系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第26講 聖經的屬性(下)(斯莫利牧師)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

歡迎大家回到清教徒改革宗神學院
The following lecture is part of the Prolegomena class
系統神學緒論的課堂 。
of Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary.
今天我們要一起探討
This lecture we’ll cover point
課程大綱上第17大點“聖經的屬性”下的第七小點,
“聖經的充分性”。
“the sufficiency of the Bible.”
我想來先給大家讀一段經文,使徒行傳第20章。
I’d like to begin the lecture by reading from Acts chapter 20.
我們從使徒行傳20章28節開始讀。
Acts chapter 20, beginning in verse 28.
保羅對以弗所教會的長老們這樣說,
Paul spoke these words to the elders of the Ephesian church,
“聖靈立你們做全群的監督,
“Take heed therefore unto yourselves,
你們就當為自己謹慎,
and to all the flock, over the which
也為全群謹慎,牧養神的教會,
the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God,
就是他用自己血所買來的。
which he hath purchased with his own blood.
我知道我去之後,
For I know this, that after my departing
必有凶暴的豺狼進入你們中間,不愛惜羊群。
shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock.
就是你們中間也必有人起來,
Also of your own selves shall men arise,
說悖謬的話,要引誘門徒跟從他們。
speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them.
所以你們應當警醒,
Therefore watch, and remember, that by the space of three years
記念我三年之久晝夜不住地流淚勸誡你們各人。
I ceased not to warn every one night and day with tears.
如今我把你們交托神和他恩惠的道,
And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace,
這道能建立你們,
which is able to build you up,
叫你們和一切成聖的人同得基業。”
and to give you an inheritance among all of them that are sanctified.”
我們來禱告。
Let’s pray.
哦天父,
Oh Father,
這份責任 – 你的愛子放在教會長老肩上的責任是多麼重大。
what a great weight of responsibility your Son has placed upon those who serve
但是,我們要感謝你、贊美你,
as elders within your church. And yet we praise you and bless you
因為你已經將長老在服侍中所需的一切賜給了他們。
that you have given to them all that they need for this great task.
我們尤其要感謝你、贊美你,
And we particularly thank you and praise you
因為你已經把你的話語賜給了在你教會中服侍的僕人。
that your servants in your church have been given the Word of God,
主啊,你的話語是恩典的話語,
the Word of your grace, Lord, the Word which is able to build us up,
它能建造我們,它能讓你分別為聖的子民得到那美好的產業。
and to give us an inheritance amongst all them that are sanctified.
主啊,我們為你的話語贊美你!
Lord, we bless you for this Word.
無論我們是教會的長老,
We pray that you would not let the devil draw us away from it,
還是渴慕進一步認識你的普通信徒,
and whether we are elders within the church
我們都祈求你攔阻魔鬼、不讓我們受魔鬼的迷惑,
or simply those who seek to know you better ourselves,
也求你幫助我們,讓我們竭盡全力地將人帶到你那裡去。
and to use what influence we have to lead others to you.
天父上帝,我們祈求你,
We pray Father that you would thoroughly,
願你用聖經深深地徹底征服我們的心,
deeply, and biblically convince us
讓我們相信,你的話語有完全的充分性,
of the full, complete sufficiency of your Word
它是你賜給我們的啟示,
as all the divine revelation we need
是我們履行呼召、進入榮耀所需的一切啟示。
to fulfill our calling, and to enter into glory.
主啊,我們熱愛你的話語,但是我們卻愛得不夠,
O Lord, we love your Word, but we don’t love it enough.
願你赦免我們。
Forgive us for that, we pray.
求你藉著聖靈在我們心裡作工,
Work in us by the Holy Spirit so that
讓我們也能像主耶穌那樣熱愛你的話語,
the very love the Lord Jesus Christ has for your Word may be in us,
讓我們能夠終日忠心地追隨主耶穌。
and we may faithfully follow him all our days.
也求你此時此刻在這堂課上幫助我們,
We pray it, seeking your assistance even now
我們這樣禱告,是奉主耶穌基督的名求,阿門。
in this lecture, in Jesus’ name, amen.
人們有時候會將新教宗教改革的偉大教義(不同於羅馬天主教的教導)
The great doctrines of the Protestant Reformation, in contrast to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church,
總結為”五個solas”,也就是”五個唯獨”。
are sometimes summarized in the five Solas,
它們分別是”唯獨聖經”、”唯獨恩典”、”唯獨基督”、
or “alone,” statements. Scripture alone, grace alone, Christ alone,
“唯獨信心”、和”唯獨上帝的榮耀”。
faith alone, and the glory of God alone.
“五個唯獨”中的第一個, “唯獨聖經”, 拉丁語是”Sola Scriptura,”
The first of these in Latin, Sola Scriptura, is at its heart
在本質上就是對聖經充分性的肯定。
an assertion of the sufficiency of the Bible.
聖經是記載成文的上帝的話語,
The fact that the Bible is the written Word of God,
它擁有至高的權柄,也為自己作見證;
supremely authoritative and self authenticating,
它的教義清晰,是教會得救和生活的必需;
clear in its doctrines, necessary for the churches’ salvation and life,
它以合一的教導為基督作見證,因聖靈的工作而大有功效;
unified in its testimony to Christ, efficacious by the Spirit’s work,
它所說的一切都是準確無誤的真理。
and unfailingly true in all that it declares,
聖經的這些特點表明:
implies that the Bible is uniquely
唯獨聖經 – 上帝的特殊啟示是我們今天所需要的一切。
sufficient as God’s special revelation to us today.
然而,儘管聖經的充分性是這些屬性的衍生,
However, while the sufficiency of Scripture flows out of these properties that it has,
但它本身是一個獨立的教義。
it is a distinct doctrine in itself
我們必須要教導與持守這個教義,
that we must teach and uphold, lest the church build
要用不能朽壞的金銀(上帝的真理)來建造教會,而不是用草木。
with straw and wood, instead of the imperishable gold and silver of divine truth.
那麼我們這堂課要講的
So let’s proceed now in this lecture,
就是課程大綱第17大點“聖經的屬性”下的第七小點,
which, as I said, falls under main point 17, the properties of the written Word of God,
“聖經的充分性”。
and sub-point G, the sufficiency of the Bible.
我們首先要探討的,是“聖經充分性”的定義。
Let’s consider first the definition of biblical sufficiency.
聖經充分性的教義教導我們:
The doctrine of the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures
我們在救恩與屬靈生命上所需的一切,都在聖經里。
declares that everything necessary for saving faith and spiritual life is taught in the Bible.
教會沒有任何理由、也沒有任何必要
There is no warrant or need for the church
需要用聖經以外的東西來建立它的教義和指導,
to base its doctrine or directives on anything else,
無論這些東西是教會傳統、人的觀點,還是這個世界的智慧。
be it church tradition, the opinions of men, or the wisdom of this world.
聖經充分性的教義是一個古老的教義。
And this is an ancient doctrine.
愛任紐寫道,
Irenaeus wrote,
“我們對上帝救贖計劃的一切認識, 都是從使徒和先知那裡獲得的。
“We have learned from none others the plan of our salvation than from those through whom
起初, 他們把福音宣講給當時的人,
the gospel has come down to us, which they did at one time, proclaim in public,
後來在上帝的旨意中,他們通過聖經將福音傳給我們,
and at a later period, by the will of God, handed down to us in the Scriptures
而這福音是我們信仰的基石和支柱。”
to be the ground and pillar of our faith.”
當一位早期羅馬天主教主教用傳統來論證時,
When an early Bishop of Rome based an argument on tradition,
居普良(約200 – 258)回答說,
Cyprian, who lived from circa 200 to 258, responded,
“所以,如果這個傳統是福音所吩咐的,
“If therefore, it is either prescribed in the gospel,
或出自使徒的書信,或在使徒中有先例,
or contained in the epistles, or acts of the apostles,
那它就是上帝所定的神聖傳統,我們理應遵守。”
let this divine and holy tradition be observed.”
他辯證說,”但是,如果我們重視人的傳統超過上帝的命令;
He argued, “What obstinacy is that, or what presumption,
如果我們沒有看到,
to prefer human tradition to divine ordinance,
每當人的傳統肆無忌憚、與上帝的命令平起平坐時
and not to observe that God is indignant and angry,
上帝是多麼地憤慨與忿怒,
as often as human tradition relaxes
我們是多麼地冥頑不靈、妄自尊大啊!”
and passes by the divine precepts.”
居普良告誡我們,”沒有真理的傳統是謬誤的始祖。”
Cyprian warned, “Custom without truth is the antiquity of error.”
羅馬天主教主張,
The Reformation brought
除了聖經之外,我們還有另一種啟示 – 歷代傳承的教會傳統。
a renewed focus to the Bible’s sufficiency as special revelation,
改教家們反對這一觀點,
as the reformers opposed Roman Catholic
他們帶領的宗教改革讓我們重新聚焦於聖經,
claims that the Bible should be supplemented with revelation
讓我們看到聖經作為特殊啟示的充分性。
passed down in church traditions.
威廉·阿穆斯說,”我們救恩所需的一切、
William Ames said, “All things necessary to salvation are contained in the Scriptures,
教會的教導與建造所需的一切,都在聖經里。”
and also those things necessary for the instruction and edification of the church.”
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》第一章第六段
The Westminster Confession of Faith in section 1.6
對“聖經的充分性”有一個很好的、很有幫助的總結,
offers a helpful summary of the doctrine of the sufficiency of Scripture.
它是這樣說的, “上帝全備的旨意,
It says, “The whole counsel of God
與上帝自己的榮耀、人的得救、信仰、和生活有關的一切必要之事,
concerning all things necessary for His own glory, man’s salvation, faith and life,
聖經中都明明記載,
is either expressly set down in Scripture,
或是可以用正當且必要的推論,從聖經引申出來。
or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture:
所以無論在任何時刻都不可加添;
unto which nothing at any time is to be added,
無論是藉著‘聖靈的新啟示’,或憑人的遺傳。”
whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men.”
我們要註意,聖經充分性所適用的範圍
Now the sufficiency of Scripture is limited
僅限於聖經的使命、以及它啟示的關於我們救恩和順服的真理上。
to the Bible’s purpose, and revealing truth for our salvation and obedience.
聖經充分性的教義並不是說
The doctrine of the Scripture’s sufficiency does not assert
聖經足以對人類在各個方面的一切活動進行指導。
that the Bible is sufficient to guide all human activities in every respect.
聖經從未說過它自己是一個”萬能指南”,
The Bible does not claim to be a comprehensive guide
能夠指導天文學、地質學、營養學、軍事、機械、商務、歷史、
to astronomy, geology, nutrition, warfare, mechanics, business, history,
醫學、公共演講、體育、政治等等一系列的課題。
medicine, public speaking, sports, politics, or a host of other topics.
相反,箴言22章17節和19節說,
Instead, the Bible gives us the words of the wise
聖經給了我們”智慧人的言語”,”為要使你倚靠耶和華”。
so “that thy trust may be in the LORD,” Proverbs 22:17 and 19.
提摩太后書3章15節說,
The Holy Scriptures “are able to make thee wise
“這聖經能使你因信基督耶穌有得救的智慧。”
unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus,” 2 Timothy 3:15.
They are “profitable for doctrine,
“聖經…… 於教訓、督責、使人歸正、教導人學義都是有益的。”
for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness,” verse 16.
但是,就像哥林多前書10章31節所說的,
However, since all human activity should aim
人類的一切活動都應該以榮耀神為目的,
to the glory of God, 1 Corinthians 10:31,
聖經足以帶領我們在生命的各個方面來討上帝的喜悅。
the Bible is a sufficient guide for pleasing Him in every facet of life.
我們在這裡必須要謹記,
Here we must bear in mind the difference in scope
聖經的準確無誤性與它全備的充分性所覆蓋的範圍是不同的。
between the inerrant veracity of the Bible and its perfect sufficiency.
整本聖經都是上帝默示的,因此,它所教導的一切都是真理。
All of the Bible is inspired of God and therefore all of it is truth.
聖經里的每句話,
Whenever the Bible speaks,
無論是對歷史事件的描述,還是對人類起源的記載,
it does so with divine authority, including when it describes historical events,
都帶著上帝的權柄,
or teaches on human origins.
先知與使徒並沒有對聖經的權威性和準確性進行限制,
The prophets and apostles did not limit the authority and veracity
沒有將之限制在有關信仰和順服的教導上。
of the Bible to matters of faith and obedience.
但是,雖然聖經的準確無誤性體現在它所教導的一切真理上,
However, though the scope of the Bible’s inerrancy is as broad as all that it affirms,
它的充分性卻僅限於它的使命 – 引導我們認識上帝、敬畏上帝。
the scope of its sufficiency is limited by its divine purpose to lead us
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》教導說,
in the knowledge and fear of God. The Westminster Confession’s statement
“聖經的充分性既體現在聖經明明記載的事情上,
on the Bible’s sufficiency includes matters that are either expressly set down
也體現在可以用正當且必要的推論引申出來的事情上。”
in Scripture, or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture.
所以我們的意思不是說,
Therefore, we are not asserting that the Bible is sufficient
聖經只在它明明記載的事情上才是充分的。
if considered only in its explicit statements.
聖經並沒有在它的律法中記錄每一種可能會出現的道德問題,
The Bible does not address every conceivable moral situation in its laws,
但它確實向我們闡明瞭道德與智慧的原則,
but sets forth principles of morality and wisdom,
這樣,我們就可以藉著被聖靈光照的理性、帶著對上帝的敬畏
so that we, by Spirit-illumined reasoning in the fear of God,
來明白上帝的心意,
may deduce God’s will for us
明白我們在某個具體情況中應該怎樣做。
in our particular situation.
上帝也在祂的話語中教導我們教義性的真理,
God’s Word also presents doctrinal truths
祂要我們默想這些真理,
upon which He intends us to meditate,
以組建一個真理體系,將真理各個部分聯絡為一個整體。
to form a systematic mindset, connecting all the parts of truth into a whole.
因此, 雖然我們無法從某一節經文中總結出完整的三位一體的教義,
Therefore, the doctrine of the Trinity is derived from many clear biblical testimonies,
我們可以結合許多處清楚明白的經文、從中總結出這一教義。
even though its full doctrine is not presented in any one verse.
但是,我們必須要十分謹慎,
We must be careful, however,
以防我們的理性越界,超出聖經的本意。
that our reasoning does not carry us beyond what the Bible actually implies.
約翰內斯·坡里安德爾就強調了這一點,他寫道,
Johannes Polyander emphasized this, when he wrote,
“聖經的充分性僅僅適用於兩種情況:
“that the Bible’s sufficiency includes only
一個是聖經明確教導的內容;
what is explicit in the Bible, and what may be deduced
一個是我們通過直接、必要、顯而易見、毋庸置疑的邏輯推理
from the very source of Holy Scripture through an immediate, necessary,
從聖經明確教導的內容中推論出來的內容。”
transparent, and indubitable logical inference.”
聖經中那些看起來似是而非的教義,
Doctrine that seems to be implied by Scripture,
如果經不起簡單邏輯推理的驗證, 也經不起聖經明確教義的推敲,
but cannot be demonstrated through simple logical deduction, from clear biblical statements,
那我們就一定不能在教會公開教導這些內容,
must not be taught authoritatively in the church
以免我們對上帝的話語進行隨意的添加。
lest we add to God’s Word.
聖經的充分性並不意味著我們不需要教會的幫助,
The Bible’s sufficiency should also not be understood to exclude
比如古往今來各位教導者和學者的服侍與工作,
the use of the churches’ helps, such as the ministry and works of teachers and scholars,
或者各種信經與信仰告白。
ancient and modern, or the creeds and confessions.
我們不應拒絕它們,而是歡喜地接受它們,
These are not to be rejected but welcomed
因為正如保羅在哥林多前書12章28節
as means that the Holy Spirit uses in the body of Christ,
和以弗所書4章11至13節中說的,
as Paul wrote in 1 Corinthians 12:28,
這些都是聖靈用來建立基督身體的途徑。
and Ephesians 4:11-13.
但是, 所有教導者、人的著作、以及各種幫助都必須順服聖經的權柄,
However, teachers, and books, and helps are subordinate to the Bible, in such a way
因為只有當它們忠誠地複述、應用聖經的教導時,
that they have divine authority to direct our faith and obedience only insofar
它們才有來自上帝的權柄、才能指導我們的信仰和順服。
as they faithfully reproduce and apply the teachings of the Scriptures.
當我們正確地理解“唯獨聖經”這個原則時,我們應該明白,
The principle of “Scripture Alone,” rightly understood, does not mean that the church operates
它的意思不是說教會只需要聖經,不需要考慮歷代教會的傳統。
by the Bible alone without reference to the traditions of the church through the ages.
相反,“唯獨聖經”的意思是,
Rather, “Sola Scriptura” means that
唯獨聖經是一切權威教導和良好傳統的根基。
the Bible alone is the fountain for all authoritative teaching and good tradition.
在當今的文化中,這一點尤其需要我們的重視,
This point especially needs to be stressed in our culture today,
因為現在的文化宣揚的是極端個人主義和個人自由。
because it emphasizes radical individualism and personal liberty.
馬太·巴裡特說,
Matthew Barrett says,
“我們一定要謹防這種不願聽取前人意見、
“We must guard against taking on an individualistic mindset
只以自我思想為榮的個人主義思想。
that prides itself on what ‘I think,’ rather than listening to the past.
因此我們必須認識到,
To do that, we must acknowledge that
‘唯獨聖經’的並不是指‘唯獨自我’。”
‘Scripture Alone’ doesn’t mean ‘Me alone.'”
與此同時我們需要明白,“聖經的充分性”是指,
The doctrine of Scripture’s sufficiency should also be understood to refer to
聖經作為上帝賜下的真理的特殊啟示,它是充分的。
its sufficiency as special revelation of the truth from God,
這並不是說聖經本身足以拯救我們、或使我們成聖,
not as sufficiency to save and sanctify us apart from any other influence.
聖經的果效是出自聖靈的同在與作工。
The efficacy of the Word comes from the present activity of the Holy Spirit.
聖經與聖靈密不可分,
And the Word and Spirit are inseparable,
因為聖經出自聖靈的默示,
for the Spirit inspired the Word, and the Word
是聖靈在信徒身上應用基督的工作和果效的重要工具。
is the great instrument of the Spirit to apply Christ’s work and his benefits to the believer.
但是,我們必須始終謹記:
We must always remember, however,
聖靈有祂的主權,祂有自由按祂自己的旨意來應用上帝的話語,
that the Spirit is sovereign and free to apply the Word as He wills,
無論是使惡人的心更加剛硬,還是滿有恩典地使他們悔改歸信。
whether it is to harden the wicked or to transform them by grace.
雖然聖經的充分性適用於我們生命的各個方面,
Though the sufficiency of Scripture informs all of life
教導我們如何取悅上帝,
with respect to how to please God,
但它與教會及教會神職人員的服侍卻有著特別的聯繫。
it has special relevance for the sacred activity of the church and its officers.
《比利時信條》中的第七條是這樣形容聖經的,
The Belgic Confession in Article 7 says of the Scriptures,
“既然上帝所吩咐我們的整個敬拜方式都已經記錄在聖經之中,
“For since the whole manner of worship which God requires of us is written in them at large,
因此,任何人,即使是使徒,
it is unlawful for any one, though an apostle,
教導與我們目前在聖經中所領受的相悖的東西都是不正當的。”
to teach otherwise than we are now taught in the Holy Scriptures.”
雖然我們所做的一切合理、有意義的活動都是為了討神的喜悅,
All our activities, those serving many legitimate earthly purposes are for God’s pleasure,
但是教會的公共敬拜
but the public worship of the church is performed
是上帝“君尊的祭司”在祂的聖殿中所進行的獻祭。
as the sacrifices of His royal priesthood taking place in His living temple.
因此,如果我們把聖經的充分性應用到教會的活動中,
And therefore, in the actions of the church as the church,
我們就應該有敬拜的準則。
the sufficiency of Scripture implies the regulative principle.
我們的敬拜,一定不能按照人的想法,而是遵照上帝的吩咐。
We must worship as God commanded, not according to human ideas of worship,
申命記12章30至32節說,
neither adding nor subtracting
凡上帝所吩咐的,我們都“不可加添,也不可刪減”。
from His Word. Deuteronomy 12:30-32.
當然,這並不是說,
Now, of course that does not mean that
我們敬拜中的每一個細枝末節都必須要有聖經上的依據。
we must have biblical warrant for every incidental detail of our worship.
參加威斯敏斯特會議的神學家們再次澄清,
The Westminster divines again clarified,
“有時候上帝和教會行政,也與人類的行事為人原則有相通,
“There are some circumstances concerning the worship of God,
這時我們就應該用人的‘自然之光’、基督徒的判斷、
and government of the Church, common to human actions and societies,
按照聖經的一般規則(這原是我們應該一直遵守的)
which are to be ordered by the light of nature, and Christian prudence,
來規定有關敬拜上帝、教會行政的相關事務。”
according to the general rules of the Word, which are always to be observed.”
因此,教會應該有詳細的敬拜準則。
And thus the regulative principle must be held in a nuanced way.
聖經充分地教導了我們,
The Bible is sufficient to teach us
我們敬拜的對象是誰,敬拜的要素、內容以及緣由是什麼。
what the objects, elements, content, and occasions for worship should be,
但是聖經沒有規定敬拜中的所有細節,
but it does not determine circumstantial matters
比如敬拜的地點、持續時間、以及禮拜的次數等等。
of location, duration, number of services and so on.
接下來我們要討論第二點:聖經中關於聖經充分性的教導。
This brings us to consider secondly, the biblical teaching on Scriptures’ sufficiency.
在這一點上,我們可以從”積極”和”消極”兩個方面來探討。
We may approach what the Bible has to say on this topic in both a negative and positive fashion.
從消極方面來說,聖經的充分性意味著,
Negatively, we find the sufficiency of Scripture asserted in the biblical prohibitions
我們決不能對上帝的話語進行任何添加或刪減。
against adding to or subtracting from God’s Word.
摩西在申命記4章2節中說,
Moses said, “You shall not add to the word
“所吩咐你們的話,你們不可加添,也不可刪減,
that I command you, nor take from it, that you may keep the commandments of the LORD
好叫你們遵守我所吩咐的,就是耶和華你們神的命令。”
your God that I command you.” Deuteronomy 4:2.
摩西接著在6節至8節中對此進行了進一步的闡述,
The Word of God, as it exists in each stage of redemptive history,
他說,上帝的話語在救贖歷史的各個階段都是充分的,
is sufficient to be the wisdom and righteous law of God’s people.
都足以做上帝子民的智慧和公義律例。
As Moses elaborated in verses 6 through 8.
我們之前在講聖經無誤性時提過箴言30章5節和6節,
As we saw, when considering the inerrant veracity of the Bible, Proverbs 30:5 and 6 says,
“神的言語句句都是煉凈的,投靠他的,他便做他們的盾牌。
“Every word of God is pure, He is a shield unto them that put their trust in him,
他的言語你不可加添,恐怕他責備你,你就顯為說謊言的。”
Add thou not unto his words, lest he reprove thee and thou be found a liar.”
聖經最後也在啟示錄22章18節和19節中警示我們,
The Bible closes with this warning in Revelation 22:18 and 19, “For I testify onto every man
“ 我向一切聽見這書上預言的作見證:
that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, if any man shall add onto these things,
若有人在這預言上加添什麼,
God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book.
神必將寫在這書上的災禍加在他身上;
And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy,
這書上的預言,若有人刪去什麼,
God shall take away his part out of the book of life,
神必從這書上所寫的生命樹和聖城刪去他的份。”
and out of the Holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.”
一直以來,上帝的話語都先於由上帝贖民組成的教會而存在。
The Word of God has always been prior to the church of the redeemed.
人類墮落之後,上帝立即向他們說話,
God spoke immediately after the fall,
祂的話語為人的悔改和對將要來的救主的相信奠定了基礎。
and His words formed the basis of saving repentance and faith in the coming savior.
上帝通過祂的先知、隨著歷史進程逐步加添祂的話語啟示,
God added to His Word progressively over time through His prophets,
但祂不允許人根據自己的想法對祂的話語進行增加或刪減。
but forbade men to add or remove anything according to their own thoughts.
藉著摩西,上帝開始了書寫祂話語的工作,
Through Moses, God initiated the writing of His Word.
在救恩歷史的每一個節點上,
At every point in redemptive history,
上帝的話語都足以滿足祂的子民在那個時期的需要。
the Word of God was sufficient for His people’s needs at that time.
藉著新約使徒和先知的書寫,上帝完成了祂的特殊啟示。
With the apostles and prophets of the New Testament, God completed His special revelation.
如今,聖經是教會擁有的唯一的上帝話語,
Today the Bible is the only Word of God that the church possesses,
是上帝賜給祂子民的唯一的、充分的特殊啟示。
and it is the only and sufficient special revelation for God’s people on earth.
從積極方面來說,聖經為它自己啟示的充分性作了見證。
Positively, the Bible bears witness to the sufficiency of its revelation,
聖經在對我們的道德指導上是充分的。
The Bible is sufficient for moral instruction.
在基督降世之前,先知就已經在彌迦書6章8節中說過,
Even before the coming of Christ, the prophet could say, “He has showed thee
“世人哪!耶和華已指示你何為善。
O man, what is good, and what doth the Lord
他向你所要的是什麼呢?”
require of thee?” Micah 6:8.
聖經是充分的,祂領人信福音、悔改,使他們有得救的信心。
The Bible is sufficient for evangelical repentance and faith unto salvation.
在路加福音16章27節至31節中,
When Christ speaks of the rich man in hell and Lazarus
耶穌講述了陰間的財主與拉撒路的故事,
with Abraham in heaven, Christ presents the rich man
他描述了一個不相信聖經充分性的財主,
as denying the sufficiency of Scripture.
因為財主請求與拉撒路同在天堂的亞伯蘭罕,
The rich man asks Abraham to send Lazarus back from the dead
要他打發拉撒路從死里複活、去警告財主的弟兄們,
to warn the rich man’s brothers, but when Abraham says,
亞伯拉罕說,“他們有摩西和先知的話可以聽從”,
“They have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them.”
但是財主反駁道,“我祖亞伯拉罕哪,不是的,
The rich man objects, “Nay, father Abraham,
若有一個從死里複活的,到他們那裡去的,他們必要悔改。”
but if one went onto them from the dead, they will repent.” In other words,
換句話說,陰間的邪惡財主覺得,
the rich man, that wicked soul in hell,
光有聖經是不夠的,他覺得人需要看到神跡奇事。
he believed that the Bible is not enough. Men need to see miracles.
但是在基督講述的故事里, 亞伯拉罕給了財主一個意料之外的回答,
The words of Abraham in Christ’s story are startling, “If they hear not Moses
“若不聽從摩西和先知的話,
and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded
就是有一個從死里複活的,他們也是不聽勸。”
though one rose from the dead.” That’s Luke 16:27 to 31.
基督通過這個寓言肯定了舊約的充分性:
Through this parable, Christ is affirming that the Old Testament
舊約聖經足以帶領罪人得永生。
is sufficient to lead sinners in the way of eternal life,
如果人們不相信上帝的話語,他們也不會相信神跡奇事。
and if God’s Word is rejected, then no miracle will suffice to convince them.
而事到如今,因著上帝獨生愛子的道成肉身,
Well, how much more can we consider God’s revelation
我們更應該認識到上帝啟示的完整和完全。
to be full and complete, now that God’s Son has come in the flesh?
所以隨著新約的開始,上帝的啟示正式進入了最終階段,
Hebrews 1:1 and 2 sets the paradigm for the finality of God’s revelation
希伯來書1章1節和2節是教導這一真理的最經典的兩節經文:
with the inauguration of the new covenant, “God, who at sundry times
“上帝既在古時藉著眾先知多次多方地曉諭列祖,
and in divers manners spake in times past unto the fathers by the prophets,
就在這末世藉著他兒子曉諭我們;
hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son,
又早已立他為承受萬有的,也曾藉著他創造諸世界。”
whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds.”
隨著上帝獨生愛子的道成肉身,上帝的最終啟示也來到了世上。
With the coming of God’s Son, God’s final revelation has arrived.
道成了肉身,將人眼不能見的上帝向人顯明。
The Word became flesh and made known the invisible God,
藉著基督和他的使徒,我們得到了上帝話語的最後啟示。
through Christ and his apostles, we have the final Word from God.
聖經也見證了上帝啟示的最終完結,
The Bible attests to the completeness of this final Word.
比如在約翰福音4章25節中,那位撒瑪利亞婦人明白
The Samaritan woman knew that the Messiah would teach people
“彌賽亞… …必將一切的事都告訴我們。”
“all things,” John 4:25.
基督在世時便在孜孜不倦地進行著啟示的工作,
Christ performs this work of revelation during his earthly life,
而他在升天之後,
and after his ascension to heaven,
又藉著聖靈的工作、通過他的使徒完成了啟示。
brings it to fulfillment in the ministry of the Spirit through his apostles.
主耶穌在約翰福音14章26節中對他的使徒說,
The Lord Jesus says to them that the Comforter shall
“保惠師… …要將一切的事指教你們。”
“teach you all things,” John 14:26.
基督在約翰福音16章13節中應許,
Christ promises, “Howbeit when he,
“只等真理的聖靈來了,他要引導你們明白一切的真理,
the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth:
因為他不是憑自己說的,乃是把他所聽見的都說出來,
for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you
並要把將來的事告訴你們。”
the things to come.” John 16:13.
這裡所說的”一切的事”、”一切的真理”,
The “all things” and “all truth” in view here
顯然不是指與全世界一切事物相關的所有知識,
are certainly not all possible knowledge about everything in the world,
而是對天父上帝將在耶穌基督里成就的一切的所有啟示。
but they consist of the full revelation of the Father’s will accomplished in Jesus Christ.
我們前面也提過,
As we’ve seen these promises
這些應許與使徒書寫新約聖經的事工聯繫尤為緊密。
pertain especially to the apostolic ministry that resulted in the New Testament writings.
它們禁止人隨意往聖經里添加新的啟示,
They do not give warrant to new revelations that add to the Bible,
因為聖靈”不是憑自己說的”,祂的啟示不會超出基督啟示的範疇。
for the Spirit shall not speak of Himself or go beyond Christ.
相反,耶穌說,聖靈”要榮耀我,…… 要將受於我的告訴你們。”
But Jesus says, the Spirit “shall glorify me:” and shall take “of mine, and shew it unto you.”
因此,使徒們以舊約聖經為基礎寫出了新約聖經,
Therefore, in the apostolic documents of the New Testament, founded upon the Old Testament,
這裡麵包含了上帝定意要啟示的 “一切的事”和”一切的真理”。
we have the “all things” and “all truth” that God wilt to reveal.
保羅以”聖經是由上帝所默示的”本質為基礎
Paul also deduces the sufficiency of Scripture
在提摩太后書3章15節至17節中論證了聖經的充分性。
from its nature as a God-breathed document, in 2 Timothy 3:15-17.
就算我們用聖經來教導小孩子,
Even when taught to little children, the Bible is able
它也足以帶領他們獲得智慧和救恩。
to lead them to wisdom and salvation.
聖經具有充分性,
It is sufficient for Christian parents
它足以使基督徒父母在道德上、屬靈上教導他們的兒女。
to give moral and spiritual instruction to their sons and daughters.
這一點應該給各位父母極大的鼓勵:
And this should greatly encourage parents
要把上帝的話語教給孩子,
to teach their children the Word of God
要讓聖經進入、融合到家庭生活的各個方面,
and to introduce and integrate the Word into every aspect of their family’s life,
就像上帝在申命記6章6節和7節中所吩咐的那樣。
just as God commands them in Deuteronomy 6:6 and 7.
我們在提摩太后書3章16節中也讀到,
According to 2 Timothy 3:16,
對教會和教會事工來說,聖經也是充分的。
the Bible is also sufficient for the church and its ministries.
保羅在17節中提到了”屬神的人”,
Paul refers in verse 17 to “the man of God.”
在聖經中,這個稱呼指的是”上帝的使者”,
In biblical parlance, that refers to God’s messenger,
通常是先知,但在這裡是指“傳講上帝話語的人”。
often a prophet, but here a preacher of the Word.
保羅說,上帝的僕人已經裝備完全,
Paul says that God’s servant is fully equipped for
以便”行各樣的善事”、完成上帝交付給他的一切事工,
all good works, the whole ministry required of him by God,
因為聖經對這一切事務都有益處。
because the Bible is profitable for all those works.
而這裡被譯為”各樣的善事”的希腊詞語
We find the same Greek phrase here translated as “all good works” a little earlier
在前一章(提後2:21)中也出現了,
in this epistle, in 2 Timothy 2:21,
“人若自潔,脫離卑賤的事,就必做貴重的器皿,
“If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honor,
成為聖潔,合乎主用,
sanctified, and meet,” or fit, “for the master’s use,
預備行各樣的善事。”
and prepared onto every good work.”
因此,正如聖潔的生活使一個人在道德上具備服侍的資格,
And so just as a holy life qualifies a man morally for ministry,
聖經也通過啟示上帝全備的真理,使人有帶領教會的資格。
so the Bible qualifies him with the full revelation of truth needed to lead God’s church.
羅伯特·戈弗雷指出,提摩太多年來受教於保羅、聽他傳道,
As Robert Godfrey points out, this is all the more striking, when we remember that
但是保羅在離世之前並沒有要提摩太記住保羅說過的話,
Timothy had listened to Paul’s preaching and teaching for years,
而是要他倚賴聖經;
but as Paul nears death,
我們如果認真思想這一點,
he does not tell Timothy to rely primarily
那麼聖經對聖經充分性的教導就顯得更加清楚明瞭了。
upon his memories of Paul’s words, but instead on the Holy Scriptures.
這就表明,
This implies that
人那容易出錯的記憶、哪怕是自己親耳聽過的使徒的教導,
having the written Word is better than fallible memories
都比不上記載成文的上帝的話語。
of an Apostle’s teachings that you once heard yourself.
更不用提在使徒時代幾百年之後才出現的教會傳統了,
Well, how much superior then is the Bible to church traditions that are separated
聖經的權柄遠遠超過這些教會的傳統。
from the Apostles by centuries?
保羅接著在提摩太后書4章1節至2節中說,
Paul proceeded to say, “I charged thee therefore before God,
“我在神面前,併在將來審判活人死人的基督耶穌面前,
and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;
憑著他的顯現和他的國度囑咐你:
Preach the Word;
務要傳道,無論得時不得時總要專心;
be instant in season, out of season; reprove,
並用百般的忍耐、各樣的教訓責備人、警戒人、勸勉人。”
rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.” 2 Timothy 4:1-2.
根據上下文,這裡的“道”肯定是指聖經。
And in this context, the Word must be the Scriptures.
既然聖經是充分的,
And since the Bible is sufficient,
那麼傳道人必須要持之以恆地帶著權威傳講上帝的話語。
its ministers must preach the Word, and do so with constancy and authority.
聖經確實是上帝賜給教會的在道德和教義上的萬能指南,
The Bible is truly God’s complete moral and doctrinal instruction for the church.
無論一個傳道人是要教導教會、責備罪人、呼召人悔改、
Whether the minister needs to teach the church, rebuke sinners, call people to repentance,
還是對聖徒進行培靈訓練,
or train the saints in spiritual growth,
他所需的一切智慧都在聖經之中,
the Word of God contains the full wisdom that he needs, as it presents that wisdom that wisdom
都以適合教導、指正、糾正、操練公義的方式呈現了出來。
in a variety of forms adapted for teaching, rebuke, correction, and training in righteousness.
羅伯特·羅沃克說過,“聖經是完全的。
Robert Rollock said, “The Scripture is perfect,
它不僅是充分的,也是豐富的。
containing in it all things necessary for faith and manners,
我們信仰和行為舉止所需的一切都在聖經里。”
not only sufficiently, but also abundantly.”
我們接下來要討論的第三小點是,聖經充分性的實際應用。
This brings us, thirdly, to consider the practical implications of the Bible’s sufficiency.
多年以來, “聖經的充分性”一直遭到人們多種方式的攻擊和忽視。
The sufficiency of Scripture has been attacked or neglected in many ways over the ages.
我們必須要抵制這些攻擊、要堅定地相信:
We must resist these attacks and stand firm upon the Bible
聖經是上帝為我們的救恩和屬靈成長而賜下的全面而充分的啟示。
as the fully sufficient revelation from God for our salvation and spiritual growth.
我們在上節課講到,
We’ve already seen in previous lecture
羅馬天主教認為,
how the Roman Catholic Church asserts that the Bible is not enough,
聖經加上教會傳統才是完整的上帝的話語。
but must be supplemented by its traditions in order for the church to have the full word of God.
現當代有些人自稱是先知、使徒,
In the modern age, those who claim to be prophets and apostles,
自稱從上帝那裡獲得了新的特殊啟示,
and who say that they are also receiving new special revelations from God,
他們的這些行為也是在動搖聖經的充分性。
they too undermine the sufficiency of the Bible.
聖經的充分性意味著,
The sufficiency of the Bible implies
無論我們每個基督徒遇到了怎樣的問題和困難,
that for whatever question or trial we may face as individual Christians,
我們都必須去上帝的話語中尋找解決方法。
we must go to the Word of God for answers.
但這並不是說,
That’s not to deny that
除了聖經,就沒有其他地方能夠給我們提供幫助了,
other sources may provide some help for us, because we’re not
因為我們不是沒有身體的靈魂,
disembodied spirits. We’re physical
我們是居住在人類群體中、有身體的存在。
beings living in community with others like us.
但是,當我們面對罪疚、罪的捆綁、與上帝隔絕、
However, the world cannot offer us real solutions to the problems of guilt,
屬靈上冰冷與昏睡、缺乏喜樂、缺少力量,
bondage to sin, alienation from God, spiritual coldness and drowsiness,
缺少與上帝的交通等等的時候,
a lack of spiritual joy, power
只有聖經才能給我們真正的答案。
and communion with God, and so forth.
雅各書1章5節說,
And so when we lack wisdom,
如果我們缺少智慧,我們就要求上帝將智慧賜給我們。
we must pray to God to give it to us, James 1:5.
箴言2章3節至6節也說,
And we must eagerly seek wisdom
我們必須要急切地從上帝的口中尋求智慧。
from God’s mouth, Proverbs 2:3-6.
奧古斯丁說,“聖經中那些尋求上帝旨意的人,
Augustan said, “In all these books, those who fear God,
是敬畏上帝、性情溫和又虔誠的人。
and are of a meek and pious disposition, seek the will of God.
因為聖經明明白白地記錄著一切關於信仰和生命的事情,
For among the things that are plainly laid down in Scripture, are to be found all matters that concern
讓我們有智慧、有盼望、有愛。”
faith and manner of life, to wit, hope, and love.”
帶領教會的人也要謹慎,唯獨要以聖經為基礎來建造教會。
Church leaders must also be careful to build their churches upon the Bible alone.
當人們以人的智慧來建造教會時,
Even in non-charismatic evangelical circles,
上帝話語的充分性會被嚴重的動搖。
the sufficiency of God’s Word has been significantly undermined
即使在非靈恩派的福音派圈子裡也是這樣,
by those who look to man’s wisdom in order to build the church.
他們會用人的方式來聚集一群忠於他們的人,
They may depend upon human methods to gather a crowd when adherence,
左右這些人的財務奉獻和侍奉;
and manipulate financial giving and service.
他們會用人的理論
They may rely on man’s ideas
來增強教會成員在情感與人際關係上的幸福感。
to enhance the emotional and relational happiness of their churches’ members.
這些教會的傳道人需要聽一聽
Such pastors need to hear Paul’s exhortation
保羅在哥林多前書3章10節至13節中的勸勉,
in 1 Corinthians 3:10 through 13, Paul wrote,
“我照神所給我的恩,
“According to the grace of God which is given unto me,
好像一個聰明的工頭立好了根基,有別人在上面建造,
as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon.
只是各人要謹慎怎樣在上面建造。
But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.
因為那已經立好的根基就是耶穌基督,
For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid,
此外沒有人能立別的根基。
which is Jesus Christ.
若有人用金、銀、寶石、草、木、禾秸在這根基上建造,
Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;
各人的工程必然顯露;
Every man’s work shall be made manifest:
因為那日子要將它表明出來,有火發現,
for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire;
這火要試驗各人的工程怎樣。”
and the fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is.”
我們可以從第9節和第16節中清楚的看到,
Now, in the image that Paul is using here, the building is not an individual Christian,
保羅在這裡所描繪的殿不是某個基督徒,而是整個教會。
it is the church, that’s evident from verses 9 and 16.
上帝已經把建造教會所需的珍貴材料賜給了祂的僕人。
God has given His servants precious materials with which to build the church.
這裡的“金、銀、寶石”所代表的
The gold, silver, and precious stones,
是保羅、阿波羅、以及其他忠心的傳道人
represent the efforts of faithful preachers of the Word,
所做的傳講上帝話語的工作。
such as Paul, Apollos, and others.
這裡的”金”與”草”的對比並不是代表福音與異端的對比,
The contrast between gold and hay does not symbolize the difference between gospel and heresy,
因為12節說,所有人都“在這根基上建造”,
for Paul says in verse 12, that all men “build upon this foundation,”
所以保羅指的是每一個傳講基督的人,不是傳假福音的人。
that is everyone he’s talking about preach Christ and not a false gospel.
相反,這裡的”金”與”草”的對比,
Rather, the contrast between gold and straw
代表的是”上帝的智慧”與”人的智慧”的對比。
symbolizes God’s wisdom versus man’s wisdom.
從哥林多前書1章17節開始,保羅便對這兩種智慧進行了對比,
Paul began describing this difference of wisdom way back in 1 Corinthians 1:17,
他逐步深入地闡述了它們的不同,一直到哥林多前書第3章。
and develops this antithesis through 1 Corinthians chapter 3.
因此,上帝的智慧就是傳道人用來建造、裝飾上帝殿宇的珍寶。
And therefore, God’s wisdom is the precious treasure by which the preacher builds
在哥林多前書3章10節中,保羅稱自己是一個“聰明的工頭”,
and adorns God’s temple. Paul calls himself “a wise masterbuilder,” in 1 Corinthians 3:10,
他以基督的福音為根基來建造教會,
that is one who builds the church by laying its foundation of the gospel of Christ
用上帝那好似金、銀、寶石一般的智慧來裝飾教會。
and adding the gold, silver, and precious stones of divine wisdom.
木頭和禾秸代表的是人的智慧,
Wood and straw represent man’s wisdom.
因此,上帝在聖經中顯明的智慧
Divine wisdom, which God reveals in His Word,
才是傳道人能夠用來建造教會的唯一材料。
is thus the only acceptable building material that preachers can use.
唯獨在聖經里
The Bible and the Bible alone
我們才能找到基督耶穌的教會生存與發展所需要的屬靈真理。
gives us the spiritual truth that we need to live and flourish as the church of Jesus Christ.
約翰·默里說得很對,“我們要毫無保留地依靠聖經。”
John Murray rightly said, “Our dependence upon Scripture is total.”
默里告誡我們,要始終如一地活出這種信念,
He exhorted us to live out this conviction consistently, saying,
“如果聖經中記載的確實是與福音、上帝的心意與旨意相關的啟示,
“If Scripture is the inscriptuated revelation of the gospel, and of God’s mind and will,
如果唯獨聖經是上帝給我們的啟示,
if it is the only revelation of this character that we possess,
那麼,人無論處於何種宗教、道德、精神的境況,
then it is this revelation in all its fullness, richness, wisdom, and power
他都必須完完全全地應用聖經的完全、豐富、智慧、以及大能。
that must be applied to man in whatever religious, moral, mental situation he is to be found.
正是因為我們不尊重、不珍惜聖經的完全與完整,
It is because we have not esteemed and prized the perfection of Scripture and its finality
我們才會去求助於其他技巧、其他經驗、和其他方法,
that we have resorted to other techniques, expedience and methods of dealing
希望它們能幫助我們應對我們面對的困境、
with the dilemma that confronts us all if we’re alive
解決我們此時此刻的需要。”
to the needs of this hour.”
默里指出,一些人喜歡求助於傳承與傳統,
Murray observed that some people have relied upon our heritage, our tradition,
另一些人則迷戀於現代化,
and others are enamored of modernity,
但是這兩種人都沒能忠心地活出聖經的完整性與充分性。
but both groups are failing to bring to faithful expression the finality and sufficiency of Scripture.
因此,他總結道,
Therefore, he concluded, “We must
“我們必須通過詮釋、傳講、和應用來發掘聖經中的無盡寶藏,
bring forth from its inexhaustible treasures in exposition, proclamation, and application.
將上帝的智慧與大能應用到我們生命的每一個方面。”
to every sphere of life what is the wisdom and power of God for man.”
這實在是對上帝子民的呼召,因為他們也是上帝話語的子民。
This indeed is the calling of God’s people for they are the people of the Word.
好,關於“聖經的充分性”我們就講到這裡,
This concludes our lecture on “the sufficiency of the Bible,”
我們課程大綱上的第17大點 -“上帝成文的話語的屬性”,
and also concludes the lectures on “the properties of the written Word of God,”
也就到一段落了。
in Point 17 in the outline for Prolegomena.

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