系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第20講 被置於人類理性之下的特殊啟示

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

歡迎大家回到系統神學緒論的課堂,
Welcome back to our Prolegomena lecture
我們繼續來講第15大點,“關於特殊啟示的謬誤”。
in main heading 15, “Errors regarding special revelation.”
在這一講的第一部分,
In the first segment of this lecture,
我們查考了“被擴展為等級制教訓的特殊啟示”。
we looked at special revelation extended to hierarchical tradition.
現在我們來查考第二部分,
And now we come to subpoint B,
“被置於人類理性之下的特殊啟示”。
which is “Special revelation subordinated to human reason.”
羅馬天主教在上帝話語上的錯誤的核心,
At the heart of the Roman error regarding the Word of God
是他們將上帝的權柄賦予了人。
is the attribution of divine authority to man.
啟蒙運動,也與天主教犯了同樣的錯誤,
A parallel but sharply opposed manifestation of this error
不過它的表現方式與天主教截然不同。
arose in the movement known as the Enlightenment.
啟蒙運動中的作家,
However, instead of elevating human tradition
雖然沒有抬高人的教訓、沒有認為它擁有上帝的權柄,
to divine authority, Enlightenment writers
但他們卻認為人的“理性至上”。
elevated human reasoning to the most-high place.
伊曼努爾·康德說,
Emmanuel Kant said,
“啟蒙運動讓人類脫離了一種他強加在自己身上的稚嫩。
“Enlightenment is man’s emergence from his self-imposed immaturity.
這種稚嫩,指的是一個人在沒有別人引導的情況下,
Immaturity is the inability to use one’s understanding
無法獨立運用他的思想與理性。
without guidance from another,”
康德的這句話,顯然對人們如何看待上帝的引導產生了重大影響。
which, of course, has serious implications for where we stand with regard to guidance from God.
這些啟蒙運動的作家站在人類自創的理性自主的立場上,
Standing on a self-crafted ground of rational autonomy,
拒不接受來自上帝的特殊啟示,
these writers denied divine special revelation
他們認為,真理最終是在人類生命的自然過程中孕育誕生的。
and located the ultimate source of truth in the natural processes of human life.
啟蒙運動認為,聖經不過是一本平淡無奇的古老書卷,
Under the Enlightenment, the Bible became just another ancient book,
與《吉爾伽美什史詩》
not essentially different
和《荷馬史詩》中的《伊利亞特》沒有什麼本質區別。
from the Epic of Gilgamesh or Homer’s Iliad.
所謂的“高等批判”,
The fruits of this unbelieving approach to Scripture
便是誕生於學術界的這種不相信聖經的立場。
in a scholarly sense came to be known as “higher criticism.”
“高等批判”的早期代表人物之一是巴魯赫·斯賓諾莎,
One of its early exponents was Baruch Spinoza,
生於1632年,卒於1677年。
who lived from 1632 to 1677.
斯賓諾莎本是一個猶太人,
Spinoza was a Jew who was cast out of the Jewish synagogue
但他因為他所持有的理性主義觀點,被逐出了猶太會堂。
for his rationalistic views. Spinoza rejected miracles because he believed
斯賓諾莎不相信神跡,因為他認為神跡不符合自然規律與法則。
they were contrary to the laws and, excuse me, the laws and order of nature.
斯賓諾莎認為,聖經中有些部分是“不完全、
He regarded parts of the Bible to be “imperfect,
有缺陷、有錯誤、且自相矛盾的”;
corrupt, erroneous and inconsistent with itself,”
但他又認為聖經在使人敬虔這個方面,
and yet considered it to be “the word of God”
仍然是“上帝的話語”。
insofar as it moved men to piety.
所以,斯賓諾莎一方面蔑視聖經的權威、
Thus, the Bible was disdained as a source of authoritative doctrine,
否認聖經教導的權威性,
but applauded as a source of godliness;
另一方面卻又贊同聖經能使人敬虔。
truth, on the other hand, for Spinoza,
對斯賓諾莎而言,真理並非出自上帝的啟示,而是出自哲學推理。
was derived not from revelation from God, but through philosophical reasoning.
啟蒙運動中有兩個思潮,理性主義思潮和懷疑主義思潮。
The rationalism and skepticism of the Enlightenment
這兩種思潮的發展方向截然不同、有時甚至是完全相反。
developed in different and sometimes conflicting directions.
有一部分人認為,聖經完全不是上帝的話語,
Some people completely rejected the Bible as God’s Word
用理性主義自然神論取而代之。
and replaced it with a rationalistic deism.
伏爾泰(或稱弗朗索瓦-馬利·阿魯埃,1694-1778)這樣說道,
Voltaire, or Francois-Marie Arouet, who lived from 1694 to 1778 said this,
“我相信有上帝,
“I believe in God,
但我說的上帝不是那些神秘主義者、神學家所說的上帝,
not the God of the mystics and the theologians,
而是自然的上帝。
but the God of nature,
這位上帝是一位偉大的幾何學家,
the great geometrician,
是宇宙的建築師,是一切的原動力。
the architect of the universe, the prime mover,
他不可改變、不可超越、且永遠存在。”
unalterable, transcendental, everlasting.”
伏爾泰作為一名自然神論者,
As a deist, Voltaire viewed the Bible
他是帶著理性主義的懷疑來查看聖經的,
with rationalistic skepticism,
認為聖經是一本荒謬且不道德的書。
counting it to be an absurd and immoral book.
他覺得
He believed that
合乎聖經的基督教是一種使人癲狂、頭腦發熱的精神疾病。
biblical Christianity was a disease of the mind, provoking men to a fever of fanaticism.
這些是人們對聖經真理的攻擊。
In addition to the attack on the truth of the Bible,
除此之外,人們又提出了另一種挑戰與質疑,
there arose an attack upon our ability
說人根本沒有能力認識絕對的真理,
even to know ultimate truth.
這種質疑就是啟蒙運動的懷疑主義,
Kant formulated this Enlightenment skepticism
而構建這種主義的最具影響力的人物,就是康德。
in its most influential form.
康德說,我們確實能夠通過我們的感官對某些事物有一些認識,
He said that we have some knowledge of the things that we experienced through our senses,
雖然這種認識受到了我們理性的先驗範疇的影響,
though this knowledge is shaped by the a priori categories of our minds.
但是,我們不可能認識那些人眼看不見的終極現實。
But we can have no knowledge, Kant said, of invisible and ultimate realities.
因此,康德將現象與本體割裂開來,對它們進行了區分。
And so he sharply distinguished between the phenomenal,
現象就是我們的感官能夠感受、經歷的現實,
that is empirical reality, what’s available to our senses,
本體就是終極現實、絕對真理。
and noumenal, which is ultimate reality,
康德認為,本體是人的理性絕對無法企及的。
and he cordoned off the ladder from our knowledge.
康德哲學的產物,就是一種理性主義宗教、道德主義宗教。
The result of Kant’s philosophy is a rationalistic, moralistic religion
這種宗教一方面對人能否認識超自然的事物持有懷疑態度,
that is skeptical of our knowledge of the supernatural
另一方面卻認為它能激勵人好好生活。
but finds it useful to motivate good living.
生於1712年、卒於1778年的讓-雅克·盧梭,
Jeah-Jacques Rousseau, who lived from 1712 to 1778,
就試圖通過更深的體驗來回歸自然。
sought to return to nature in a more experiential manner,
有人把盧梭的這種方式稱為一種“充滿熱烈情感的自然神論”。
a “Deism permeated with emotional enthusiasm,” as one man described it.
盧梭在一篇可以說是他的信仰宣言的文章里說,
In what is regarded as his statement of faith, Rousseau said,
“凡我認為是的,就是;凡我認為非的,就非……
“All that I feel to be right, is right: whatever I feel to be wrong is wrong…
我不與你談論哲學,我只幫你叩問你的內心。“
I would not talk philosophy to you, but only assist you to consult your own heart.”
盧梭所認為的“敬虔”,與上帝的啟示和上帝的教導無關,
Rousseau stripped piety of its divine revelation and doctrine,
他最終留下的,是一個被人心引導的內心式宗教。
leaving behind a religion of the heart guided by the heart.
盧梭的思想影響了後來的浪漫主義思潮,
Rousseau’s approach later influenced Romanticism,
浪漫主義就是一場主要通過藝術來表達自我的文化運動,
a cultural movement that expressed itself primarily in the arts
但它對自然情感的強調,也大大地影響了哲學的發展。
but also shaped philosophy with its emphasis on natural emotion.
但是,還有另外一些人,他們沒有簡單地否認基督教,
Others, however, rather than simply rejecting Christianity,
而是試圖將這種不信聖經的態度雜糅到一種“改進”的基督教中。
attempted to wed this unbelieving approach to the Bible with a revised form of Christianity.
這種觀點逐漸發展壯大,尤其是在18、19世紀的德國路德宗教會中,
This perspective, especially as it developed in the German Lutheran Church
人們把它稱為“自由主義神學”,
in the 18th and 19th centuries, is called theological liberalism
因為它試圖將基督教從真理的教義體系中“解救”出來。
because it seeks to “liberate” Christianity from dogmatic systems of truth.
人們也將這種觀點稱為“現代主義”,
It is also called modernism
因為它提倡說,
because it subjects
聖經和基督教信仰應該順從於現代哲學和科學研究結果的發展。
the Bible and the Christian faith to the conclusions of modern philosophy and science.
現代自由主義有兩大中心思想,
Two central components of liberal modernism
一個是否認神跡,
are the denial of the supernatural
另一個是認為神性泛存於人類的自然生命中。
and the pantheistic placement of divinity in the natural life of man.
自由主義神學家十分強調“上帝的臨在”,
Emphasizing God’s imminence
卻幾乎閉口不提“上帝的超然”。
and minimizing his transcendence,
他們想從人的內心中找到啟示,
liberal theologians look for revelation
而不是從超越人類的上帝那裡獲得啟示。
from within, not from above.
從某種程度上說,
To some extent,
格奧而格·威廉·弗里德里希·黑格爾(1770-1831)的唯心主義思想,
this shift emphasis is indebted to the idealism of the philosopher George W. F. Hegel,
是引起這一轉變的轉折點。
who lived from 1770 to 1831.
黑格爾教導說,“上帝並沒有向人啟示祂自己……
Hegel taught that “God does not reveal himself to human beings…
而是在人裡面啟示祂自己。”
But in human beings”
黑格爾認為,這個世界的神性是從自我意識中產生的,
as the universal divine spirit rises in its consciousness of itself
是通過藝術、宗教、特別是哲學表達出來的。
and expresses itself in art, religion, and, most clearly for Hegel, in philosophy.
我們看到,自由主義既可能強調人內心的神性,即人的感受,
Now liberalism may emphasize the divinity of the human heart, that is our feelings,
又可能強調人思想的神性,即人的理性。
or the divinity of the human mind, that is our reasoning.
前者的產物是盧梭所說的那種激進的虔誠,
The former impulse tends to produce a radical pieties of the heart
它源自人的內心,卻與教義分離;
divorced from doctrine, a la Rousseau.
後者的產物則是伏爾泰所說的那種理性主義,
The latter principle leans toward a rationalism
它高舉人的理性,以之為真理的最高仲裁,
that elevates human reasoning as the supreme arbiter of truth
使它成為判斷一切的最高裁決者。
and thus making intellectuals to be the high court of judgment, a la Voltaire.
但是,自由主義無法解決這種矛盾、這種分歧,
This tension or dichotomy cannot be resolved in liberalism
因為人無法將自己的內心或理性絕對化,使之成為上帝。
because neither the human heart nor the human mind can be absolutized as God.
如果我們神化自己,最終一定是支離破碎和灰心失望,
The result of divinizing ourselves is fragmentation and frustration
因為我們會不停地游離於感受和理性之間,不知何去何從。
as our allegiance is torn between our feelings and our reasonings.
弗里德里希·施萊爾馬赫認為,
Friedrich Schleiermacher exemplified
心在浪漫自由主義的思想中是最重要的。
the priority of the heart in romantic liberalism.
他寫道,“聖經的權威不可能是人們相信基督的基礎。”
He wrote, “The authority of Holy Scripture cannot be the foundation of faith in Christ.”
在施萊爾馬赫看來,信仰是一種信靠的感覺,
Faith, in his view, is a feeling of dependence,
是一種“我們需要上帝”的意識,
a consciousness of our need for God that
起初,這種意識微弱地存在於每個人的心中,
dwells weakly in every human being,
但通過我們與基督的個人連接,它便會強大起來。
but is strengthened through a personal encounter with Christ.
施萊爾馬赫還說,聖經是基督教信仰的第一批產物,
The Holy Scriptures, Schleiermacher said, are the first products of Christian faith
所以它是人們經歷基督教的第一批見證。
and thus a first order witness to Christian experience.
到頭來,在施萊爾馬赫的宗教觀里,
In the end, Schleiermacher’s religion is experience
經歷是最重要的,而“真理的道”是次要的。
and “the word of truth” plays a secondary role.
阿爾佈雷赫特·立敕爾(1822-1889)在他極具影響力的著作中
More of an emphasis upon rationalism is evident in the influential work
進一步強調了理性主義。
of Albrecht Ritschl, who lived from 1822 to 1889.
立敕爾拿掉了基督教信仰中的神學客觀內容,
He emptied the Christian faith of objective theological content
將基督教簡化為一種
and reduced it to a universal moral kingdom
在上帝父愛中效仿基督的道德性的普世兄弟之愛。
of brotherly love under the fatherhood of God in imitation of Christ.
立敕爾的學生,教會歷史學家阿道夫·馮·哈納克(1851-1930),
Church historian Adolf von Harnack, who lived from 1851 to 1930, who is a student of Ritschl,
便在自由主義神學中大力推崇理性主義。
stood as a champion of the preeminence of rationalism in liberal theology.
為了找到他所認可的理性信仰的真正核心,
With the paring knife of human reasoning, Harnack peeled away the dogmas of the church
哈納克提起人類理性的屠刀,砍去了教會的教義。
to find what he considered the true essence of a rational faith.
他寫道,
He wrote,
“福音不是世上的某套教義理論體系、或哲學理論體系,
“The Gospel is no theoretical system of doctrine or philosophy of the universe;
它唯一的教導就是宣告天父上帝的存在。”
it is doctrine only insofar as it proclaims the reality of God the Father.”
哈納克又說,“耶穌基督呼召每一個可憐的人;
Harnick said, “Jesus Christ calls to every poor soul;
他對每個人說:‘你是永生上帝的孩子。’”
he calls to everyone who bears a human face: You are children of the living God.”
哈納克所說基督教的教導,
The teaching of Christianity then
被簡化成了一種“純潔的、弟兄般交通”的道德體系。
is reduced to a system of morality: to “purity and brotherly fellowship.”
按照哈納克的說法,基督並不是上帝的獨生愛子,
Christ, according to Harnack, was not the unique son of God,
哈納克坦白,其實對福音而言,基督是誰並不重要,
and frankly, his identity is not central to the gospel,
重要的是,基督是神性在世上史無前例的最高形式的顯現。
but Christ was the highest form of divinity that has appeared on Earth.
這位自稱是基督徒的哈納克,
Now how could Harnick, who professed himself to be a Christian,
怎麼會得出如此極端的結論?
come to such radical conclusions?
他之所以有這樣的結論,是因為他不承認聖經的權柄,
Well, he came to this place because he rejected the divine authority of the Bible
不承認聖經是上帝的話語,
as the Word of God
只因為聖經不符合他對歷史和科學的認識。
because it did not fit his understanding of history and science.
新約學者魯道夫·布特曼(1884-1976)在他的著作中
The rationalistic approach of liberalism also appeared in the work of New Testament scholar
也提出了這種自由主義的理性主義觀點。
Rudolf Bultmann, who lived from 1884 to 1976.
布特曼試圖對聖經“去神話”,這使得他廣為人知。
Bultmann was famous for seeking to “demythologize” the Bible,
“去神話”的意思是,他試圖脫去聖經古老的超自然神話的外衣,
that is, to strip away its ancient mythological supernatural wrapping
然後在它的中心找到仍然能夠吸引現代男女的核心真理。
and find the core truths at its center that would still appeal to modern men and women.
布特曼寫過一句很有名的話,
Bultmann famously wrote,
“我們不能一邊用著電燈和收音機、
“We cannot use electric lights and radios,
在生病時用著現代科學和臨床治療,
and in the event of illness, avail ourselves of modern medicinal and clinical means
另一邊還相信新約聖經描繪的那個有靈、有神跡的世界。”
and in the same time believe in the spirit and wonder world of the New Testament.”
但是,如果我們把這個“有靈、有神跡的世界”從聖經中拿掉,
Well, if one cuts away “the spirit and wonder world, ”
還剩下什麼?
what is left?
布特曼堅稱,聖經的核心信息是存在主義,
Bultmann asserted that the core message of the Bible is existentialism,
是一種選擇承擔風險、真實面對自己的哲學。
that is the philosophy of the choice to take the risk of being authentic to yourself,
布特曼的這一觀點
an idea similar to the teachings
與存在主義哲學家馬丁·海德格爾(1889-1976)的教導相似。
of the existentialist philosopher Martin Heidegger, who lived from 1889 to 1976.
因此,在自由主義的影響下,
Thus, liberalism
基督教教會的教導職分
gave the teaching office of the Christian church
落入了那些持有懷疑主義的聖經學者和存在主義哲學家的手中,
to skeptical Bible scholars and existentialist philosophers
而不是信奉聖經的牧師和信徒。
instead of pastors and believers holding the Bible in their hands.
那麼,我們應該如何回應現代自由主義的這些觀點呢?
Well, how would we respond to the claims of liberal modernism?
我們可以有以下這幾個回應。
Well, we can make several responses.
首先,我們需要註意的是,
First, we observe that
雖然這些支持現代自由主義的人自稱是基督徒,
its proponents claim to be Christians,
但他們實際教導的卻是對上帝話語的不信。
but they actually teach unbelief towards the Word of God.
他們不承認聖經是上帝的特殊啟示,用哲學取代聖經。
They reject the Bible as God’s special revelation and they substitute philosophy in its place.
赫爾曼·巴文克寫道,“這樣做的後果,
Herman Bavinck wrote, “As a result,
就是教義的形式和內容都完全落入了哲學的擺佈。”
dogmatics not only formly but also materially fell completely under the sway of philosophy.”
或許現代主義者在提起基督時顯得十分熱情,
Though modernists may speak very warmly of Christ,
但他們所說的基督,不是聖經里的基督,
it is not the Christ of the Bible,
而是一個他們自己想象的、符合他們心意的基督。
but the Christ of their own invention that they love.
他們的明確目標就是讓基督教變得更能被這個世界所接受。
Their express goal is to make Christianity more acceptable to this world.
我們剛剛讀了歌羅西書2章8節,使徒保羅提醒我們,
As we read earlier in Colossians 2:8, the apostle warns
要當心這樣的假教師,他們會用他們的理學和教訓將我們擄去。
against such false teachers who would spoil us with their philosophy and tradition.
我們的第二個回應是,自由主義神學中最讓人不安的,
Second, one of the most troubling aspects of theological liberalism
是它在語言上“使用了雙關的手法”,缺乏坦率與誠實。
is the lack of frankness and honesty in its “double use of language.”
雖然自由主義神學家和傳道人
Liberal theologians and preachers
還在繼續沿用基督教信仰的傳統術語,
continue to use the traditional terminology of the Christian faith,
但他們所宣揚的信仰體系,
but they advocate a belief system
早已不是聖經中教導的那個信仰體系了。
that is foreign to the Bible.
他們也許會認同某個教會信仰宣言,
They may affirm a church confession,
但是他們心裡明白,自己之所以會認同,
even they know quite well that in order to do so,
是因為他們賦予了宣言一些新的含義,
they have to import ideas into it
一些與宣言原意大相徑庭的含義。
that are far from what the confession originally meant.
如果現代主義者能夠公開承認,他們不相信聖經,
Modernists would be much more honest and frankly more honorable
他們只打算用聖經來論證一些他們從其他地方找到的思想,
if they would openly declare that they don’t believe the Bible,
那麼,他們就更誠實、更坦率,也更體面一些。
they intend to use it merely to illustrate ideas that they found in other sources.
他們應該告訴大家,他們不接受基督教,
They should tell the public that they’re advocating
他們所倡導的是一個不同於基督教的宗教。
a different religion than Christianity, which they have rejected.
對現代自由主義的第三個回應是,
A third response to liberal modernism is this,
現代主義者對超自然現象的反對,
the modernist objection against the supernatural
既沒有理論基礎,也沒有科學基礎。
has no basis in reason or science.
人們常說:如果我們相信科學規律,
That’s commonly said that miracles are impossible
就知道這個世界上不可能有神跡奇事。
if we believe in the laws of science.
但是,如果上帝真的存在,
But miracles are entirely reasonable
如果這位萬能的造物主、這位維繫一切的主,
if God exists, and if the Almighty Creator
確實是祂自己所描述的那樣,
and Sustainer of all things
那麼奇跡的存在是完全合情合理的。
is indeed Who He says He is.
耶利米書32章17節說,“主耶和華啊,
Jeremiah 32:17 says, “Ah Lord GOD!
你曾用大能和伸出來的膀臂創造天地,
Behold, thou hast made the heaven and the earth by thy great power and stretched out arm,
在你沒有難成的事。”
there is nothing too hard for thee.”
除非我們一開始就假設沒有上帝,
Unless we start with the assumption that there is no God,
否則,上帝為什麼不能行出超出我們想象的神跡呢?
why couldn’t God work supernatural miracles beyond our comprehension?
事實上,如果沒有這樣一位照祂自己的智慧命定萬物的上帝,
And in fact, without such a God who orders all things according to his wisdom,
我們就沒有任何合理的根基
there’s no rational basis
去相信科學規律、或相信科學這門學術學科的可信度。
to believe in the laws of science or the validity of science as an academic discipline.
此外,化學家所做的實驗,天文學家所做的觀測,
Furthermore, the experiments of a chemist or the observations of an astronomer
都不能直接證明或者反駁靈魂的存在,
cannot directly prove or disprove the existence of spirits,
因為靈魂不是物質性的,它不可測量,也不可見。
since such spirits are neither material, measurable nor visible.
布特曼說的那句關於電燈和靈魂的話,
Bultmann’s statement about electric lights and spirits
並不能證明超自然事物的不存在,
shows more about his reductionistic worldview
它頂多顯明的,是他自己持有的一種還原主義的世界觀,
than it proves about the supernatural.
它還顯明布特曼的一種傲視古人的姿態。
It also reveals his posture of arrogance toward people in the ancient world,
其實古人非常聰慧,
who were highly intelligent human beings,
他們並不比現代人更容易害怕、或更容易輕信神話。
no more fearful and gullible towards myths than modern people are.
第四,我們還需要提到,
Fourth, we would note
自由主義對屬靈經歷的強調不過是空談,
that liberalism’s stress upon spiritual experience is empty
因為他們沒有真理做他們的根基。
because it does not root that experience upon truth.
喬納森·愛德華滋寫道,
Jonathan Edwards wrote,
“人心受到了真理與屬靈的光照後,就會產生恩典的情感,
“Gracious affections do arise from the mind’s being enlightened,
這種情感能讓人明白、理解與上帝有關的事情。
rightly and spiritually to understand or apprehend divine things.
聖潔情感所發出的熱量,一定是出自光。”
Holy affections are not heat without light.”
舉個例子,詩篇33篇要我們靠耶和華喜樂,並敬畏祂。
For example, Psalm 33 calls us to rejoice in the Lord and to fear Him.
為什麼?
But why?
因為祂是上帝,也因為祂所行的萬事。
Because of Who He is and what He has actually done.
聖經中記載的人的敬虔回應,
All those responses of piety in the Bible
都是以上帝的身份和祂在歷史中的作為為基礎的。
are grounded upon the reality of who God is and how He has worked in history.
宗教經歷若與聖經歷史和教義的真理分離,
To divorce religious experience from the truth of biblical history and doctrine
那它產生的不過是一種沒有實質的情感幻象。
is to generate a phantom of emotion with no substance.
施萊爾馬赫所說的依賴感,不過只是一種感覺,
Schleiermacher’s feelings of dependance are nothing more than feelings
這種感覺對我們所倚賴的那一位一無所知。
without a knowledge of the One on whom we depend –
因為我們只能從上帝的特殊啟示中認識祂。
knowledge that requires special revelation from God.
上帝的特殊啟示與個人經歷緊密相關,但它同時也是真理性的。
Such revelation is personal, but it is also propositional,
它教導我們真理,讓我們理解與相信。
declaring truths for our understanding and faith.
現代自由主義無法使我們與基督產生一種至關重要的聯合。
Liberal modernism brings to us no vital union with Jesus Christ,
因為耶穌基督在約翰福音8章31和32節中說,
for Jesus Christ said in John 8:31 and 32,
“你們若常常遵守我的道,就真是我的門徒,
“If you continue in my word, then are you my disciples indeed;
你們必曉得真理,真理必叫你們得以自由。”
and you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.”
第五,現代主義對基督教信條的抨擊是一種假冒偽善。
Fifth, the modernistic attack upon Christian dogma is hypocritical.
自由主義對基督教的權威教義進行了抨擊,
Liberalism attacks authoritative Christian doctrine
稱它是外來希腊哲學入侵基督教思想、
and claims that it arose from “the progressive corruption of the simple gospel of Jesus”
“逐漸敗壞耶穌純粹的福音”而產生的惡果。
by the alien incursion of Greek philosophy into Christian thought.
但是,現代自由主義的教條並不比正統基督教的教條少,
However, liberal modernism is no less dogmatic than orthodox Christianity,
其中的哲學成分也比正統基督教多得多。
and it is far more philosophical in its doctrine.
巴文克是這樣形容哈納克的,
Bavinck said of Harnack,
“哈納克所做的,並非是在清肅整個教條領域;
“He does not clear the field of dogma;
他做的,無非是對基督教的核心
he merely offers an interpretation of the essence of Christianity
提出了一種不同於歷世歷代基督教教會的全新解讀。
other than that which the Christian church has at all times presented.
他不過是用自己的教條代替了教會的教條罷了。”
He only replaces the church’s dogma with his own.”
第六,自由主義高舉人的理性與感受,
Sixth, liberalism’s confidence in human reasoning and feeling
這與基督教所教導的“人全然敗壞”的真理截然相反。
runs directly counter to the Christian truth of human corruption.
換句話說,自由主義觀點與伯拉糾主義同源。
In other words, the liberal perspective grows out of the poisonous root of pelagianism,
伯拉糾主義便否認原罪,也否認人繼承了亞當的敗壞。
the denial of original sin and inherited corruption.
聖經在以西結書6章9節教導我們,墮落的人有一顆“淫心”,
The Bible teaches that fallen man has a “whorish heart”
這顆淫心讓人很快地離開上帝,去追求偶像,
that quickly departs from God to pursue idols, Ezekiel 6, verse 9.
我們一定不能追隨我們自己的心意,
We must not follow our hearts,
而是要追隨上帝的話語(民數記15章39節),
but follow God’s Word, Numbers 15:39,
因為“人心比萬物都詭詐”(耶利米書17章9節)。
for “the heart is deceitful above all things,” Jeremiah 17:9.
以弗所書4章18節說,這個世上的人們都活在黑暗之中,
The peoples of this world live in darkness,
那黑暗不只環繞著他們,更是籠罩著他們的心,
not just darkness around them, but darkness within their minds
以致於他們對上帝的真理視而不見。
so that they are blind to God’s truth, Ephesians 4:18.
我們唯一的盼望,就是我們唯獨在聖經中才能看到的光芒,
Our only hope lies in the light that shines in Scripture alone,
就是我們超自然的大教師基督的光芒。
which is the light of Christ, our supernatural Teacher.
雖然羅馬天主教和現代自由主義大部分時間都彼此針鋒相對,
Both Roman Catholicism and liberal modernism, though fiercely opposed to each other
但是這兩種教導其實都源自同一股“毒泉”,
through much of their history, draw from the same poisoned well:
這毒泉高舉人,將人放在上帝的話語之上。
the exaltation of man over the Word of God.
天主教高舉教會領袖,特別是教皇,
One exalts church leaders, especially the pope,
認為他們是上帝賜給教會的信實的帶領者。
as its divinely reliable guide.
現代自由主義則高舉人的理性、和/或人的情感,
The other exalts human reasoning and/or human feelings
以之作為判斷宗教的最高裁決者。
as the supreme judge of religion.
但是我們必須與以賽亞一起,對這兩種教導說,
To both, we must say with Isaiah,
“你們休要倚靠世人。他鼻孔里不過有氣息”,
“Cease from man, whose breath is in his nostrils,”
這是以賽亞書2章22節。
Isaiah 2:22.
也正如以賽亞在以賽亞書40章8節中提醒我們的那樣,
As Isaiah reminds us in Chapter 40, verse 8,
人不過是草,“草必枯幹,花必凋殘,
all mankind is but grass, and “the grass withereth, the flower fadeth:
唯有我們上帝的話必永遠立定。”
but the word of our God shall endure” or “stand for ever.”
主所看重的,並不是人類理性與作工產生的“宏偉成就”,
The Lord is not impressed with grand structures of human intellect and labor,
而是如以賽亞書66章2節所說,
but says in Isaiah 66:2,
“我所看顧的,就是虛心痛悔、因我話而戰兢的人。”
“To this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.”
好,這堂課就講到這裡。
This concludes our lecture
這是我們大綱中15大點“關於特殊啟示的謬誤”的第二部分,
on point 15 “Errors regarding special revelation” and subpoint B,
“被置於人類理性之下的特殊啟示”。
“Special revelations subordinated to human reasoning.”

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