系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第16講 附記:自然神學的歷史淵源(斯莫利牧師)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

歡迎大家回到系統神學緒論的課堂。
Welcome back to the class on Prolegomena.
我們將在這節課上討論課程大綱上的第13大點的第一部分,
In this lecture, we’ll cover the first part of main point 13 in the outline,
“關於自然神學、有神論證的一些歷史觀點”。
which consists of some historical perspective on natural theology and theistic proofs.
在開始之前,我想先為大家讀一段經文。
I’d like to begin by reading from Acts chapter 17.
我們讀使徒行傳17章,24節至32節。
Acts 17, beginning in verse 24, and reading through verse 32.
這是保羅在亞略巴古對雅典人說的話:
Here we have Paul’s address on Mars’ hill to the people of Athens.
“創造宇宙和其中萬物的神,
“God, that made the world and all things therein,
既是天地的主,就不住人手所造的殿,
seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands;
也不用人手服侍,好像缺少什麼,
Neither is worshiped with men’s hands, as though he needed any thing,
自己倒將生命、氣息、萬物賜給萬人。
seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things;
他從一本造出萬族的人,住在全地上,
And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth,
並且預先定准他們的年限和所住的疆界,
and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;
要叫他們尋求神,或者可以揣摩而得;
That they should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after him, and find him,
其實他離我們各人不遠。
though he be not far from every one of us:
我們生活、動作、存留,都在乎他,
For in him we live, and move, and have our being;
就如你們作詩的有人說:‘我們也是他所生的。’
as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring.
我們既是神所生的,
Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think
就不當以為神的神性像人用手藝、心思所雕刻的金、銀、石。
that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and man’s device.
世人矇昧無知的時候,神並不監察,
And the times of this ignorance God winked at
如今卻吩咐各處的人都要悔改。
; but now commandeth all men every where to repent;
因為他已經定了日子,
Because he hath appointed a day,
要藉著他所設立的人按公義審判天下,
in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained;
並且叫他從死里複活,給萬人做可信的憑據。”
whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead.
眾人聽見從死里複活的話,就有譏誚他的,
And when they heard of the resurrection of the dead,
又有人說:“我們再聽你講這個吧!”
some mocked: and others said,
於是保羅從他們當中出去了。
We will hear thee again of this matter.”
我們來禱告。
Let’s pray.
我們在天上的父,我們贊美你,
Our Father in heaven, we praise You that You,
你是聖父、聖子、聖靈,三位一體的上帝,
Father, Son and Holy Spirit, the Triune God,
你是創造天地的主。
that You are the Creator of heaven and Earth.
你在這個世上為你自己留下了見證,
And that You have left testimony to Yourself in this world,
讓人能夠環顧四周併進行思索、讓人看到你是真實存在的。
so that people, as they look around them and think, can see that You are real.
但是主上帝,我們知道,
And yet, Lord God, we know that
唯有通過為我們的罪死在十字架上、又從死里複活的那一位,
the only way for people to be saved is by him who rose from the dead,
我們才能得救。
after he died on the cross for our sins.
我們無比感謝你,因為你把耶穌給了我們。
We thank You so much for Jesus.
我們也求你在這堂課上幫助我們,
And we pray that as we proceed in this lecture that You would help us
讓我們對你在世上為你自己所做的見證
to have a biblical perspective on how You testify
有一個合乎聖經的認識;
to this world about Yourself,
也願這一認識能夠榮耀你的愛子,
in a way that honors Your Son
因為正如福音書所啟示的,他是人與神之間的唯一中保。
as the only Mediator, as he is revealed in the gospel.
我們禱告祈求是奉主耶穌的名,阿門!
We ask it in his name. Amen.
好,在今天的課上
Now, what we’re going to do in this lecture is
我們要討論“與自然神學和有神論證相關的一些歷史觀點”。
we’re gonna seek to provide some historical perspective on natural theology and theistic proofs.
一些改革宗神學家對自然神學的態度是否定與抨擊,
The rejection of natural theology by some Reformed theologians
他們的態度一方面表明他們對自然神學的嚴重質疑,
raises serious questions about its use.
另一方面也顯示了自然神學所涉及的問題的複雜性。
It also shows the complexity of the issues involved.
而關於自然神學的討論,
And often the debate about this matter
通常會涉及到教會歷史中幾位主要神學家的教導,
revolves around the teaching of major theologians in church history,
比如托馬斯·阿奎那和約翰·加爾文。
such as Thomas Aquinas and John Calvin.
因此,為了讓我們在討論特殊啟示前
In order to provide some perspective on the matter before
對這一問題有一定程度的瞭解,
we go on in this class to study special revelation,
我們將對自古代至改革宗正統時期的自然神學
we’re going to offer a historical survey of natural theology from ancient times
進行一個歷史性的概括。
up through the period of Reformed orthodoxy.
你們要是對自然神學和有神論證
If you’re interested in studying the developments of natural theology
在18世紀至20世紀的發展有興趣的話,
and theistic proofs in the 18th through 20th centuries,
可以讀一讀布魯斯‧德馬雷斯特的著作,他的《普遍啟示》。
we commend to you the work of Bruce Demarest and his book General Revelation.
好,因為這節課內容的性質的緣故,
Because of the nature of this lecture,
我們會更多涉及到歷史神學,而非系統神學;
it’s going to be more historical theology and not so much systematic theology.
我們也會在這節課上用到更多的專業術語。
And it may be somewhat more technical than the other lectures have been.
所以希望大家在思想上集中註意力,
We ask you, therefore, that you sharpen your mental pencils,
預備好來積極地思考這些問題,
and be ready to engage to think through these issues
只有這樣,
so that we might better
我們才能對人們在當下討論的這些問題有更好的理解。
understand the debates that are taking place today.
我們首先要來探討的第一點是:自然神學的歷史淵源。
We begin with subpoint A to discuss the ancient roots of natural theology.
“自然神學”這一術語最早出現是在異教的文學作品中。
The term “natural theology” arose first in pagan literature.
據奧古斯丁說,
According to Augustine,
羅馬作家馬庫斯·瓦羅(公元前116年 – 公元前27年)
the Roman writer Marcus Varro, who lived from 116 to 27 B.C.,
將神學分為了三類。
distinguished theology into three kinds.
第一類是神話神學,主要就是虛構的神話故事,
Number one, there’s mythical theology, consisting of fictitious stories
在這些故事中,眾神與人無異,且是與邪惡之人無異。
that treated the gods as if they were mere men, indeed, wicked men.
瓦羅所說的第二類神學是自然神學,
Number two, Varro spoke of natural theology,
即哲學家在他們的學術領域中構想的關於上帝屬性的問題。
which the philosophers devised in their academic questions about the properties of divinity.
瓦羅說的第三類神學是公民神學,
And number three, he spoke of civil theology,
即祭司在城邦的聖殿中進行的儀典和獻祭。
which priests administered in the cities through the rites and sacrifices of the temples.
要知道,古希腊神話神學並非基於理性,
Now, Greek mythic theology was not based on reasoning
而是基於創造性的想象和所謂來自眾神啟示的民間傳說。
so much as creative imagination and folklore attributed to the revelations of divine spirits.
而異教自然神學, 雖然是在神話泛神主義的文化背景中成形的,
Pagan natural theology, though formulated in the cultural context of mythic polytheism,
卻試圖藉著對神的本質的理性反思來超越神話。
sought to transcend the myths by rational reflection on the nature of divinity.
柏拉圖(公元前427年 – 公元前347年)從理論上論證:
Plato, who lived from 427 to 347 B.C., theorized about the existence of the one supreme good,
有一個至善至美的神存在,並且一切美善都是從祂而來。
the divine and absolute Beauty from which all good and beauty comes.
亞里士多德(公元前384年 – 公元前322年)論證:
Aristotle, who lived from 384 to 322 B.C., reasoned about
萬物的”第一不動的推動者”是一個純粹現實的理性的靈,
the first unmoved Mover of all things, whom he conceived as an intelligent spirit of pure act
他在永恆中獨自凝視自己,無人與他同在,
that eternally causes all motion and change in an eternal world
他是永恆世界中一切永遠進行的運動與變化的起因。
while contemplating itself alone and being aware of no other.
斯多葛主義創始人齊諾(約公元前334年 – 公元前262年)認為,
Zeno, who lived from about 334 to about 262 B.C., and was the founder of Stoicism,
有一位充滿宇宙的神存在,
posited an imminent deity that permeates the universe
這位神讓宇宙有理性定律、有常規。
and provides it with its rational and regular order.
很明顯,雖然這些哲學家們都在論證一位至高者的存在,
It’s evident that though these philosophers reasoned their way to the existence of a Supreme Being,
但他們對這位至高者的認識與聖經中的上帝截然不同。
their concept of that Being was very different from the God of the Bible.
在使徒時代之後的幾世紀中,
In the centuries following the apostolic age,
早期基督教護教學家開始出現在歷史舞臺上,捍衛基督教信仰,
the early Christian apologists rose up to defend the faith against
抵擋主流文化中的異教思想
the intellectual attacks of the culturally dominant
和羅馬帝國的哲學家們從理性角度出發對基督教的攻擊。
paganism and philosophers of the Roman Empire.
護教學家認為,我們可以將哲學家的最好的思想
The apologists believed that the best insights of the philosophers
作為雙方探討問題的一種共同點。
provided a measure of common ground to which they could appeal.
雅裡斯底德在第二世紀時致詞哈德良皇帝,他說:
In the second century, Aristides addressed the Emperor Hadrian,
宇宙的第一因一定是一位上帝,
stating that the universe must have its cause in a God
這位上帝並非被造,而是永恆且不朽的,
who was not made and who is eternal and immortal,
他是完美的、不可測透的,他沒有形體、也沒有情緒上的波動,
perfect, incomprehensible, and without bodily parts, emotional disturbances,
他不受限制,全知、且自給自足。
limitations, ignorance, or need.
傑拉德·佈雷指出,雅裡斯底德的這一觀點
Gerald Bray observes that such a view was “common ground
是基督徒與受過哲學訓練的反對基督教的人之間的共同點。
between Christians and their philosophically educated opponents.”
但是佈雷指出,我們不要把護教家的著作看成某種宗教對話,
But we should not view, Bray points out, the apologists writings as religious dialogs,
而是要把它們看成”對各種形式的異教主義的猛烈抨擊”,
but instead, as “an aggressive attack on all forms of paganism,”
它們的目標是”使人悔改、使他們歸向基督教信仰”。
with the goal “to win converts to the Christian faith.”
游斯丁(公元二世紀)
Justin Martyr was a Christian apologist
是一位深入學習過柏拉圖主義哲學的基督徒護教學家。
to the second century, who was well schooled in the philosophy of Platonism.
游斯丁認為,古典異教作家的一切智慧都源自上帝的話語。
Justin attributed any wisdom in classical pagan writers to the divine Word.
但他認為,這個”話語”不是某個哲學概念,
But he identified this Word not as a philosophical concept but as Jesus Christ, who acted upon
而是通過普遍啟示和聖經向人類啟示自己的耶穌基督。
mankind to reveal himself through general revelation, and also through the Holy Scriptures.
游斯丁相信,柏拉圖曾經閱讀過部分聖經。
Justin believed that Plato had read parts of the Bible.
游斯丁並不認為
Justin did not view any ancient
任何一種古代哲學發展出了對上帝的準確認識,
philosophy as having developed an accurate view of God,
但是他相信,在這些不同的哲學體系中
but he recognized that there were true insights about God
零星地散落著關於上帝和公義的真知識。
and justice scattered across various philosophical systems.
游斯丁相信,異教徒的宗教是邪惡的,
He believed that the religion of the pagans were demonic,
雖然他們的神話中含有某些真理的回聲,
and though their myths contained some echoes of the truth,
但是他們並不知道基督釘十字架的福音。
the gospel of Christ crucified was unknown to them.
游斯丁一方面肯定說,
On the one hand, Justin affirmed,
“全人類所共享的真理,也是我們基督徒的產業”。
“Whatever things are rightly said among all men, are the property of us Christians.”
另一方面又說,非基督教哲學黑暗且自相矛盾,
On the other hand, he said that non-Christian philosophy was dark and self-contradictory,
信靠這些哲學思想的人
and its adherents lacked a real
沒有靠著“恩典”在基督里有真正的“份”。
“participation” in Christ by “grace.”
特土良有一句名言,
Tertullian is best known for saying,
“雅典與耶路撒冷究竟有何關係?
“What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem?
學院與教會之間有何共識?
What concord is there between the Academy and the Church?
異教徒與基督徒之間又有何關聯呢?”
What between heretics and Christians?”
但特土良同時也說,上帝在人心中顯明瞭祂自己,
However, Tertullian also said that God presents himself to the minds of men
所以,“人最大的惡,
so that “this is the crowning guilt of men,
是面對這位他們無法視而不見的上帝,卻拒不承認。”
that they will not recognize One, of whom they cannot possibly be ignorant.”
特土良說,
God’s works provide
我們可以從上帝的工作中看到無數證據確鑿的證明、
great and numerous proofs, Tertullian said, and the testimony of our
我們還可以(哪怕不情願)通過我們自己靈魂深處的見證看到:
souls moves men, sometimes unwittingly, to acknowledge that God is the Ruler
上帝是萬物的主宰與審判官。
and Judge of all.
早期希腊教父用他們從自然界集取的論據來向異教徒論證:
The early Greek fathers employed arguments from nature to press upon pagans, the witness
普遍啟示在為上帝做見證。
of general revelation.
第四世紀的時候,亞他那修在反對異教徒時說,
In the fourth century, Athanasius said against the pagans that
“受造物幾乎都快高聲向異教徒呼喊:
“creation almost raises its voice against them, and points to God
上帝是萬物的主和創造者,祂統管受造物、統治萬有,
as its Maker and Artificer, who reigns over creation and overall things,
祂是我們主耶穌基督的天父。
even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,”
這些證據毫不模糊,它們清清楚楚地顯明在人的良心之中,
and that “the proof of this is not obscure, but is clear enough in all conscience
足以讓還未完全喪失理解能力的人看見。”
to those the eyes of whose understanding are not totally disabled.”
亞他那修認為,
Athanasius assumed, some notions
基督徒和異教徒在對上帝的認識上有一些共識。
about the deity were shared between Christians and the pagans.
他說,“雙方都承認這個與上帝有關的真理:
He said, “an admitted truth about God that He
上帝自給自足,從不缺少任何東西;
stands in need eof nothing, but is self-sufficient and self-contained,
世間萬物都出自上帝;
and that in Him all things have their being,
是上帝托住萬有,而不是萬有托住祂。”
and that He ministers to all rather than they to Him.”
他很明顯是在間接引用保羅在使徒行傳17章中寫的話。
He’s obviously alluding to Paul’s words in Acts 17.
亞他那修從宇宙的存在和人的靈魂出發來論證上帝的屬性、
Athanasius argued from the universe and the human soul to God’s attributes
論證上帝通過祂的理性之道 – 即聖父藉著聖子創造了這個世界。
and the creation of the world by one God through his rational Word, that is, the Father through his Son.
彼得·利法特說,“與某些形式的新正統神學不同的是… …”
Peter Leithart comments, “In contrast to some versions of neo-orthodoxy,”
他指的就是巴特、布倫納等人的新正統神學觀,
that is the views of people like Bart, Bruner,
但我們在前面的課上講過,即使是持守正統神學的人,
although there is great diversity within the orthodoxy when it comes to general revelation
他們的普遍啟示觀也是大相徑庭的。
as we’ve talked about in a previous lecture.
我重新開始。
Let me start the quote again.
彼得·利法特說,“與某些形式的新正統神學不同的是,
Peter Leithart comments, “In contrast to some versions of neo-orthodoxy,
亞他那修明確教導,這個世界彰顯了上帝的屬性和大能。
Anathasius clearly teaches that the world manifests God’s character and power;
但與大部分現代自然神學不同的是,
but in contrast to most modern natural theology,
亞他那修堅稱,受造物所顯明的,不是‘上帝存在’的泛泛之論,
Athanasius insists that the creation reveals not some generic ‘deity’
而是明確地顯明瞭上帝的獨生愛子。”
but specifically the Son” of God.
公元四世紀的加帕多家三傑也曾大量使用哲學論據,
The Cappadocian theologians of the fourth century also made significant use of
但是他們告誡我們,
philosophical arguments, but they warned
如果我們不依靠聖經教義,而是過多依賴異教哲學,
that relying upon the arguments of pagan philosophers too much, instead of the doctrines
我們就會步入歧途,
of the Holy Scriptures leads people to error;
基督教信仰的根基也變成了人類理性的沙土,
and it builds the Christian faith on the sandy ground of human reasoning
而非上帝啟示的堅固磐石。
instead of the solid rock of divine revelation.
大馬士革的聖約翰在公元八世紀時寫道,
John of Damascus, writing in the 8th century,
上帝在祂所創造的自然界中顯明瞭祂自己。
affirmed God’s self-revelation in created nature.
聖約翰利用亞里士多德“第一推動者”的概念
He alluded to Aristotle’s concept of the “first mover,”
呈現了一種宇宙論論證。
John of Damascus presented a form of the cosmological argument.
他說,“一切存在的事物要麼是被造的,要麼不是被造的。
He said, “All things, that exist, are either created or uncreated.
如果一個事物是被造的,那麼,它就是完全可變的。
If, then, things are created, it follows that they are also wholly mutable…” or changeable,
而所有被造物一定是某位不是被造的創造者的作品。
“But things that are created must be the work of some maker, and the maker cannot have been created.
因為如果這位創造者也是被造的,他就一定有一位創造主,
For if he had been created, he also must surely have been created by someone,
然後我們以此類推,一直推到不是被造的那一位。
and so on till we arrive at something uncreated.
那麼,這位並非受造的造物主同時也是完全不改變的。
The Creator, then, being uncreated, is also wholly immutable,” or unchangeable.
那麼除了上帝,這還有可能是誰呢?… …
“And what could this be other than the Deity?…
是誰吩咐天地萬物、命定了那些運行於天空海洋的萬物?
What is it that gave order to things of heaven and things of earth, and all those things that move
又或者,是誰命定了萬物出現之前的一切的存在、
in the air and in the water, or rather to what was in existence before these…
是誰命定了天、地、空氣、以及水、火中的元素?
to heaven and earth and air and the elements of fire and water?
是誰將這些元素混合又分開?
What was it that mingled and distributed these?
是誰讓這些元素運行起來、
What was it that set these in motion and keeps them
不間斷、不受阻礙地運行在各自的軌道中?”
in their unceasing and unhindered course?”
然而,雖然大馬士革的聖約翰使用了這些論據,
However, though John of Damascus used such arguments,
但他認為,這些論據對相信聖經的信徒來說是不必要的。
he regarded them as unnecessary for believers, because they believed
事實上,他認為這些論據對”大多數希腊人”來說也是不必要的,
the Bible. In fact, he regarded them as unnecessary for “most to the Greeks,”
因為上帝已經將祂自己存在的知識植入了我們的”人性”中。
for God had implanted a knowledge of his existence into us “by nature.”
但是他說,在撒旦的鼓吹下,
Still, he said, the influence of Satan has led some men
還是有一些人墜入了否認上帝的徹底的愚昧之中。
into the utter foolishness of denying God.
因此,大馬士革的聖約翰寫道,
And so, John of Damascus wrote,
“對於那些不相信聖經的人,我們要用以下這些論據來論證”,
“With those that do not believe in the Holy Scriptures we will reason thus,”
接著他就開始了一系列的哲學論證。
and proceeded to philosophical arguments.
他的《正統信仰闡述》在約公元1150年被譯成拉丁文之後
His Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith greatly influenced Greek theology,
大大影響了希腊神學以及西方教會。
as well as the Western church, after its translation into Latin, circa A.D.1150.
西方基督教中對自然神學的權威定義,
The definitive statement in Latin Christianity regarding pagan theology, or excuse me, natural theology,
出自奧古斯丁。
came from Augustine.
你們可能還記得,
You may recall that
最初,奧古斯丁不接受他母親莫妮卡所信奉的基督教信仰,
Augustine initially rejected the Christian faith of his mother Monica,
他在尋找真理的路上追隨了各種各樣的異教哲學,
followed a series of pagan philosophies in a quest for truth,
最終,他得以回頭,
and finally returned to Christ
轉向了這位使人完全與聖潔的唯一真理 – 基督。
as the one Truth who brings both wholeness and holiness.
奧古斯丁在事後回顧他曾探索過的各種哲學體系時認為,
In hindsight, Augustine looked back over the various systems of philosophy that he had once considered,
柏拉圖主義的上帝觀是最接近基督教信仰的,
and he believed that Platonism came closest to Christianity
因為柏拉圖主義認為,
in its philosophical view of God
上帝是那位永不改變的永生的靈、是萬物的起源、
as the unchanging living spirit that is the cause of all existence,
是真正理性的根基、是生命存在的意義。
the basis of true rationality, and the blessed goal of life.
奧古斯丁說,這些哲學家的認識
The philosophers, Augustine said, gained their insights
要麼是出自受造物為造物主所做的見證,要麼是出自舊約聖經。
either from creation’s witness to its Creator or from exposure to the Old Testament Scriptures.
因此,奧古斯丁說,
Therefore, Christians may claim anything
就像以色列人取了埃及人的金子做戰利品一樣,
in the philosophers that is, “true and in harmony with our faith.”
基督徒也可以認同哲學家的
Just, Augustine said, as Israel
所有”真實、與我們信仰一致的”觀點,
plundered the gold of the Egyptians – though,
只是我們絕對不可信奉他們的偶像,
he said, we must not embrace their idols, but guard ourselves
也要警醒、謹防他們的謬誤。
against their errors.
奧古斯丁說,真正的智慧並非出自哲學推論,
True understanding starts not with philosophical reasoning, Augustine said,
而是出自相信上帝話語的信心,
but with faith that receives God’s Word
這種智慧也會讓我們致力於更加認識上帝、愛上帝;
and then presses on to know him and love him more;
我們的盼望不在各國的哲學之中,而是在基督的特殊啟示中。
Hope is not to be found in the philosophies of the nations, but in the special revelation of Christ.
奧古斯丁說,非基督徒哲學家看上帝,
Non-Christian philosophers see God in the same way men with
就像那些視力欠佳的人看”遠方”的一片土地一樣,
poor eyesight view another land “at a distance,” Augustine said,
他們無法看清去那裡的道路。
without knowing the way there.
好,講到這裡,
Now, at this point, we’d like to offer
我們要來對古代和早期的基督教自然神學做一個簡要的評價。
a brief assessment of ancient and early Christian natural theology.
早期基督教神學家在應對古代哲學時展現出了他們的原則,
The interaction of early Christian theologians with ancient philosophies exemplifies the principles
這些原則也是我們在前面的一節課上講過的
that were already presented in a previous lecture
基督徒在應對非基督教哲學時應持守的原則,
about a Christian approach to non-Christian philosophy.
這種應對需要平衡、需要健康的張力。
And it is an approach that requires balance and healthy tension.
加帕多家三傑告誡我們,
The Cappadocian theologians warned against
要謹防不依靠聖經、過度依賴哲學,
an overreliance upon philosophy instead of the Holy Scriptures,
因為哲學在認識上帝、榮耀上帝上並不是必須的。
because philosophy is not necessary to know and glorify God.
但是,我們也可以從雅裡斯底德和奧古斯丁的例子中看出,
However, from Aristides to Augustine, we find that Christians were willing
基督徒願意承認,哲學家推理出了一些好的、有益的真理,
to acknowledge that philosophers had deduced some good and useful truths,
例如,我們這個世界的存在、美善與秩序,
such as the dependence of our world upon a higher power
是依靠了一個更高的力量。
for its existence, goodness and order.
但是哲學家教導的這些真理
The truths taught by philosophers did not lead the early
並沒有讓早期護教學家和神學家因此而肯定異教哲學;
apologists and divines to an optimistic view of pagan philosophy.
相反,他們看出,
These truths, they saw,
這些真理所在的思想體系是敵對福音、且扭曲這些真理的。
were embedded in and distorted by systems of thought that were antithetical to the gospel.
如奧古斯丁所說,真智慧一定出自對上帝話語的信心,
As Augustine said, true wisdom must begin with faith in God’s Word,
這信心出於聖靈的超自然恩典,
faith that is generated by a supernatural grace of the Holy Spirit
它能夠戰勝深深埋藏在人心中的對上帝的悖逆。
to overcome man’s deeply rooted rebellion against God.
黑暗籠罩了萬國,唯有基督能夠驅散這片陰霾。
Darkness envelops the nations, a darkness that only Christ can dispel.
這些早期基督教思想家致力於用光來揭露黑暗,
These early Christian thinkers sought to expose the darkness with the light,
讓人類那充滿偶像敬拜的愚昧哲學受到聖經的徹底批判。
subjecting the idolatrous and foolish philosophies of man to radical, biblical critique.
這些早期基督教思想家採用的方式是引用聖經、
They did so by quoting the Scriptures and employing legitimate methods of reasoning
應用基督徒與非基督徒都會使用的理性論證法。
that were shared both by Christians and non-Christians.
我們註意到,
Among the Greek fathers,
像亞他那修和大馬士革的聖約翰這樣的希腊教父們
such as Athanasius and John of Damascus, we observed a tendency to
更喜歡試圖通過人的理性論證
to try and prove some Christian doctrines to
來向非基督徒證明一些基督教教義。
non-Christians through human reasoning.
儘管奧古斯丁也在自然界中
Although Augustine saw some signs of such
觀察到了某些教義(如三位一體)的證據,
doctrines as the Trinity in the natural world,
但他對理性論證的使用主要致力於
he focused upon using reasoning to critique non-Christian perspectives
批判非基督徒的觀點和顯明聖經所啟示的基督教的超越性。
and show the superiority of Christian religion as revealed in the Bible.
離開了基督,人最好的理性也不過是使他成為一個短目之人,
Apart from Christ, man’s best reasoning leaves him like a short sighted person
他只能隱隱約約地看到天國的一星半點,
who can only get blurry glimpses of the heavenly country
卻怎麼也無法靠近它。
but is stranded far from it.
接下來我們要講第二小點,
This brings us now to subpoint B,
自然神學在中世紀的發展。
the medieval development of natural theology.
在中世紀早期,
The study of Greek philosophy declined
西方講拉丁語的教會對希腊哲學的研究逐漸減少。
in Western, Latin-speaking church during the early medieval period.
但是,
However,
通過穆斯林哲學家阿爾·肯迪(801-873)等學者的工作,
it experienced a renaissance in Arabic culture through the efforts of scholars
希腊哲學在阿拉伯文化中經歷了復興。
such as the Muslim philosopher Al-Kindi, who lived from 801 to 873.
在隨後的幾個世紀中,
In the centuries that followed,
穆斯林學者和猶太學者認真研究了古代哲學,
Muslim and Jewish scholarship carefully studied ancient philosophy with a view towards
以期使用古代哲學知識
integrating its insights
into the analysis and defense of their own religious beliefs.
來對他們自己的宗教進行分析和辯護。
通過這些學者的系統哲學著作,
The philosophy of Aristotle penetrated monotheistic
例如穆斯林學者法拉比、阿維森納、和阿維羅伊的著作,
but non-Christian thinking in a significant way through the systematic and philosophical writings of Muslim
還有猶太學者薩迪亞·加昂、摩西·邁蒙尼德的著作,
scholars such as Al-Farabi, Avicenna and Averroes,
亞里士多德的哲學對非基督教的一神論思想產生了重大影響。
and the Jewish scholars Saadia Gaon and Moses Maimonides.
這些學者所做的一個重大工作就是發展自然神學,
A significant project undertaken by these scholars was the development of natural theology,
他們使用亞里士多德的理論來論證:
arguing from creation to its Creator using
因為有受造物,所以有造物主。
Aristotelian arguments.
阿維森納、阿維羅伊、以及邁蒙尼德的著作的拉丁語譯本
The Latin translations of Avicenna, Averroes, and Maimonides would profoundly affect
對中世紀晚期的基督教神學家,
late Christian theologians in the medieval
如托馬斯·阿奎那, 產生了極大影響。
period, such as Thomas Aquinas.
但是,
Now, although
雖然猶太教與伊斯蘭教在一神論上與基督教有某些相似之處,
Judaism and Islam share with Christianity some elements of monotheistic belief,
它們並不像基督教一樣強調罪對人的影響,
these other religions lack Christianity’s emphasis upon
比如罪使人心意昏暗、讓人傾向於敬拜偶像;
sin’s darkening of the human mind, man’s perverse inclination
它們也沒有像基督教這樣教導:
towards idolatry, and salvation through Christ
人唯獨靠著聖靈的恩典、因著基督才能得救。
alone by the grace of the Holy Spirit.
這些對猶太教和伊斯蘭教的自然神學的發展影響重大,
And this has significant implications for the way that they formulated their natural theology,
因為自然神學發展的關鍵
the success of which depends upon
在於人是否能夠並願意
human ability and willingness to acknowledge God
從上帝創造的萬物中來認識祂啟示的自己。
as he reveals himself in his created works.
我們發現,基督教的中世紀經院主義中大量採用了自然神學。
We find a more extensive use of natural theology appearing in Christian medieval scholasticism.
在11世紀後半葉,
In the latter half of the 11th century,
坎特伯雷的安塞姆在他的《獨白》一書中
Anselm of Canterbury sought in his Monologion
試圖在不訴諸聖經的情況下
to prove, without appealing to the Bible,
證明上帝的存在、上帝的屬性、
God’s existence, His attributes,
上帝的三位一體、以及上帝的創造之工。
His Trinity, and the work of creation.
安塞姆還在他的《證據》一書中指出,
Anselm also argued in his book Proslogion
當我們想到上帝是“我們能思想到的最高存在”時,
that when we consider that God is “a being than which none greater can be thought,”
我們就意識到:這個存在必定真的存在,
we realized that this being must necessarily exist,
因為一個必定存在的存在高於一個可能不存在的存在。 ”
for a being that necessarily exists is greater than one that might not exist.”
人們把這種論證稱為對上帝存在的本體論論證,
That’s called the ontological argument for the existence of God,
但對許多人來說,
and that’s proven controversial
這一論證是有爭議、且讓人難以理解的。
and even difficult for many people to understand.
但還是有一些哲學家堅持這種論證。
But there are some philosophers who still defend it.
隨後又有神學家(如彼得·倫巴德和聖文德)教導說,
Subsequent theologians such as Peter Lombard and Bonaventure taught that it is possible
人有可能根據理性和對自然界的觀察
to deduce God’s attributes based upon reasoning and observations
推理出上帝的屬性。
from the natural world.
與自然神學聯繫最為緊密的神學家是托馬斯·阿奎那,
The theologian most closely associated with natural theology is Thomas Aquinas,
阿奎那提倡,只要不違背聖經,
who advocated a limited use of Aristotle’s thought
我們可以對亞里士多德的思想進行有限的使用。
insofar as it did not contradict the Holy Scriptures.
阿奎那否認安塞姆所說的
Aquinas rejected Anselm’s argument for the necessary existence
“‘人類能想象的最高存在’是必然存在的。”
of “something than which nothing greater can be thought.”
但是阿奎那基於保羅在羅馬書1章20節中的教導,
However, based upon Paul’s teaching in Romans 1:20, Aquinas did believe that
相信上帝的創造可以證明上帝的存在。
God’s existence can be demonstrated from what he created.
正如“有恩典才有自然”一樣,
Just as “grace presupposed nature,”
信仰允許我們在那些無關信仰特定宗旨的事情上使用自然理性,
so faith allows for the use of natural reason in those matters that are not special objects of faith,
例如哲學中的形而上學。
such as philosophical metaphysics.
阿奎那寫道,“我們可以用五種方法來證明上帝的存在”。
Aquinas wrote that “the existence of God can be proven in five ways.”
這五種方法的總結如下。
And here’s a summary of his five ways.
第一個是變化或運動的證明。
Number one: argument from change
阿奎那說,一切運動都是從其他的動作中產生的,
or motion. All motion comes from something else, Aquinas said,
若由此類推,無限延續,
but an infinite series of movers would never
是沒有推動者會自己首先開始運動的;
start moving, so there is
因此,一定有一位不動的“第一推動者”。
an unmoved First Mover.
第二個是因果關係的證明。
Number two, argument from causation.
這個世上的一切事物都必定事出有因,
Everything in this world must have a cause prior to itself,
若由此類推,因果關係的無限延續是不合邏輯的。
and an infinite series of causes is impossible,
因此,一定有一位“第一因”。
so there must be a First Cause.
第三個是偶然性的證明。
Number three, argument from contingency.
自然界的事物並沒有存在的必然性,
Natural things do not necessarily have to exist,
所以它們的存在一定源自一個必然的存在。
and so their existence must arise from something that necessarily exists in itself.
第四個是至善至美的證明。
Number four, the argument from perfection.
一切的美善都出自更美善的事物,
All goodness comes from something with more goodness,
因此,一定有一位至善至美的源頭。
and therefore, there must be something of perfect goodness at the root of it all.
第五個是計劃與設計的證明。
And number five, argument from design.
阿奎那說,自然界中的許多事物本身並沒有智能,
Aquinas said that many things in nature lack intelligence,
但它們卻常常依照清楚的設計來運作,良性地循環,
yet they often act with evidence design to produce good results,
這就表明它們一定有一位有智慧的設計者。
which implies a wise Designer.
雖然阿奎那在每一種方法的最後都會總結說,
Though Aquinas concluded each proof by saying “this
“我們稱之為上帝”,
we call God,”
但他並沒有試圖僅靠理性就來完整地構造上帝的屬性,
he did not attempt to build a complete picture of God’s attributes by reasoning alone
他還留心參考了聖經和天主教的傳統。
but also looked to Scripture and Catholic tradition.
因此,阿奎那的這“五種方法”並不能全面地證明基督教有神論,
Thus, the “five ways” are not a comprehensive proof for a Christian theism,
但它們是阿奎那用來闡述“上帝存在”這一現實的起點。
but they are a starting point that he used to introduce the reality of God.
我們能從阿奎那的這五種方法中
In the five ways of Aquinas, we hear
隱隱約約地看到非基督徒哲學家留下的影響,
echoes of non-Christian philosophers
例如第一、第二和第五種方法與亞里士多德的觀點相似,
such as Aristotle in ways 1, 2 and 5,
第三種方法與柏拉圖的觀點相似,
and Plato in ways 3,
這些都是阿維森納、阿維羅伊、和邁蒙尼德的著作
echoes that Aquinas derived from Avicenna, Averroes and
對阿奎那的影響。
Maimonides.
同時我們應該認識到,在阿奎那這樣的中世紀神學家之前,
At the same time, we should recognize that medieval theologians such as Aquinas
早已有亞他那修和大馬士革的聖約翰為先例,
could also look for precedent set by Athanasius and John of Damascus,
這兩位曾經信心滿滿地論證:
both of whom argued confidently
人類可以從自然啟示中得出關於上帝的基本真理。
from natural revelation to fundamental truths about God.
阿奎那相信,自然理性可以使人們認識關於上帝的基本真理,
Aquinas believed that natural reason could bring people to know basic truths about God,
但是它無法使人推論出如三位一體這樣的教義,
but it could not deduce some doctrines, such as the Trinity, and it could not
也不能引導人得救,
bring a person to salvation,
因為阿奎那說,人是因信心而得救。
which is by faith, he said.
此外,對上帝話語的信心
Furthermore, faith in God’s Word
足以使人接受他們所需的一切關於上帝的真理;
is sufficient to accept all necessary truths about God
與人墮落的理性相比,這份信心能給人更好的確據。
and offers a better certainty than man’s fallible reason.
所以阿奎那認為,
Therefore, Aquinas gave fallen human reasoning
人類墮落的理性能讓人對上帝有有限但真實的認識。
a limited but real ability to know God.
自宗教改革以來,
Aquinas has had a major
阿奎那的觀點對基督教思想有著重大影響。
impact upon Christian thought since the Reformation.
儘管有一些爭議,
Despite some controversy,
羅馬教皇還是在1323年將阿奎那封為聖徒,
the Roman papacy canonized him as a saint, 1323,
又在1567年將阿奎那封為天主教會的權威教師,
made him a doctor or authoritative teacher of the church in 1567,
並於1879年宣稱:阿奎那的著作為基督教教育奠定了根基。
and declared his writings a foundational source of Christian education in 1879.
我們從羅馬天主教
The Thomist proofs for God’s existence
在20世紀末發表的《羅馬天主教教理問答》中可以看出,
remain a significant part of Roman Catholic theology,
托馬斯·阿奎那論證上帝存在的五種方法
as evidenced in the Roman Catholic catechism
仍是羅馬天主教神學的一大重要組成部分。
issued in the late 20th century.
在這裡,我們想對托馬斯·阿奎那的自然神學做一個簡短的評價。
Here we’d like to offer a brief assessment of Tomaist natural theology.
現代福音派和改革宗學者
Modern evangelical and Reformed scholars
非常贊賞阿奎那主張真理合一的做法,
appreciate Aquinas for his stand for the unity of the truth,
無論是自然啟示還是特殊啟示的真理。
both natural and revealed.
但是他們常常批判阿奎那,
However, Aquinas is often criticized
說他過度依靠人類理性的力量。
for leaning too much upon the power of human reasoning.
阿奎那對“自然理性”的說服力充滿信心,
Aquinas worked with confidence in the persuasive power of “natural reason,
他認為,“所有人都不得不認可自然理性的論證”。
to which all men are forced to give their assent.”
但是許多學者並不同意他的觀點。
Many scholars disagree.
若是往壞里說,阿奎那的證明不過是在原地轉圈,
At worst, his proofs only traverse a circular path
他所建立的都是基督徒早已相信的東西;
to establish what Christians already believe;
往好里說,阿奎那的證明證實了一種哲學上的抽象體,
at best, they prove a philosophical abstraction
但是,這一抽象體與聖經所啟示的上帝還是相去甚遠。
that falls far short of the God revealed in the Bible.
普遍啟示不能被人對理性自主的追求扭曲,
General revelation cannot be co-opted by man’s quest for rational autonomy
不能屈從於人對證據的要求。
and subjugated to the demand for proof.
正如一位學者寫的:“最基本的事實是:
As one scholar wrote, “The insufficiency of the proofs
唯獨上帝自己是祂真理的標準、是證明祂存在的論據。
for the existence of God is explained by the fundamental fact that God alone
這就解釋了
is the criterion of his
人為什麼不可能找到足夠的證據來證明上帝的存在。
truth, God alone is the argument for his being.
上帝既不可能被邏輯論證所限制,
God can never be subject to logical demonstrations
也不可能被因果關係所禁錮。”
nor enclosed in a causal chain.”
相反,上帝的存在是一切理性思考的基礎。
Instead, the existence of God is the foundation for all rational thinking.
道格拉斯·凱利認為,這才是安塞姆的本體論論證的實意。
Douglas Kelly thinks that this was Anselm’s insight in the ontological argument.
凱利寫道:“除非我們認識到,上帝是至高的存在,
Kelly writes, “Unless we presuppose God is the one than whom none greater can be conceived,
否則我們將無法理解任何其他事物……
then we cannot make sense of anything else…
任何一種全面的理論體系
Some kind of ‘ontological’ presupposition seems necessary
似乎都需要某種“本體論”作為前提……
for any and every comprehensive system of reasoning…
那些否認三位一體的上帝的思想體系若要合理存在,
Systems of thought that reject the Holy Trinity needs some other ultimate reference point
必須要有其他的最終參考點 – 某個其他的必然存在。”
to make their system work; some necessary thing.”
因此,
Thus,
“上帝的存在”不需要我們用一系列邏輯理論來證明;
God’s existence is not something proven by a string of logic so much as it is
相反,它是大“前提”、是奠定人類思想的基石。
the great “given” that undergirds all human thinking.
這個“我們可以從上帝的創造中認識上帝”的教義,
It seems that Aquinas shifted from the teaching that “God is known
似乎在阿奎那這裡變成了
from His created effects” to the claim
“我們可以明確證實上帝的存在和祂無限的完全”。
that “the existence and infinite perfections of God can be demonstrably proved.”
因此,德馬雷斯特在他的著作《普遍啟示》中這樣寫道:
So speaks Demarest in his book General Revelation.
“藉此,阿奎那將上帝普遍啟示的見證中所擁有的權威
Thus, he subtly shifted authority from the witness of God’s general revelation
不知不覺地轉移到了人類自己的理性力量上,
to man’s own rational powers,
可是人的理性已經因罪變得昏暗與無能為力。
which are darkened by sin and made futile.
阿奎那可能無意識地
It may be that such a presumption was unwittingly
從伊斯蘭教、猶太教哲學家那裡接受了這種理論的灌輸。
imported by Aquinas from the philosophers of Islam and Judaism.
雖然阿奎那在超自然恩典、特殊啟示和人類理性的張力中,
While Aquinas held this confidence in human reasoning, in tension
對人類理性表達了一定的信心,
with the necessity of supernatural grace and special revelation,
伊斯蘭教和猶太教的神學卻認為,
Islamic and Jewish theology granted a place
人類擁有不依靠上帝的理性自主。
for human rational autonomy from God.
但事實是,上帝從沒想過要在人的審判台前證明什麼,
The fact of the matter is that God never seeks to prove anything before the judgment seat of men,
相反,上帝呼召人到祂的審判台前,
but summons men before his judgment seat
這樣他們才能意識到:他們亟需一位救贖主。
so that they may realize their need for a Savior.
好,我們接下來要講“宗教改革與自然神學的批判性互動”,
Well this brings us to consider now, the Reformation’s critical interaction with natural theology,
但在我們先稍作休息。
but before we go on to that, let’s take a break.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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