is the epitome of the scientific approach.
有些現代主義者試圖建立一種更”科學”的基督教,
Some modern people would try and construct a more scientific Christianity
但是他們不承認聖經有來自上帝的權柄。
and to do so without the divine authority of the Bible.
大家可以在我們上傳到Populi的講義里
And you can read about some of their efforts
讀到這些現代主義者的主張與實踐,
in those published lectures
這些講義討論的都是自由派神學、新正統神學、
on errors concerning special revelation, liberals
以及其他主義在特殊啟示這一教義上的謬誤。
and neo-orthodox and others.
但是,如果他們想要建立一種沒有聖經中上帝權柄的基督教,
But if they try and build a form of Christianity without divine authority from the Bible,
他們做的不過是在沙土上建房子。
they’re only building on sand.
奧古斯丁說過,
Augustine said,
“如果聖經的權威開始動搖,我們的信仰就會搖搖欲墜。
“Now faith will totter if the authority of Scripture begins to shake.
而當我們的信仰搖搖欲墜時,愛本身就會變冷淡。”
And then, if faith totters, love itself will grow cold.”
這些現代主義者又說,
And if such modernists would say that
“我的權柄不是某本書,而是耶穌基督。”
“my authority is not some book, my authority is Jesus Christ.”
對持這樣觀點的人,我們可以借用鐘馬田的話來問他們:
Then we may respond as Martyn Lloyd-Jones did:
“你是怎麼認識主的?”
“How do you know the Lord?”
如果他們說,”我認識主,是因為我自己經歷了祂”,
If it is by personal experience, then we can ask,
我們可以緊接著問,”你怎麼知道你所經歷的這些
“How do you know that what you have seemed to have experienced
看起來與主相關的事情
concerning him is not a figment
不是你自己想象的呢?”
of your own imagination?”
如果他們說, “我認識主,是因為我自身理性的力量,
If they claim that by the powers of their own minds
它讓我們能夠查考聖經、並取其精華。”
to sift through the Bible to separate out what is valuable,
那麼,這就應了鐘馬田所說的,
then, as Lloyd-Jones said,
“這就是現代主義的真面目:‘理性決定一切’。”
“The modern position amounts to this, that it is man’s reason that decides.”
現代主義者拒絕了上帝滿有權柄的話語,
Having rejected the authoritative word of God,
他們走上了一條以人為中心、且充滿謬誤的
the modernist travels the dead-end road of man-centered,
經驗主義和理性主義的道路。
fallible experientialism and rationalism.
而這一切,最終一定會傾塌殆盡。
And the whole thing ultimately falls apart.
好,接下來我們簡要地講一講聖經權威性的實際應用。
Well, let’s talk briefly about some practical implications of biblical authority.
其實,聖經權威性的實際應用是顯而易見的,
The practical implications of biblical authority become very plain
只要我們能好好思想這一點:
when we consider that our response
我們對上帝話語的回應就等同於我們對上帝的回應。
to God’s Word is our response to God as He is speaking to us.
靠著聖經啟示的光照,
In the light of the inspiration of Scripture,
我們可以從以賽亞書66章1節和2節中讀到一個令人震撼的道理。
we can see the awesome logic of Isaiah 66:1 and 2:
“耶和華如此說:‘天是我的座位,地是我的腳凳,
“Thus saith the Lord, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool:
你們要為我造何等的殿宇?哪裡是我安息的地方呢?’
where is the house that ye build unto me? And where is the place of my rest?
耶和華說:‘這一切都是我手所造的,所以就都有了。
For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the Lord:
但我所看顧的就是虛心、痛悔、因我話而戰兢的人。’”
but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.”
弟兄姐妹們,如果聖經是上帝的話語,
Brothers and sisters, if the Bible is the Word of God,
那我們就應該帶著敬畏主的心來聽它、讀它。
then we should hear it and read it with the fear of the Lord.
因為這可是上帝在說話啊!
Because God is speaking, God is speaking.
此外,我們絕對不能成為判斷聖經的審判官。
And we never, ever stand in judgment over the Bible.
相反,當我們聽到聖經的話時,是上帝在審視我們。
Instead, when we hear the Bible, God is standing over us.
因此, 如果要用一種合乎聖經的簡短描述來形容上帝的真子民,
And therefore, a short biblical description of the true people of God is that they tremble
我們可以這樣說:他們”因上帝的話語而戰兢”。
at God’s Word.
我想在這裡停一下,規勸大家一句。
I just wanna pause here and admonish you.
因為在神學院里,我們每天都會接觸到上帝的話語,
Because in seminary, you work with God’s word constantly,
我們會學習與之相關的各類知識,
and you study all these things,
如希腊語語法、希伯來語句法,我們會閱讀聖經註釋書,
you learn Greek grammar, you learn Hebrew syntax, reading commentaries.
而”學習上帝話語”這件事本身並沒有任何問題,
It is very easy, not because of the nature of our work itself,
但是因為我們裡面的罪性,
but because the sinfulness of our hearts,
我們很容易因為熟悉而輕看上帝的話語。
for familiarity to breed contempt.
親愛的各位朋友,我想提醒大家,
My dear friends, let me just remind you,
我們所學習的是神聖的,它是上帝的話語。
that what you are handling is holy. It is the word of God.
我們絕不能忘記這一點。
Never forget that.
如果有一天,我們發現自己在面對上帝的話語時,心裡冰冷剛硬,
And if you find yourself ever becoming cold and callous, the answer is not to quit seminary,
我們要做的不是離開神學院,而是跪下來向上帝呼求,
but the answer is to fall on your knees and to cry out to God
求祂更新我們的心意。
that He’ll renew your heart.
好,“聖經的權威性”就講到這裡。
That’s the authority of the Bible.
我們接下來要探討的是“聖經的清晰性”。
Let’s move on and consider “The clarity of the Bible” now, the clarity of the Bible.
這位同學有問題,你請說。
Yes, question.
學生:“我有一個問題。
Student: “I have a question.
剛纔您提到,天主教會在沒有合理根據的情況下,
You spoke about the Catholic Church taking basically what the Bible says
把聖經的話應用到了自己身上。
and they claim to themselves without a foundation.
當然,我很贊同您說的這一點,但我同時也有一個問題。
And obviously, I agree to that. But then I have the question, too.
就是我們自己也會做同樣的事情,
Like, we do the same thing
我們也會把舊約中上帝給以色列人的應許應用到自己身上。
for Old Testament promises that were meant for Israel.
那麼您是否認為,舊約中的所有應許都有兩種應用方式,
Do you say, then, that all the Old Testament promises, they have a double fulfilments
所以我們可以把它們用在我們自己身上?
that we can take them to ourselves. Or are we…
比如,上帝曾應許說,當我們經歷水火時,
Because, for example, the promise like when we go through water,
水不會淹沒我們,火也不會燒滅我們。
the water will not overflow us, and when we go through fire…
這個應許是上帝賜給以色列人的,
God gives that to Israel as a promise,
但我們確實常把它應用到我們自己身上。”
but we do take it to ourselves so often.
斯莫利牧師:“嗯,這是一個很好的問題。
Pastor Smalley: “Right, right. Okay, good question.
你註意到我批判羅馬天主教,
So you’re picking up on the fact that I was critical of the Roman Catholic Church,
因為他們將上帝特別賜給使徒的應許應用到了教皇身上。
because they took promises that pertained to the apostles and they applied them to the pope.
是的,我們也可能犯這樣的錯誤,
Right, okay. Well, it is possible for us, not just with the Old Testament,
把上帝特別賜給某些人的應許應用到自己身上,
but with any part of the Bible to take promises that were directed towards
而且不只是舊約的應許,而是聖經中的任何一個應許。
particular individuals and to misapply them in the way we apply them to ourselves.
給大家舉個例子。
I’ll tell you an example. I had a friend one time who,
我曾經有一位朋友,他和他的妻子很長一段時間都膝下無子。
he and his wife had gone a long time, they hadn’t had any children.
然後有一天,他讀經的時候讀到上帝應許亞伯拉罕,
And he was reading through his Bible, he came across God’s promise to Abraham
說要賜給亞伯拉罕一個兒子。
that He would give him a son.
我這位朋友就說,“我要相信上帝的話,我要相信上帝的這個應許,
He said, I will believe in the Word of God, and I’m gonna trust that promise
上帝一定會賜給我一個孩子。”
that God will give me a child.
這樣的想法對嗎?
Well, is that legitimate?
顯然不對。
No, it’s not legitimate.
這個應許是上帝特別賜給亞伯拉罕的,
God had given that specific promise to Abraham.
不是給所有人的,
God has not given that particular promise to every single
所以我們不能把它應用到自己身上。
married or unmarried man and woman that we can claim for ourselves.
這是一個錯誤應用聖經應許的例子。
So that would be an example of misapplying the Scriptures, okay?
但與此同時,我又想到另一位牧師朋友,
However, at the same time, I remember a pastor friend of mine,
有一天我們在打電話,
I was talking to him on the phone one time
他跟我分享說,他的教會中有人問他,
and he said that some people in his church were asking him that
‘我們怎麼才能知道聖經里的應許到底適不適用於自己呢?’
‘Well, how do we know if promises in the Bible apply to us or not?’
我就對他說,‘弟兄,其實這個問題本身是有問題的。
And I said, ‘You know, brother, that’s the wrong question.
我們要問的不應該是‘這個應許是否可以應用在我們身上?’
The question is not whether or not the promise applies to us,
而是‘這個應許是怎樣應用在我們身上的?’
the question is how does it apply to us?’
因為整本聖經都是上帝默示的,是有益處的。
Because all Scripture is God-breathed and is profitable.
那我們再來看亞伯拉罕的這個例子,好吧?
And so let’s go back to Abraham, okay?
上帝應許亞伯拉罕,說祂會使他後裔眾多。
God promised Abraham that He would multiply his seed.
當我們通過聖經神學研讀整本聖經、追溯這一應許的蹤跡時,
Now we trace that promise through biblical theology, through the Scriptures.
我們會讀到
And we discover, for example, in Isaiah 54, that God took that image
以賽亞書54章中,上帝用‘不懷孕不生養’的女子來做比喻,
in Isaiah 54, that God took that image of the barren woman and applied it
祂應許祂的子民,將來必定使他們後裔繁多。
to the future of the people of God to multiply them greatly.
然後,如果我們把這一章
And you connect that Isaiah 54
與以賽亞書53章的耶穌受死與”他必看見後裔”的應許聯繫起來,
with Isaiah 53 in the death of Jesus and the promise that he shall see his seed,
或是與羅馬書第4章和一些其他的經文聯繫起來,
and you realize, you can connect it with Romans 4
我們就會看到,
and other places as well,
上帝給亞伯拉罕的應許不只是要賜給他一個地上的國度,
that what God promised to Abraham was not just a promise of a physical nation
而是更要賜給他一群屬靈的後裔。
that would come to him,
上帝應許,會讓他們生養眾多、佈滿地面。
it was a promise of a spiritual people that God would multiply and use to fill the earth.
因此,保羅在加拉太書第3章中說,
And therefore, Paul in Galatians chapter 3 says that
哪怕我們是完完全全的外邦人,
if we trust in Christ, even if we’re as gentile as a gentile can be,
只要我們相信基督,我們就是‘亞伯拉罕的後裔’。
we are children of Abraham. And so that promise then
所以,這個應許並不是說某對夫婦最終一定能生養孩子,
doesn’t become a promise that my wife and I are therefore going to have children.
而是‘上帝一定會讓祂的子民佈滿地面’。
That promise becomes a promise that God will multiply His people.
而因為我自己就是這裡面的一員,所以我為這個應許而歡喜。
And that brings me joy, because I am one of those people
上帝的子民會像天上的繁星一樣多。
and God’s people will be multiplied like the stars of the sky.
所以這個應許確實是上帝給我的應許,
That promise is a promise for me,
但它是以不同的方式應用到我身上的。
but in a different way.
那我們現在再來看看你剛剛提到的那個例子,
Now, let’s go back to the other example that you gave,
就是上帝應許以色列,說他們雖要經過烈火,卻不會被燒滅。”
the promise that God gave to Israel that they will pass through the fire and not be burned.”
學生:“還有一個人們常用的應許,
Student: “Another one’s that,
就是‘我知道我向你們所懷的意念,是賜平安的意念,
‘I have good plans for you, not plans to harm you,
不是降災禍的意念,為要叫你們末後有指望。’”
but plans to give you good future.'”
斯莫利牧師:”恩, 這些都是常常印在明信片和賀卡上面的應許。”
Pastor Smalley: “Oh okay, now we’re getting into Hallmark card promises.”
學生:“我想說的是,人們濫用得最多的就是這個應許。
Student: “I mean, that is the most cliche promise basicly
人們常常把它用到非常個人的事情上,
that is applied to very personal situations,
甚至用到一些並沒有在面臨某種未來的人身上。”
even to people who are perhaps not facing the future.”
斯莫利牧師:“好,那我們來說說這個應許。
Pastor Smalley: “Right, right, okay.
這個應許是上帝在以色列人流亡的時候賜給他們的。
So this is a promise that’s given to Israel while they’re in exile.
耶利米書29章中的這個應許
It’s a promise specifically, this is Jeremiah 29,
是上帝特別賜給那些被擄到巴比倫的以色列人的。
a promise specifically written to the Israelites who’ve been carried off to Babylon.
藉著這個應許,上帝在對那些以色列人說:
And God is saying to them that:
‘你們只管在巴比倫安頓下來,在那裡建造房屋、住下來。
You just settle down, build your houses, live there.
等到時候滿足的時候,我自會帶你們出來。
In due time, I will bring you out.
但是現在,你們要做當地居民的祝福。
But for now, be a blessing to the people that you’re with.
你們要相信我,因為我知道我向你們所懷的意念,
But trust me, because I have plans for you,
是賜平安的意念,不是降災禍的意念。’
plans to do you good and not harm.
好,我們如何通過聖經神學把這個應許與我們今天聯繫起來呢?
So using biblical theology, how do we connect that with us today?
讓我們想一想,新約聖經中有沒有什麼地方提到說,
Well, is there anything in the New Testament that would suggest to us
我們可以在某種程度上與當時流亡在外的猶太人感同身受?
that we in some way can identify with the Jews who were in exile?
當然有。
Yes, of course.
彼得前書說,我們是在各國流亡寄居的人。
因此,我們通過聖經神學、通過研究彼得前書可以看到,
and builds a biblical theology whereby we see
上帝所描繪的這幅以色列人流亡的畫面
that Israel’s exile is a picture that God was giving
就是如今來自各國的上帝子民流亡各地的境況。
of how His people from many nations are exiles today amongst the nations.
因此,我們不應該在應用這個應許時,
And so, now we don’t claim that promise
認為上帝的意思是有一天祂會把我們帶回巴勒斯坦的土地上。
to say that one day God will bring me back to the land of Palestine.
不,這樣的想法是在錯誤地應用這個應許,是不是?
No, that would be a misappropriation of it, wouldn’t it?
上帝沒有應許說,有一天我們都要坐在以色列的無花果樹下。
And I’m gonna sit under my fig tree there in the land of Israel.
上帝在多年前就已經實現了這一應許,
No, God fulfilled that promise in a physical way
祂已經把當時被俘的以色列人帶回了他們的家鄉。
when He brought the exiles back home.
但是,如果我是一個流亡他地的上帝選民,
But if I’m one of the elect exiles of God,
那麼上帝賜給祂的以色列選民的這些應許也同樣適用於我。
then I have the right to claim promises that God made to His elect amongst Israel.
彼得甚至在彼得前書2章9節中
Peter even takes in 1 Peter 2:9 things
把上帝對以色列說的“你們是君尊的祭司,是聖潔的國度”
that God said to Israel, “You’re a royal priesthood, you’re a holy nation.”
應用到了我們 – 上帝的教會身上。
And he applies them to us, the Church.
所以我們需要研究聖經神學,
And so once again, you need to do biblical theology,
我們需要追溯上帝的應許在歷史中運行的軌跡,
you need to trace the promise as it moves through history
查看新約聖經是如何應用舊約聖經的。
and see how the New Testament uses the Old Testament.
但問題的關鍵不在於‘這個應許是否適用於我們’,
But it’s not a question of whether or not those things apply to us.
而在於‘我們如何應用這個應許’。
It’s a question of how do they apply.
因為這些應許應用在我們身上的方式
Because they apply to us not as physical Jews,
與應用在猶太人身上的方式不同,
but as people who are joined to,
我們是一群與那位’大猶太人’ (如果我可以這樣說的話) 連接的人,
if I may say so, the Great Jew, the Lord Jesus Christ,
就是主耶穌基督、猶大支派的獅子。
the Lion of the Tribe of Judah.
希望我的回答還算讓你滿意。”
So I hope that answer suffices.
(學生:“謝謝。”) 斯莫利牧師:“不客氣。”
Okay, you’re certainly welcome.
好,我們來講講“聖經的清晰性”。
Okay, well, let’s talk about the clarity of the Bible.
聖經教導我們的真理,遠超我們的理解範圍。
The Bible teaches us about realities that go way beyond our understanding.
保羅在羅馬書11章33節中這樣寫道,
Paul writes in Romans 11:33,
“深哉,神豐富的智慧和知識!
“O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God!
他的判斷何其難測,他的蹤跡何其難尋!”
How unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!”
我特別感謝彼得,因為他在彼得後書3章16節中說,
I’m so grateful for Peter, who wrote in 2 Peter 3:16, saying,
聖經中“有些難明白的”內容。
the Holy Scriptures contain “some things hard to be understood.”
弟兄姐妹,這讓我們很得安慰,對不對?
Isn’t that a comfort, brothren?
大家在讀經時都會遇到困難。
You’re not alone. You’re not alone.
但是彼得的話讓我有些意外,
Although I always found it ironic because
因為我覺得彼得寫的某些內容比保羅寫的更難懂。
I find some things that Peter wrote more hard to understand than the things that Paul wrote.
不過那就另當別論了。
But that’s a whole other story.
此外,聖經是一本包羅萬象、深刻又複雜的書。
Furthermore, the Bible is a vast and complicated Book.
聖經中其實共有六十六捲書、
It’s really a collection of 66 different books written by many authors,
由多位作者跨時一千五百年、使用多種語言寫成的。
written over the span of about fifteen hundred years, written in more than one language.
所以,我們若要教導上帝的話語,
And so God’s Word calls for
不僅需要恩賜、也需要勤奮的學習,
gifted, studious teachers,
這就是為什麼你們會在神學院進修的原因。
which is why you’re here in seminary.
但是我們一定要記得,
However, the Bible is not the sole property
聖經不是一本僅供精英教師群體閱讀的書。
of an elite guild of teachers, and we must never forget that.
所以我們首先要探討的, 是”聖經能讓家庭里的各個成員都得益處”。
Let’s talk, first of all, about the usefulness of Scripture for the whole family.
在申命記6章7節中,
In Deuteronomy 6:7,
上帝教導以色列民 – 不只是以色列的祭司,還有所有做父母的人,
God commanded the people, not just the priests, but all the parents in Israel
要他們默想上帝的話語,“也要殷勤教訓你的兒女”。
to meditate on his words and “teach them diligently unto thy children.”
我們在摩西五經中反覆讀到
As you read through the Pentateuch, you see repeatedly
上帝要求以色列人中做父母的要教導孩子,
how there was an expectation that parents would be teaching the children
用家長和孩子之間互動問答的方式來教導孩子。
with questions and answers, going back and forth between them.
詩篇78篇第7節說,
Psalm 78:7 says that generations to come
要使“將要生的後代子孫可以曉得”主的作為,
must be taught the deeds of the Lord “that they might set their hope in God,
“好讓他們仰望上帝,不忘記上帝的作為,唯要守他的命令。”
and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments.”
提摩太顯然就是一個最好的例子。
And of course, Timothy is the preeminent example of this.
因為提莫太的祖母羅以在他的母親友尼基還小的時候,
Because Timothy’s grandmother, Lois,
就以基督教信仰來教導她,
brought up her daughter Eunice in the faith,
隨後友尼基又以此信仰來教導她的兒子提摩太,
and Eunice brought up her son Timothy in the faith,
因此提摩太從小就開始學習聖經。
and so he has been learning the Bible since he was a child.
而這個快樂的使命 – 讓我們教導子女的快樂使命
And this joyful mandate to teach our children is grounded implicitly
其實是以聖經清晰性的教義為基礎的。
in the doctrine of the clarity of the Holy Scriptures.
聖經中最基本的主題 – 上帝、律法、福音
The Bible, in its basic themes of God, law, gospel,
雖然極其深刻,但它們是簡單清晰的,
which are profound in depth, nevertheless, is simple and clear enough
足以讓孩子們學習、理解、並將之用到他們自己身上。
for children to learn, understand and personally appropriate.
有人將聖經比作一條河,
Someone has compared the Bible to a river
說這條河既深得足以讓一頭大象暢游其中,
that is deep enough for an elephant to swim in it,
也淺得能讓一隻小羊羔安心踏入飲水。
and yet a river shallow enough at its shores for a lamb to safely wade in and drink.
因此,威斯敏斯特信仰告白第1章第7段說,
And so the Westminster Confession of Faith 1.7 says,
“聖經的內容並不是每個地方都同樣清楚,
“All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves,
也不是對每個人都同樣明白;
nor alike clear until all:
但是得救所必須知道、相信、遵守的事,
yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed for salvation,
我們總能在聖經找到,而且解釋得非常清楚明白;
are so clearly propounded, and opened in some place of Scripture or other,
不但有學問的人”, 就是受過教育的人,
that not only the learned,” or educated,
“就是無學問的人”, 即沒有受過教育的人,
“but the unlearned,” or uneducated,
“不必用什麼巧妙的辦法,只要用一般的方法,就能充分理解。”
“in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.”
但是,這個教義在宗教改革期間引起了極大的爭議,
Now, this was controversial during the Reformation,
所以我們接下來就來看一看這場關於聖經清晰性的爭議。
which leads us to the Perspicuity controversy.
大家不要被“perspicuity”(“清晰性”)這個詞唬住了。
Now don’t be thrown off by that word “perspicuity”.
我們來上神學院的好處之一,
One of the great things about seminary
就是可以順便學到這些聽起來很宏大、很了不起的詞彙。
is you can pick up all these grand words that sound so impressive,
其實“perspicuity”就是一個拉丁語詞,
but “perspicuity” just is basically
基本上表達的意思就是“清晰性”(英文是“clarity”),好嗎?
a Latin word that means “clarity.” Okay?
我講課時有時候必須要用到這個詞,
So don’t, you know, don’t injure yourself
但是你們大可不用像我這樣費力勞神地說它,
trying to say the word, as I may do at some point in this lecture.
你們就說“聖經的clarity(清晰性)”就可以了。
Instead, just talk about the clarity of Scripture.
好,宗教改革時期的改教家們非常強調這個教義,
Now, the Reformers were very strong on this point,
這是因為當時羅馬天主教只允許教會神職人員讀經,
because the Roman Catholic Church sought, and sometimes with great violence,
不允許一般人讀聖經,
to withhold the Bible from people
有時候甚至會採用過激的手段來限制人讀經。
who were outside of the church’s hierarchy of official teachers.
羅馬天主教認為,允許一般人讀經是一件非常危險的事情。
They did not believe that the Bible was safe in the hands of ordinary people.
他們之所以會有這樣的觀點,其中一個原因就是
And part of the reason that they believed that is because
他們的解經已經偏離了字義解經的方向。
they had departed from literal interpretation of the Scripture.
相反,他們採用了各式各樣的靈意解經法。
Instead, they employed various allegorical readings.
例如羅馬天主教神學家約翰· 艾克
So, for example, the Romanist, or at least one Romanist, John Eck,
將好撒瑪利亞人付給旅店店主的二錢銀子
interpreted the two coins that were given by the good Samaritan to the innkeeper
解讀為聖經的新舊約兩本書。
as the two Testaments of the Bible.
宗教改革時期的改教家們則回到了字義解經的路上,
Well, the Reformers returned to the literal sense of Scripture,
他們還說,聖經常常被稱為”光”,
and they also appealed to the way the Bible is frequently called,
這光引領我們,讓我們看到它的清晰。
“a light,” to guide us, to show its clarity.
我們都讀過詩篇119篇的第105節,
And we all know Psalm 119:105,
“你的話是我腳前的燈,是我路上的光。”
“Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.”
箴言6章23節說,“因為誡命是燈,法則是光”,等等。
Proverbs 6:23 says, “The commandment is a lamp; and the law is light,” and so forth.
我們在彼得後書1章19節中也讀到了類似的話。
We saw the same in 2 Peter 1:19.
光的特性就是讓事物變得可見,
Light has an inherent quality of making things visible.
光讓我們能夠看見。
Light enables us to see.
因此,當聖經作者將聖經比作光的時候,他們的意思是,
And therefore, when the Bible is compared to light, it’s saying that
聖經不是一本神秘不明、需要人來照亮它的書;
it’s not a dark and cloudy book which men must come along and illuminate,
相反,聖經是上帝賜下的光,它要穿透人無知的黑暗。
but instead, it is a divine light that penetrates the darkness of men’s ignorance.
我們需要記得,聖經是上帝的啟示,
Let’s remember here that this is revelation.
上帝的心意是藉著聖經與我們交通。
God intends to communicate to us through the Bible,
既是上帝選的方式,那它就一定是最明智的。
and He is wise in the way that He’s chosen to do it.
然而,這並不表示,我們可以很容易地讀懂聖經、相信聖經,
Now, that doesn’t mean that the Bible is easy for us to understand or accept.
但是我們的攔阻,不是聖經本身,
But the great obstacle to our understanding of the truths
而是如耶穌在約翰福音8章43節至45節中對猶太人所說的,
of God is not the Bible itself, it’s the sin
也如保羅在哥林多後書4章4節中所寫的,
and satanic unbelief that dominates the wicked,
阻攔我們理解上帝真理的最大阻礙,
as Jesus said to them in John 8:43-45,
是占據著罪人生命的罪與他們邪惡的不信,
or Paul wrote of in 2 Corinthians 4:4,
可悲的是,即使在信徒身上,
and sadly the sin and unbelief
我們也能看到殘留下來的一定程度的罪與不信。
that remains to some extent even in the godly.
還記得耶穌從死里複活後,是怎樣責備他的門徒的嗎?
Remember how Jesus rebuked his disciples after he rose from the dead?
他責備他們,是因為他們心裡遲鈍,
Because they were so slow to believe
不明白、也不相信先知所教導的。
what all the prophets had spoken?
但是保羅在哥林多前書2章的末尾說,
But those who have the Spirit of God dwelling in them
那些有上帝之靈內住的人,他們“是有基督的心了”。
“have the mind of Christ, Paul says at the end of 1 Corinthians 2.
因此,我們是屬靈的人,我們能夠讀懂聖經,
And therefore we are spiritual people, we are able to understand the Scriptures, especially
特別是當我們日益成熟、不再只是做基督里永遠的嬰孩。
if we are pressing on towards maturity, and not living on as perpetual babes in Christ.
蒙在我們心上的帳幕已被揭開。
The veil has been lifted from our hearts,
藉著聖靈,我們得以在上帝的聖言中瞻仰基督的榮光。
by the Spirit we behold the glory of Christ in the Word,
並且,上帝也在不斷改變我們,讓我們越來越有基督的樣式。
and we’re being transformed in his likeness. And that’s why, for example,
而這就是為什麼,保羅的書信是寫給整個教會的。
when Paul wrote his Epistles, he addressed the whole church with his Epistles.
因為他堅信,不只是牧師需要聽上帝的聖言,
He believed it wasn’t just the ministers,
教會裡的每一個人都需要。
but the whole church who should hear what the Word says.
有人反對這樣的觀點,他們說,“因為上帝是無限不可測透的,
Now, it may be objected against us that that God is infinite and He’s incomprehensible,
所以聖經中到處都是奇怪又隱晦的教義,比如說預定論,
and therefore the Bible is full of strange and obscure teachings like predestination.
所以我們最明智的做法是不理會這些東西。”
And therefore it would be wisest for us just to ignore those things.
我們可以用路德說過的一句話來回應這樣的反對意見,
But if that objection comes up, we may reply with Luther,
“上帝和上帝的話語是兩回事。”
“God and the Scripture of God are two things.”
也就是說,我們的確無法測透上帝,
In other words, yes, God is incomprehensible.
祂的榮耀深不可測,我們永遠無法完全測透上帝。
He’s an infinite depth of glory that we could never fully penetrate.
但聖經並不是上帝,
But the Bible is not God.
它是上帝的話語,是祂的啟示。
The Bible is God’s Word. It’s His revelation.
因此,我們的答案出自類似申命記29章29節這樣的經文,
And so we rest in texts like Deuteronomy 29:29 that says “The secret things
“隱秘的事是屬耶和華我們神的,
belong unto the Lord our God: but those things
唯有明顯的事是永遠屬我們和我們子孫的,
which are revealed belong to us and to our children for ever,
好叫我們遵行這律法上的一切話” 。
that we may do all the words of this law.”
所以就像路德說的,聖經中的一切教導都出自上帝的道,
And so as Luther said, all things that are in the Scriptures are by the Word,
上帝用最清晰明瞭的方式來傳遞這些教導、使之在全世界傳揚。
brought forth into the clearest light and proclaimed to the whole world.
那麼,聖經的清晰性有哪些實際應用呢?
Well, what are some practical implications of biblical clarity?
首先,我們應該滿懷期待。
One is anticipation.
如果我們帶著謙卑的心來讀聖經,
If you come to the Bible humbly,
如果我們渴望有所成長、有所收穫,
desiring to grow and to learn,
如果我們像詩篇作者在詩篇119篇第18節中那樣來禱告,
and praying as the Psalmist prays in Psalm 119:18,
“求你開我的眼睛,使我看出你律法中的奇妙”,
“Open my eyes that I may behold wonderous things in thy law.”
那我們完全有理由相信並期待,
You have every reason to expect
上帝一定會藉著祂的話語賜福我們。
that God will bless you through His Word.
啟示錄 – 這本可以說是整本聖經中最難懂的書卷之一
Revelation, which is frankly one of the most difficult books in the entire Bible to interpret,
在它開篇的第1章第3節中應許說:
starts with a promise in Revelation 1:3,
“念這書上預言的和那些聽見又遵守其中所記載的,
“Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy,
都是有福的。”
and keep those things which are written therein.”
聖經清晰性的第二個應用體現在翻譯上。
Furthermore, another application is translation.
聖經既然有清晰性,足以讓人明白它的教導,
Since the Bible is clear enough for people to understand its doctrines,
教會就有義務將原文聖經 (希伯來語、亞蘭語、希腊語)
the church has an obligation for the translation of the original Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek texts
譯成世界各國的語言。
into the languages of all the nations of the world.
你們可能會問,“聖經翻譯有什麼聖經依據嗎?”
And you might say, “Well, what biblical basis do we have for Bible translation?”
請大家回想一下,
Well, let me ask you,
當主耶穌和他的使徒引用舊約聖經時,他們引用的是什麼?
when the Lord Jesus and his apostles quoted the Old Testament, what were they quoting?
他們引用的是七十士譯本 – 希伯來語舊約聖經的希腊語譯本。
The Septuagint. They were quoting a Greek translation of the Hebrew text,
至少新約作者就是這樣記錄的。
at least that’s the way that the New Testament writers present things to us.
所以我們從主耶穌和他門徒的這一舉動看出,
And so they were operating with the belief that
他們是認可將聖經譯為通用語的。
it is legitimate to translate the Bible into the common language,
因為當時除了當地人用的亞蘭語外,
because Koine Greek was the common language at the time,
通用希腊語就是那時候他們通用的語言。
in addition to the Aramaic that was spoken around that area.
當然,羅馬天主教一度是反對這個教義的,
This, again, was opposed by the Roman Catholic Church,
但值得感恩的是,他們現在已經改變了他們的觀點。
though thankfully it has changed its stance on it.
但是曾經有很長一段時間,羅馬天主教都強烈反對聖經翻譯。
But for many years, the Romanists fiercely opposed biblical translation.
他們堅持認為當時的拉丁語武加大譯本是唯一權威的聖經譯本。
They insisted that the Latin Vulgate was the only authoritative translation.
但是改教家們卻將聖經譯成了德語、法語、英語、
But the Reformers translated the Bible into German, French, English,
波蘭語、西班牙語、以及其他語言。
Polish, Spanish and other languages,
他們的做法是對的。
and rightly so.
其實在今天,聖經翻譯仍在繼續著。
In fact, Bible translation, as many of you know
我們中也有許多人在聖經翻譯事工中服侍。
very, very personally, is an ongoing task.
全世界還有許多種 – 可能上千種人們仍在使用的語言里
There are many languages, perhaps even thousands of languages, that people speak
沒有相應的聖經譯本。
that have no translation of the Bible.
我們應該支持與鼓勵這樣的聖經翻譯的事工。
We should support and encourage that work. Furthermore,
此外,聖經清晰性的另一個實際應用體現在解讀聖經的原則上,
another practical implication of the clarity the Holy Scriptures is the principle of interpretation,
就是我們常說的”以經解經“。
known as the “analogy of Scripture.”
“以經解經”是什麼意思呢?
The analogy description, what that means is…
我給大家讀一下威斯敏斯特信仰告白的第1章第9段。
Well, I’ll just read the Westminster Confession of Faith 1.9.
“只有一個解釋聖經的規則不會產生錯誤,就是以經解經。
“The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself.
所以當我們對任何一處聖經的真實完整意義
And therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture,
(每處聖經都只有一個意思,而沒有多種意思)有疑問時,
which is not manifold, but one, it must be searched
就當查考聖經其他比較清楚的經文,以明白其真義。”
and known by other places that speak more clearly.”
聖經中的確有一些難懂的經文,
Yes, there are places in the Bible that are difficult to understand,
但是因為我們相信聖經的清晰性,
but because we believe in the clarity of Scripture,
所以我們也相信,聖經所教導的每一個教義都有經文的支持,
we also believe that on any doctrine, you can go to other places of the Bible,
而其中一些經文比另一些經文的教導更清晰。
and you will find a more clear statement of what is being taught.
好,我們接下來講一講“聖經的必須性”。
Okay, let’s move on to consider “The necessity of the Bible,” the necessity of the Bible.
聖經之所以是必須的,
The necessity the Bible is grounded in the fact
是因為只有藉著上帝的話語,
that it is only through the Word of God
我們才能知曉藏於耶穌基督里的救恩之道。
that we can know the way of salvation in Jesus Christ.
宗教多元主義是人類犯的重大錯誤之一。
One of the great errors that people make is the error of religious pluralism.
大家可以在我們發到Populi上的講稿中讀到相關內容。
You can read about that in the lectures posted on Populi.
那種說“所有宗教都能使人認識上帝”的話是謊言。
It is false to say that all religions lead men to God.
只有合乎聖經的宗教才能使人與這位真上帝和好。
Only biblical religion brings about reconciliation with the true God.
所以對每個人來說,福音都是必須的。
We see this in the necessity of the gospel for all mankind.
這一點正是保羅在羅馬書中逐步闡明的教義。
This is something that’s developed through the Book of Romans.
保羅在羅馬書1章16節中說,他“不以基督的福音為恥”。
Paul said in Romans 1:16 that he was “not ashamed of the gospel of Christ.”
保羅為什麼會這樣說呢?
Well, why is that?
我們看到,保羅不惜筆墨,從羅馬書1章逐步闡述至第3章,
Well, Paul develops at great length in Romans 1 through 3 the fact
他強調說:人所需要的,是唯獨在福音中顯明的義。
that people need a righteousness that only the gospel reveals.
雖然藉著創造之工,上帝已將祂的榮耀顯明給人,
Although they’ve been granted the plain manifestation of God’s glory
上帝也將祂的道德律刻在了人的良心上,
through His created works, and they have the inward witness of God’s moral law
但是面對上帝的普遍啟示,人的回應卻是犯下更多的罪惡、
in their consciences, mankind responds to general revelation with more sin,
敬拜更多的偶像,心也變得更加剛硬。
and idolatry, and harden a darkened hearts.
因此,普遍啟示就好像上帝的律法,
And so general revelation is akin to God’s law.
它無法使罪人稱義,
It can’t justify sinners,
它只能使他們知罪、讓他們對自己的罪無可推諉。
but it can only give them a knowledge of sin to remove their excuses.
但是保羅在羅馬書第3章中指出,
But as Paul traces out in Romans Chapter 3,
儘管全世界盡顯上帝創造的榮美,但全人類都犯了罪,
though the whole world, despite the beauty and glory of God’s creation,
沒有人明白上帝的話語,沒有人尋求上帝,也沒有人行善。
has become utterly unrighteous, no one understands, no one seeks God,
但是,即便如此,上帝還是賜下了福音,賜下了特殊啟示。
no one does what is good, there is the gospel, God’s special revelation.
這就是保羅在羅馬書3章21節中所說的,
It is “the righteousness of God without the law that is manifested,”
“上帝的義在律法以外已經顯明出來”。
as he says in Romans 3:21.
而上帝的福音是一個特殊的福音,
And it is a particular gospel.
它不是僅僅向人們啟示一些道德原則,
It is not simply a revelation of certain moral principles,
不是說如果人做了這個、做了那個,就會得救。
that if you do this and you do that, you will be saved.
上帝的福音是與一個特定的人有關 – 這個人就是主耶穌,
The gospel is the announcement about a particular person, the Lord Jesus,
他來到世上,在特定時間、特定地點死去,
who came and died at a particular place, in a particular time,
他為施行拯救,將自己的生命獻上作罪的贖罪祭。
and the significance of his saving death as a sacrifice for sins.
因此,如果人們是因為相信耶穌所成就的一切而得救,
And therefore, if people are going to be saved through faith in his work,
那麼他們就必須要聽到福音。
they must hear the gospel.
保羅在羅馬書10章14節中指出的就是這個道理,
And Paul traces out that logic in Romans 10:14, when he says,
“然而,人未曾信他,怎能求他呢?
“How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed?
未曾聽見他,怎能信他呢?
And how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard?
沒有傳道的,怎能聽見呢?”
And how should they hear without a preacher?”
因此,聖經具有必須性的最基本的原因
And therefore, the deepest root of the Bible’s necessity
是因為人們需要聽到福音,
is that people need to hear the gospel,
因為他們無法憑藉觀察日月星辰來明白福音,
and they can’t get the gospel by looking at the moon and the stars.
他們需要認識耶穌。
They need to hear about Jesus.
而上帝的話語所見證的,就是這位耶穌。
And it’s of Jesus that the Word of God witnesses to us.
關於這一點,
You can find an excellent statement about that
威斯敏斯特信仰告白第一章第一段中又有一段非常精彩的描述。
in the, again, in Chapter 1 of the Westminster Confession of Faith, the very first section.
我們同時也看到,上帝用書面記載的方式將福音記錄了下來。
And this gospel is been published in written form.
從某種意義上來說,福音確實早於聖經。
It is true that there is a sense in which the gospel predates the Holy Scriptures.
我們在讀羅馬書的時候就能發現,
When you look at the Book of Romans,
保羅追溯福音,一直到人類歷史的最開始。
you realize that for Paul, the gospel goes all the way back to the beginning of time.
他在羅馬書16章20節中
In Romans 16:20, Paul alludes
提到了上帝在創世紀3章15節中許下的福音的應許,
to the ancient gospel promise of Genesis 3:15
即女人的後裔要將蛇踐踏在他的腳下。
that the seed of the woman will crush the serpent under his heel.
保羅相信,當亞當最初在伊甸園中犯罪時,福音就出現了。
Paul believes in the gospel that starts in the garden when man first fell.
當然,保羅又在羅馬書第4章中提到,
And of course, Paul in Romans 4 talks about the gospel
早在摩西寫出摩西五經之前,
that was revealed to Abraham
上帝就已經向亞伯拉罕啟示了祂的福音。
long before Moses ever wrote the Pentateuch.
但保羅也一再強調,
But Paul repeatedly emphasizes that
聖經才是上帝指定的傳揚福音、保存福音的方式。
the Holy Scriptures are God’s ordained means of propagating and preserving the gospel.
在羅馬書第1章的1節和2節里,
In the first two verses of Romans 1,
保羅將自己稱作為“上帝的福音”服侍的僕人,
he says that he served “the gospel of God,”
“這福音是上帝從前借眾先知在聖經上所應許的。”
which He has promised afore by His prophets “in the Holy Scriptures.”
雖然嚴格意義上來說,福音不是律法,
Though the gospel is not, strictly speaking, a law,
但是羅馬書第3章第21節說,福音“有律法和先知”為之作證。
it was “witnessed by the law and the prophets,” Romans 3:21.
因此,保羅在羅馬書3章2節中也提到,
And therefore Paul speaks of the great advantage
與外邦人相比,猶太人有著極大的優勢,
that the Jews had over the Gentiles,
因為“上帝”將“聖言交托”給了“他們”。
“that unto them were committed the oracles of God.”
事實上,保羅之所以能寫出這封給羅馬人的書信、
And as Paul writes this, the very fact that he is writing the epistle to the Romans,
這個講解福音的偉大篇章,
this great treatise on the gospel,
是因為他相信,
shows that he believes
將福音記錄下來,是他服侍各國事工的一部分。
that part of his ministry to the nations is committing the gospel to writing.
當我們靜下心來思想,
And there are many good reasons
思想上帝為什麼不是只讓使徒傳講福音,而是要將福音寫下來,
that we can think of when we consider why would God want the gospel,
我們其實可以想到許多好的原因。
not just to be something that’s preached by the apostles, but written down.
畢竟隨著基督的到來,上帝在這個世代的啟示已達巔峰。
After all, with the coming of Christ, revelation in this age came to a climax.
上帝將這一啟示交付給了新約的先知與使徒,
And that revelation was entrusted to the new covenant prophets and apostles,
他們由此奠定了教會的根基。
and those apostles laid the foundation of the church.
但是,當使徒時代成為過去時後,
But when the apostolic generation died, how was God’s church
上帝的教會要怎樣才能聽到耶穌基督帶來的全備的啟示呢?
going to have access to the full revelation that had come with Jesus Christ?
上帝繼續護理著祂的教會,
God provided for His church,
祂沒有繼續差派先知來給我們新的啟示,
not with a continuing sequence of prophets to bring new revelation,
而是將祂自己的啟示永久地記錄了下來。
but with a permanent record that is itself divine revelation,
這就使得今天的人們,無論是在非洲的馬拉維、是在中國、韓國、
so that today, you in Malawi, Africa, or China, or Korea,
荷蘭、我們現在所在的美國,還是在委內瑞拉、巴西等,
or the Netherlands, or here in the United States, or Venezuela, or Brazil,
都能夠直接讀到耶穌基督的福音,
you have direct access to the revelation of Jesus Christ,
讀到記載成文的上帝的話語。
the written Word of God.
這是上帝賜給祂子民的一份多麼珍貴的禮物啊!
What a gift God has given to His people!
我們從哪裡知道,
We are not slaves
自己可以脫離這些可能在千年以前就被人的罪腐化的傳統,
to some ancient tradition that people may have corrupted
知道自己可以不再受它們的奴役了呢?
a thousand years ago, and how would we know?
我們是從上帝的話語中知道的。
We have the Word of God.
藉著上帝賜給我們的聖經,
And because of it, the gift of the scriptures, the Gospel,
全世界千千萬萬的人能夠直接接觸到福音及福音中一切的豐盛。
in all its revealed richness, is directly accessible to millions of people around the world.
這就是聖經的必須性。
This is the necessity of the Scriptures.
上帝也已經應許了,祂會保存祂的福音。
And God has promised to preserve His gospel.
要知道,雖然古時以色列的敵人極其殘暴,
You know, it is striking, that despite the violence of Israel’s ancient enemies,
儘管耶路撒冷城慘遭攻擊與摧毀,
despite the fact that Jerusalem itself was attacked and destroyed,
雖然上帝的子民在上帝的審判之下流亡在外,
despite the fact that God’s people fell under God’s own judgment
但是上帝沒有允許舊約聖經丟失或者殘缺。
and were carried off into exile, God did not permit the Old Testament Scriptures
這實在是令人震撼與驚奇。
to be lost or mutilated.
上帝將聖經書卷存留了下來。
But He preserved them,
祂的保護是如此完善,以至於在摩西五經成書1500年之後,
and he preserved them so well that the Lord Jesus Christ, walking upon this earth,
行在世上的主耶穌仍然可以引用摩西的話,
a millennium and a half after Moses wrote the Pentateuch, could still quote
完全相信這就是永生上帝自己的話語。
the words of Moses with the confidence that they were the living word of God.
主耶穌基督也應許,教會絕不會被摧毀,
And the Lord Jesus Christ promised that the church would never fail,
陰間的權柄也絕不可能勝過她。
but it would prevail over the powers of hell.
主耶穌基督還說,
And that church, he said,
使徒為耶穌基督的身份所做的見證,就是教會存在的根基。
was grounded upon the apostolic testimony to who he was.
耶穌在馬太福音24章14節中說,
Jesus said in Matthew 24:14, “this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached
“這天國的福音要傳遍天下,對萬民作見證,然後末期才來到”,
in all the world for a witness and to all nations; and then shall the end come,”
他的意思顯然是,
which, of course, implies
福音絕不會丟失,上帝的話語一定會存留到最後。
that the gospel will not be lost, that the Word of God will continue to the end.
這可能嗎?
And how is that possible?
這是可能的,因為主耶穌在馬太福音28章的末尾這樣應許,
It’s possible because as the Lord Jesus promised at the end of Matthew 28,
當教會履行使命時,當我們傳講聖經、培養門徒時,
as the church goes forth to perform its mission of teaching the Bible and making disciples,
主耶穌基督會與我們同在。
the Lord Jesus Christ is with us.
他會與我們同在,“直到世界的末了”。
He is with us even to the end of the age.
因此,直到最後,上帝的話語也絕不可能從世界上消失。
And therefore the word of God will not be ultimately destroyed from the face of the Earth.
這是無論倫比的恩典!
And that’s such a blessing.
因為我們實在、實在是太需要聖經了。
Because we need the Bible. We need the Bible.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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