系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第22講 被重新定義為「神聖相遇」的特殊啟示(斯莫利牧師)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

歡迎大家回到系統神學緒論的課堂。
Well, welcome back to the prolegomena lectures.
我們這節課繼續講大綱上的第15大點,“關於特殊啟示的謬誤”。
We are continuing the lectures on point 15 in the outline, errors regarding special revelation.
到目前為止,我們已經講過“被擴展為等級制教訓的特殊啟示”,
So far we’ve covered special revelation extended to hierarchical tradition,
特別是羅馬天主教中的這一現象;
especially in the Roman Catholic church;
講過“被置於人類理性之下的特殊啟示”,
special revelation subordinated to human reason,
這一點尤其體現在自由主義神學和現代主義神學中;
as in theological liberalism or modernism;
我們還講過“為調和各宗教而變得含糊不清的特殊啟示”。
and special revelation diffused to harmonize all religions and religious pluralism.
那麼現在,我們要講第四小點,
This brings this to sub point D in the outline,
“被重新定義為‘神聖相遇’的特殊啟示”。
special revelation redefined as holy encounter.
自由主義的特點是過度渲染上帝的臨在,
Whereas liberalism dwells upon the imminence of God
以致於到了泛神論的地步,將特殊啟示說成是人的天性;
to the point of panentheism and collapses special revelation into human nature,
一些其他學者則堅持強調上帝的超越性,
other thinkers have reacted by asserting the transcendence of God
將啟示定義為與至聖者的“神聖相遇”。
and defining revelation as an encounter with the Holy one.
人們將這一運動稱為新正統神學,也有人稱它為辯證神學,
This movement is known as Neo-orthodoxy or dialectical theology.
它最主要的代表人物是卡爾·巴特和艾米爾·布倫納,
Its most prominent advocates were Carl Barth and Emil Brunner, whom we introduced
我們在探討普遍啟示和自然神學的爭議時曾提到這兩個學者。
in our earlier discussion of the controversies regarding general revelation and natural theology.
巴特和布倫納強調,
Barth and Brunner emphasized
造物主與被造物之間有著本質上的無限差異。
the infinite qualitative difference between the Creator and the creature,
他們還強調,啟示具有個人性,
as well as the personal nature of revelation.
但他們的強調卻偏往“否認聖經是上帝啟示”的方向。
But they took this in a direction that denied that the Bible is divine revelation.
我們可以這樣來總結新正統神學的啟示觀。
We may summarize the Neo-Orthodox view of revelation as follows.
第一,啟示是超然的上帝對人類所做的滿有主權的恩典的作為,
Number one, revelation is the sovereign gracious act of the transcendent God toward man,
而不是這種作為的直接結果。
not something imminent arising from that.
這句話聽起來沒有問題。
So far so good.
但是,他們的第二點與正統神學截然不同,他們說,
Number two, however, the Word of God is not a text
上帝的話語不是某個文本,讓我們來遵守、思想、探討、或者捍衛,
that we can observe, consider, discuss, or defend, contrary to Orthodox theology,
因為上帝的道是耶穌基督。
because the Word of God is Jesus Christ.
第三,巴特和布倫納認為,聖經不是上帝的話語或啟示,
Number three, Barth and Brunner said that the Bible is not God’s word and revelation,
它只是先知和使徒為上帝的啟示做見證的記錄。
it is only the record of the prophetic and apostolic witness to divine revelation.
第四,新正統神學認為,聖經是人類的古代文學,
Number four, the Bible consists of ancient human literature
它有教義性和歷史性的錯誤,
and contains doctrinal and historical errors,
因此,如果我們認定它是一本聖書,
the new Orthodox views says,
我們就必須做出理性上的妥協與犧牲。
so that we would have to sacrifice our minds to affirm it as a divine book.
第五,提摩太后書3章16節寫道,“聖經是上帝所默示的”,
Number five, the Bible’s character as God breathed, 2 Timothy 3:16,
這句話的意思是指,儘管聖經作者在寫聖經時有人的錯誤,
means that its writers obeyed God the Spirit,
但他們仍舊順服了聖靈。
even though they wrote with human fallibility.
第六,儘管聖經有缺陷,但它仍是上帝向我們啟示祂自己的方式,
Number six, despite its flaws, the Bible is the means through which God reveals Himself to us.
所以對我們而言,聖經“算是”上帝的話語。
so that the Bible “becomes” God’s Word to us
然後第七點,是總結新正統神學觀的最後一點:
And then a seventh and last point summarizing the Neo-Orthodox perspective,
當上帝通過聖經向一個人顯明祂自己時,
when God reveals Himself to a person through the Bible,
這種啟示就意味著和好與生命;
revelation is reconciliation and life.
我們在這一啟示中主動與上帝相遇,
In it we encounter God actively
祂會賜給我們信心和順服。
and He engages us in faith and obedience.
換句話說,啟示一定會讓上帝與人之間形成一種和諧美好的關係。
In other words, revelation always brings about a successful relationship between God and man.
因此,巴特寫道:“聖經之所以是聖經,
So Barth wrote, “What makes Scripture Holy Scripture
不是因為那些先知與使徒的神論有多正確,
is not the correctness of the prophetic and apostolic statements and thoughts about God,
而是因為他們的神論具有個人性,有 “我與你相遇”的特點。
but the ‘I – Thou encounter’,” person to person, ” about which these thoughts and statements tell us.
啟示只有在如火如荼的行動中才算是啟示。”
Only in full action is revelation revelation.”
布倫納甚至說,傳統的基督教將聖經視為上帝的話語,
Brunner went so far as to say that the traditional Christian identification of the Bible
這是對受造物的一種神化。
as the Word of God is the deification of a creature,
為此布倫納說,這種行為視聖經為偶像,犯了“聖經崇拜”的罪,
and thus he called it the sin of “bibliolatry,” that is “Bible idolatry.”
我們在回應巴特和布倫納對特殊啟示的看法時,
In response to Barth and Brunner’s view of special revelation,
首先要感謝他們,
we must say that we’re grateful
因為他們承認了上帝在祂的啟示中所顯明的恩慈與主權,
for their emphasis upon the gracious sovereign character of divine revelation
承認了基督的核心地位,和上帝對祂自己的救贖性啟示。
and the centrality of Christ and God’s saving disclosure of Himself.
這幾點都很好。
Those are good things.
同樣,我們也感謝他們對“啟示需要應用到個人身上”的強調,
We also appreciate their highlighting of the need for personal-applied revelation
這樣一個人才能真正認識救贖主、獲得永生。
in order for a person to know the Lord in a manner that gives eternal life.
但是,他們將啟示與聖經區別開來的做法,
However, by distancing revelation from the Bible,
並不符合聖經所做的見證。
they have not been faithful to the witness of Scripture.
我們特別要提出以下幾點對新正統神學理論的批判。
In particular, we offer the following criticisms of Neo-orthodoxy.
首先,啟示中有真理的內容,不單單是“上帝與人相遇”。
First, revelation is not merely personal encounter, but revelation has truth content.
例如,保羅在以弗所書3章4至6節中提到基督的奧秘,
For example, Ephesians 3:4 through six, Paul writes of the mystery of Christ,
他說,“這奧秘在以前的世代沒有叫人知道,
which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men
像如今藉著聖靈啟示他的聖使徒和先知一樣。
as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit,
這奧秘就是外邦人在基督耶穌里,藉著福音,
that the Gentiles should be fellow-heirs, and of the same body,
得以同為後嗣,同為一體,同蒙應許。”
and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel.
所以保羅在這裡所說的啟示並非單指遇見基督,
And so the revelation of which Paul is speaking here is not simply a meeting with Christ,
而是讓我們看到上帝的旨意:
but it’s a disclosure of God’s purpose
要萬民做祂的子民,如同一個身體上的各個肢体。
to include the nations in His people as members of one body.
啟示中有教導。
Revelation is the revelation of doctrine.
我們對新正統神學的第二個回應是,
A second response to Neo-orthodoxy is this.
啟示並不一定會帶來接受與和解。
Revelation does not always involve reception and reconciliation.
雖然約翰福音8章12節說,
After all, Christ is the light of the world,
基督是世界的光,他的道成肉身是上帝的啟示;
John 8:12, his coming into the flesh was a revelation from God,
提摩太后書1章10節說,
whose grace is now made manifest
上帝的恩典是“藉著我們救主基督耶穌的顯現才表明出來了。”
by the appearing of our savior Jesus Christ, 2 Timothy 1:10.
但是,雖然“上帝”確實“通過基督啟示”了“祂自己”,
However, God’s revelation through Christ, though it took place,
並非所有人都接受了這一啟示。
was not always received,
這一啟示本身不能讓所有人與上帝和解。
and did not always produce reconciliation.
約翰福音3章19節說:
John 3:19 says,
“光來到世間,世人因自己的行為是惡的,
“this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world,
不愛光倒愛黑暗,定他們的罪就是在此。”
and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.”
這節經文清楚地表明,有一部分人會拒絕上帝在基督里的啟示。
The text makes it clear that some people reject the revelation that is in Christ.
他們這樣做的後果,是使自己仍然處於上帝的審判和憤怒之下。
And as a result, they remain under God’s condemnation and wrath.
雖然新正統神學堅持強調他們以道成肉身為核心,
And on this point, the Neo-Orthodox view of revelation,
但他們的啟示觀並沒有真正做到以道成肉身為中心。
for all its insistence upon the centrality of the incarnation, fails to be truly incarnational.
馬克·比奇寫道,現實與巴特表達的恰恰相反,
J. Mark Beach writes, contrary to Barth,
道和肉身實際上遭到了人的判斷和拒絕,
the Word and the flesh is in fact subjected to human evaluation and rejection,
它們被視為物品、遭到唾棄。
treated as a mere object and spurned.
因此,我們一定不能過於簡單地將啟示等同與和解。
So we cannot simply identify revelation and reconciliation.
第三,雖然辯證神學家重視聖經所說的“在基督里的啟示”,
Third, while dialectical theologians seek to do justice to the biblical descriptions of revelation in Christ
也重視啟示在信徒個人經歷中的應用,
and the experiential applied revelation in the believer,
但他們忽略了上帝所賜下的、記載成文的聖經 – 上帝無誤的話語。
they neglect the revelation granted as the inerrant written words of the Holy Scriptures.
他們認為,既然聖經是人寫的,那麼它裡面必然有錯誤。
Well, their argument is that the Bible must contain errors because it is a human document,
他們的這個想法表明,他們再次忽視了道成肉身的教義。
but that again fails to take into account the doctrine of the incarnation.
基督是上帝的兒子,他永遠是上帝,這一點絕不改變。
Christ is the Son of God, and he never ceased to be God,
但他也成為了一個真正的人。
but he also became truly human.
但基督的人性並不代表他一定會犯錯誤。
But Christ’s humanist did not necessitate error on his part,
因此,如果我們以此類推,雖然聖經是人寫的,
and by analogy, the humanness of the Holy Scriptures
但這並不代表聖經中一定有錯誤。
does not necessitate error.
約翰福音1章14節中說,基督“成了肉身”。
Christ became flesh, John 1:14,
基督說的是人類的語言,但是他在馬太福音24章35節中說,
and he spoke human words and yet he can say in Matthew 24:35,
“天地要廢去,我的話卻不能廢去。”
heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.
我們在馬太福音5章18節中讀到,
Christ says the same thing
基督在談舊約聖經 – 同樣是人寫的話語時,也持有同樣的觀點。
about the human words of the Old Testament, Matthew 5:18.
所以,既然上帝之道基督親自來作見證,
And so Christ, who is the Word of God, bears witness,
那麼從另一個方面來說,聖經就是上帝的話語。
then in another sense, the Bible is the Word of God,
馬可福音7章9至13節和約翰福音10章35節。
in Mark 7:9-13, and John 10:35.
因此,作為追隨基督的人,
And so, as Christ’s followers,
我們必須效法基督,做同樣的事情。
we must do the same.
我們必須要將聖經視為上帝的話語。
We must receive the Bible as the word of God.
第四,如果聖經不是上帝的啟示,
Fourth. If the Bible is not divine revelation,
只是墮落之人為上帝的啟示所作的見證,
but only a fallible human witness to divine revelation,
那麼世界上根本不會出現有權柄的基督教教義。
then there is no basis for authoritative Christian doctrine.
因為如果聖經里沒有任何命題性的真理,
And how can we derive doctrine from a revelation
我們就無法從中總結出任何教義。
that contains no propositional truth?
事實是,聖經中有許許多多的教義。
The Bible makes frequent doctrinal assertions.
比如羅馬書6章17節
In fact, it describes conversion
將悔改信主描述為“順服了…… 所傳給你們道理的模範”。
as submission to the form of doctrine that is taught, Romans 6:17.
在這一點上,新正統神學家的觀點常常前後矛盾。
And on this point, Neo-Orthodox theologians are very inconsistent.
他們一邊寫著內容豐富的神學著作,
They write extensive theological books,
一邊又說上帝沒有啟示任何此類的教義。
while asserting that God has revealed no doctrine as such.
我們看到,一個不含有任何命題性真理的啟示,
As has been observed, it is amazing that non-propositional revelation
居然可以讓巴特寫出六百萬字的神學巨著《教會教義學》,
resulted in the six million words of theology
這實在是太不可思議了。
found in Barth’s Church Dogmatics.
馬太·巴裡特寫道,“巴特解讀聖經時,會讓人有這樣的印象,
Matthew Barrett writes, “when Barth interprets Scripture,
仿佛聖經經文是真實可信的,仿佛它就是上帝的話語,
he does so as if the biblical text is trustworthy and truthful, communicating the very words of God,
否則人就沒有必要去研究神學。
or there could be no other basis for theology,
但是,新正統神學拒絕承認聖經擁有上帝的權柄。
but Neo-orthodoxy has rejected the Bible’s divine authority
因此,這就等於它在毀掉自己的根基。”
and therefore cut its own legs out from underneath itself.”
所以 – 這也是最後一點,
Consequently, and lastly, the Neo Orthodox view of revelation
新正統神學這種“相遇”的啟示觀,將人束縛在無知的島嶼上,
for all its talk of encounter leads man stranded on an Island of ignorance,
只能通過人微薄的主觀經歷來尋求基督。
groping after Christ through the tenuous means of subjective experience.
新正統神學試圖通過將啟示從對現象的認識轉變為本體體驗
It attempts to escape the trap of Kant by shifting revelation from the knowledge of the phenomenal
來逃脫康德理論的陷阱,
to the experience of the noumenal, as it were,
但結果卻是:它捨棄了一切認識上帝真理的希望。
but consequently abandons all hope of knowing the truth about God.
因為如果啟示中沒有認知性真理,那我們就無法擺脫宗教懷疑論。
If revelation does not include cognitive truth, then we cannot escape religious skepticism.
米拉德·艾利克森說:“持有這種觀點的人如何確定,
Millard Erickson says, “can the advocates of this view be sure
他們遇見的就是亞伯拉罕、以撒、和雅各的上帝?”
that what they encounter is really the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob?”
事實是,上帝已經給了我們這個問題的答案。
Now, God has provided us with a solution to this problem.
聖經告訴我們,它自己就是那座客觀的真理橋梁,
The Bible presents itself as the objective bridge of truth
以連接永生的耶和華上帝與祂子民的信心。
between the living Lord and the faith of His people.
基督在約翰福音17章14節和20節中為他的使徒祈求,
Christ prayed about his apostles, “I have given them thy word,” and then said,
“我已將你的道賜給他們”,
“neither pray I for these alone,
“我不但為這些人祈求,也為那些因他們的話信我的人祈求”。
but for them also, which shall believe on me through their word.” John 17:14 and 20.
使徒的話就是上帝托付給他們的話,
The apostolic word, which is God’s Word entrusted to them,
是連接基督與他的子民的重要紐帶。
forms the crucial link between Christ and his people.
基督在17章17節中所說的“你的道就是真理”中的“你的道”,
It is this word, of which Christ says “thy word is truth,”
指的也是這話,是我們信仰的基礎。
verse 17, upon which we rest our faith.
遵守基督的話語才是真正會帶來果效的門徒培訓,
True and fruitful discipleship consists of abiding in Christ’s words,
因為只有這樣,我們才是住在基督里,才能獲得他的自由和生命。
for thereby, we abide in Christ and receive his liberation and his life.
好,關於新正統神學以及它試圖將特殊啟示重新定義為“神聖相遇”
Well, so much for Neo-orthodoxy and its attempt to redefine special revelation
就討論到這裡。
as holy encounter.
現在我們來看大綱中的第五小點:
Let’s come now to sub point E in the outline,
“被局限於歷史事件中的特殊啟示”。
which is this, special revelation confined to historical events.
羅馬天主教認為人的教會傳統有特殊啟示的權柄;
Whereas Roman Catholicism granted the authority of special revelation to human ecclesiastical traditions;
自由主義神學在人的內心中尋求特殊啟示,
theological liberalism sought special revelation within,
在實踐中將聖經放在人的思想與情感的制約之下;
effectively subordinating the Bible to man’s thoughts and feelings;
宗教多元主義在各個宗教相互矛盾的觀點中輕率地定義啟示;
religious pluralism dissipated revelation amongst the contradictory claims of various religions;
而新正統神學則將啟示重新定義為“人與上帝的個人性的相遇”;
and Neo-orthodoxy redefined revelation to a personal encounter with God;
那麼還有一種思想流派,它不承認上帝賜下了言語啟示,
another stream of thought sought to find revelation in God’s historical actions,
而是試圖在上帝的歷史作為中發現祂的啟示。
while still excluding verbal revelation.
我們在之前的課上講了,
Earlier we noted that
特殊啟示有時會通過歷史事件呈現,
special revelation can come through the mode of historical events,
比如上帝賜下的神跡,以及我們主的道成肉身。
such as providential miracles or the incarnate life of our Lord.
但是,聖經總是將上帝的作為與祂的話語緊密結合在一起。
The Bible, however, always couples God’s acts with God’s words.
然而,一群20世紀的神學家卻將上帝的作為與祂的話語分開,
However, some 20th century theologians separated them
認為上帝的作為中包含了祂全部的啟示。
and identified revelation entirely with divine action.
這個運動批判了自由主義神學反聖經的立場,
This movement rebelled against the anti-biblical posture of liberalism,
但它也沒有回到聖經、沒有將聖經視為上帝的權威話語,
but instead of returning to the Holy Scriptures as the authoritative Word of God,
只是試圖以聖經記載的歷史事件為基礎,
it tried to anchor itself in the historical events to which the Scriptures witness,
在某種程度上也以基督的主觀經歷為基礎。
and to some extent, in the subjective experience of Christ.
這種運動起源於人們認為,上帝啟示的主要方式是歷史事件,
The view of history is the primary medium of divine revelation
由此便產生了一種聖經歷史研究,人們稱之為“聖經神學運動”。
and the resulting study of that biblical history has been called the biblical theology movement.
這裡說的“聖經神學”
Here, the phrase “biblical theology” does not refer
不是指探討在聖經啟示進程中的各種主題的學術學科,
to the academic discipline that traces themes through the progress of revelation in the Bible,
而是指一種特定的研究上帝作為和歷史的研究方法,
but to a particular approach to revelation as God’s acts and history.
舊約聖經學者喬治·恩尼斯特·萊特(1909-1974)
These are presented in the work of Old Testament scholar George Ernest Wright,
和新約聖經學者奧斯卡·庫爾曼(1902-1999)
who lived from 1909 to 1974, and New Testament scholar
在他們的書中講到了這種“聖經神學”研究方法。
Oscar Culmann, who lived from 1902 to 1999.
我們在思想這種觀點時,
We may also include in our consideration of this view,
還可以查考一下神學家沃爾夫哈特·潘能伯格(1928-2014),
theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg, who lived from 1928 to 2014,
因為他也持有類似的觀點。
because he had a similar perspective.
雖然這幾個學者對這個問題的看法各有不同,
And though the approach that each one of these scholars took to this topic is distinct,
但是我們仍舊可以總結出一些他們共有的基本觀點。
we can summarize the basic perspective that they shared
觀點如下。
with the following points.
第一,他們說,自由主義神學的錯誤
Number one, liberalism, they said,
在於它將聖經與歷史和歷史上的耶穌徹底分別開來。
erred in its radical cutting-off of the Bible from history and the historical Jesus,
他們說,聖經不是純粹的神話,而是歷史記載。
the Holy Scriptures do not present sheer mythology, but historical narrative.
第二,聖經要傳達的核心信息,是上帝在歷史中的救贖行動,
Number two, God’s redemptive acts in history are the core of the biblical message,
因為這些歷史事件是上帝啟示自己的主要方式。
for these events are the primary mode whereby God has revealed Himself.
第三,在“基督歷史事件”- 即拿撒勒人耶穌的生平與事工中,
Number three, in the “Christ event,” that is the life and work of Jesus of Nazareth,
上帝的啟示歷史達到了歷史的完全與巔峰。
God’s revelation history reached its perfection and pinnacle in this age.
第四,上帝只在那些與祂的歷史作為相關的事上
Number four, God granted personal revelation to the prophets
才賜給先知個人性的啟示,
only in connection with a historical act of God,
這是為了讓先知能夠認出歷史事件中的上帝的啟示。
so that the prophet could recognize the revelation of God in the event.
採用聖經神學研究方法之人的第五個觀點是,
Number five, for those holding this biblical theology approach,
雖然聖經中確實記載了真實的歷史事件,
though would say that though testifying of real historical events,
但聖經里也有錯誤、有神話元素、有前後矛盾之處,
the Bible contains errors, mythic elements, contradictions,
還有錯誤的文化觀,比如某種古老的宇宙觀。
and false cultural assumptions, such as an ancient view of cosmology.
第六,上帝的啟示里沒有宗教觀、命題式真理,或任何真理體系,
Number six, divine revelation does not consist of religious ideas, propositions, or a system of truth,
它沒有給我們權柄,讓我們把啟示的內容變成絕對的理論。
and it does not authorize us to freeze its contents into definite rational statements.
第七,他們認為,
And number seven,
這種宣稱“上帝已經啟示了無誤教義”的說法,是對聖經的濫用;
to claim that God has revealed infallible doctrine is to abuse the Bible, they say,
聖經不是上帝的啟示,而是人對上帝作為的見證和解讀。
which is not divine revelation, so much as a human witness and interpretation of God’s acts.
因此,潘能伯格說,
Therefore, as Pannenberg said,
儘管早期的正統神學家認為,聖經中的所有教導都是無誤的真理,
though the older Orthodox theologians affirmed the infallible truth of all Scripture statements,
後來神學家的見解卻使人認識到,
the insights of later theologians led to a recognition
聖經作者的觀點有歷史的局限性、也有相對性。
of the historical conditioning and relativity of the views of the biblical authors,
同時,他們也讓我們看到,聖經作者的表述中有相互矛盾之處。
and conflicts and contradictions in their statements.
潘能伯格說,如果一個人說,
To assert a word from God,
他有上帝的話語,有上帝直接賜下的顯明祂自己的啟示,
a direct self-revelation is, Pannenberg says,
那麼這個人一定“是在宣稱他擁有最高的權柄”,
“to make an inescapable claim to Supreme authority,”
潘能伯格認為,教會根本沒有權限這樣做。
which he believes is out of bounds in the church.
那麼,我們應該如何回應
Well, how should we respond to the biblical theology approach
這種認為“上帝的作為中包含了祂全部啟示”的觀點呢?
to finding God’s revelation entirely within historical events?
我們可以在回應中首先感謝這些神學家,
Well, in response, we can affirm that we’re grateful for the fact
因為他們拒絕了19世紀自由主義神學公然提倡的歷史懷疑主義。
that these theologians repudiated to the gross historical skepticism of 19th century liberalism.
他們堅稱,基督教以人類時空中真實發生過的歷史事件為基礎,
They were right to insist that Christianity is rooted in historical events
他們的堅持是完全正確的。
that actually took place in time and space.
若沒有歷史事實,
Without history, Christianity ceases to be the good news
基督教就不再是上帝通過耶穌基督進入人類生命的救贖福音了。
of God’s saving intervention into human life through Jesus Christ.
但是,這些神學家的啟示觀有非常危險的局限性。
However, their view of revelation is dangerously truncated.
雖然聖經中確實有許多歷史記載,但它們並不是聖經的全部,
Although much of the Bible is historical narrative,
聖經中還有許多其他的內容。
much is not.
聖經中有大量教導,它們與救贖事件的記載交織在一起,
The Bible contains a significant amount of teaching, both doctrinal and moral,
有教義性的,也有道德性的。
often interwoven with narratives of redemptive events.
那麼,這些神學家究竟是基於怎樣的理由,
On what basis did these theologians
選擇肯定聖經中的歷史事件,卻否定其中的教導呢?
affirm the historical events, but discount the teachings?
我們在馬太福音7章24節和26節中看到,
After one such body of teaching, the Lord Jesus says,
主耶穌在進行了一番教導之後對他的聽眾說,
“therefore, whosoever heareth these sayings of mine and doth them,
“所以,凡聽見我這話就去行的,好比一個聰明人,
I will liken him unto a wise man which built his house on a rock; and everyone
把房子蓋在磐石上。…… 凡聽見我這話不去行的,
that heareth these sayings of mine, and doth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man,
好比一個無知的人,把房子蓋在沙土上。”
which built his house upon the sand.” Matthew 7:24 and 26.
因此,耶穌教導我們,
And so Jesus teaches us that
我們不僅要認識並接受上帝在歷史上的作為,
it is not only divine works in history,
也要認識並接受這一點:聖經的話語就是上帝的話語。
but also divine words in the book that we must receive as the Word of God.
聖經見證了上帝的作為,也見證了上帝用言語啟示祂自己。
The biblical witness to God’s acts is also a witness to God’s verbal revelations of Himself.
例如,在將以色列人從埃及地救贖出來、帶入應許之地的壯舉中,
For example, in the midst of the mighty works of Israel’s redemption from Egypt
上帝向以色列人宣告耶和華的名,
and movement to the promise land, God proclaimed the name of the LORD,
用言語啟示以色列人,告訴他們祂是誰,
He revealed who He was with words saying,
“耶和華,耶和華,是有憐憫有恩典的神,
“the LORD, the LORD God, merciful and gracious,
不輕易發怒,並有豐盛的慈愛和誠實。
long-suffering and abundant in goodness and truth,
為千萬人存留慈愛,赦免罪孽、過犯和罪惡;
keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin;
萬不以有罪的為無罪,必追討他的罪,
and that will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children,
自父及子,直到三四代。”
and upon the children’s children, under the third and to the fourth generation.”
出埃及記34章5至7節。
Exodus 34:5 through 7.
上帝通過顯明祂的屬性來啟示祂自己,
God revealed himself by identifying His attributes
那些屬上帝的人,也在歷世歷代中不斷傳頌這些話語。
and the godly have recited those words through the ages
這些話語讓他們充滿盼望和喜樂。
for their hope and for their joy.
萊特等人的聖經神學研究方法
In the end, the biblical theology of Wright and others
最終會將他們自己帶入一種沒有盼望的矛盾之中。
involves itself in a hopeless contradiction. As Langdon Gilkey,
蘭登·吉爾基(1919-2004), 一位持有現代自由主義神學觀的神學家,
who lived from 1919 to 2004, pointed out from his own liberal modernist perspective,
指出,“這些聖經神學家試圖採取一種
“The biblical theologian seek to take a posture
半現代自由主義神學、半正統聖經神學的觀點。
that is half liberal and modern and half biblical and Orthodox,
雖然他們聲稱上帝通過祂的偉大作為來啟示祂自己,
they claim that God reveals Himself in His mighty acts,
但他們的現代主義世界觀卻迫使他們
but their modernistic worldview forces them
幾乎否認了上帝在這些事件中所行的每一個神跡奇事。”
to deny that God works supernaturally in most, if not all, these cases.”
他們將“上帝的大能作為”視為自然原因的結果,
The “mighty deeds of God” disappear into natural causes
比如他們解釋說,紅海之所以分開,是因為水受到了風力的影響。
such as explaining the red sea merely by the effect of a wind.
紅海事件中唯一留下的,是人的信心。
And all that’s left in the event is human faith.
吉爾基承認,這些所謂的聖經神學家,
So-called biblical theology, Gilkey admitted,
無法和正統神學家一樣用簡單明瞭的方式講述聖經,
cannot speak biblical language in a straightforward fashion, as Orthodox theologians can,
而是會用一種模棱兩可的方式來講述。
but speaks equivocally
這樣,他們就可以用靈意解經的方式,
so that mighty deeds become natural events
將上帝大能的作為解釋為自然事件。
with a spiritual interpretation.
吉爾基說,這樣做的後果,
Consequently, biblical theology is in grave danger
是聖經神學落入了一種空洞抽象、自我矛盾的巨大危險之中。
of being empty, abstract and self-contradictory, Gilkey says,
因為無論我們採用多麼華麗的神學語言,
because despite our flowery theological language,
我們對猶太人宗教的實際理解仍然局限在自由主義的範疇之內。
our actual understanding of Hebrew religion remains enclosed within liberal categories.
這種提倡基督教以歷史事實為基礎的做法值得稱贊,
It is commendable to return to the historical basis of Christianity,
但是除非上帝的護理作為中有超自然的言語啟示,
but the identification of revelation with historical events
否則,將啟示等同於歷史事實,
cannot rescue the church from the abyss of skepticism,
並不能把教會從懷疑主義的深坑中救拔出來。
unless God’s regulatory acts come with supernatural verbal revelation.
只有通過上帝記載成文的話語,
The only means by which we can access
我們才能瞭解上帝在歷史中的作為。
God’s acts in history is through the written word.
如果我們不相信聖經作者準確地解讀了這些啟示性的事件,
If we have no guarantee that the biblical authors rightly interpreted revelatory events,
我們如何能夠確定,他們為某件事情做的見證是可信的呢?
then how can we be sure that their witness to an event is in any way reliable?
如果不能,這將給基督教信仰帶來毀滅性的破壞。
And that would be devastating to the Christian faith.
潘能伯格準確地認識到,
Pannenberg rightly observed,
如果耶穌的複活不是真實的歷史事件,
if the resurrection of Jesus cannot be considered a historical event,
那麼基督教原始信息的歷史真實性就徹底落空了,
then the historical aspect of the primitive Christian message falls to the ground.
而所有基督徒對基督的認信,
Then the community’s confession of Christ
不過是一種主觀的臆斷和狂熱。
takes on the appearance of subjective arbitrariness and enthusiasm.
然而,潘能伯格同時也說,
However, if the literal sense of the Scriptures
如果現代讀者無法理直氣壯地認為,
can no longer be plausibly viewed by modern readers
聖經所記載的就是實際發生過的歷史事件的話,
as identical with the actual course of events, as Pannenberg also asserted,
那麼,我們沒有任何理由能夠肯定,說基督真的從死里複活了。
then on what basis can we know for certain that Christ rose from the dead?
我們怎麼知道,複活不是福音中的又一個神話?
How can we be sure that the resurrection is not another mythic element in the gospel?
我們的信,需要上帝可信賴的話語,
Faith requires a trustworthy word from God
只有它能讓我們認識現實、明白過去歷史中的救贖事件的含義。
to know the reality and grasp the meaning of redemptive events in ancient history.
好消息是,上帝確實向人說話了,祂用祂的話語啟示了祂自己。
The good news is that God has spoken and revealed Himself in His Word.
聖經不斷地向人類宣告上帝的話語,以顯明上帝和上帝的旨意。
The Bible repeatedly claims to transmit divine speech to mankind, words that reveal God and His will.
聖經不是人對上帝作為的解讀,
The Holy Scriptures are not merely man’s interpretations of God’s acts.
而是上帝的啟示、上帝的話語,它是聖靈默示的結果。
The Bible is God’s revelatory work, the Word of God, which was produced by the Holy Spirit,
因此,它牢不可破。
and it cannot be broken.
好,“關於特殊啟示的謬誤”的這一部分,
Well, this concludes our lecture on “errors regarding special revelation,”
也就是系統神學緒論大綱上的第15大點,到這裡就講完了。
and also concludes point 15 in the Prolegomena outline.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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