系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第13講 普遍啟示之聖經教導

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

我一直說不好這個人的名字,我儘力而為。
I never know how to pronounce this guy’s name so I’ll do my best,
亞歷山大·索爾仁尼琴,生於1918年,卒於2008年,
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, 1918–2008,
是一名俄羅斯歷史學家和作家,
was a Russian historian and author
他因批評蘇聯而遭監禁,後又被逐出他的祖國。
imprisoned for his criticism of the Soviet Union and later expelled from his homeland.
在1983年的時候,他寫下了這些文字,
He wrote in 1983 these words,
“半個多世紀以前,當我還是個孩子的時候,我記得一些老人,
“More than half a century ago, while I was still a child, I recall hearing
他們面對俄羅斯遭受的巨大災難,給出了這樣的解釋:
a number of old people offer the following explanation for the great disasters
‘人們已經遺忘了上帝,這是這一切之所以會發生的原因。’
that had befallen Russia: ‘Men have forgotten God; that’s why all this has happened.’
自那以後,我花了近五十年的時間,研究我們國家的革命歷史;
Since then I have spent well-nigh fifty years working on the history of our Revolution;
在此過程中,我讀了數百本書,收錄了數百份的個人見證,
in the process I have read hundreds of books, collected hundreds of personal testimonies,
我自己也寫了八本書,
have already contributed eight volumes of my own
只為了在清理那次巨變留下的廢墟上盡一點自己的努力。
toward the effort of clearing away the rubble left by that upheaval.
但今天,若有人要我盡可能簡潔地闡述
But if I were asked today to formulate as concisely as possible
那次吞噬了我們六千多萬人民的毀滅性革命的主要起因,
the main cause of the ruinous Revolution that swallowed up
我認為最準確的回答就是重覆這一句:
some sixty million of our people, I could not put it more accurately than to repeat:
‘人們已經遺忘了上帝;這是這一切之所以會發生的原因。’”
‘Men have forgotten God; that’s why all this has happened.’
索爾仁尼琴這樣說,並非是針對俄羅斯,
Now he did not say this in older to single out Russia,
他在對歐洲與美國的評論中也說了同樣的話。
but as part of his critique of Europe and the United States as well.
他繼續說,“整個二十世紀的最大特點”和最大的問題,
He goes on to say, that “the principal trait of the entire twentieth century”
就是“人們已經遺忘了上帝。”
and its problems is that “men have forgotten God.”
因此,我們也可以這樣說,
And so we may likewise say that all of the atrocities
現代社會中之所以會有種種暴行,是因為人類背棄了上帝。
of the modern age have come about because mankind has turned its back on God.
美國怎麼可以在國家最高法院的司法許可下,
How could United States of America slaughter 58 million babies in the womb
殺死還在母腹中的5800萬嬰兒(指美國墮胎合法化)?
under judicial permission of the supreme court of the land?
我們是怎麼一步步淪落到這個地步的?
How could we have gotten ourselves to a point where
還有六天就是總統大選了,而候選人之一(希拉里)居然聲稱,
we are six days away from possibly electing, as President of the United States of America,
一個懷有九個月身孕的孕婦,
a woman who is saying, you can go to the hospital
仍可以去醫院墮胎,活生生地殺死她腹中的孩子。
nine months pregnant, and kill that living baby in your womb?
我們怎麼淪落到瞭如今的地步?
How have we got to this point?
這就是羅馬書1章21節所說的,
Well, that’s Romans 1:21,
“因為他們雖然知道上帝,卻不當作上帝榮耀他,也不感謝他。
“When they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful;
他們的思念變為虛妄,無知的心就昏暗了。”
but became vain in their imaginations, their foolish heart was darkened”.
我們剛剛說到的話也可以描述這一點,“人們已經遺忘了上帝”。
Or in the words we just heard, men have forgotten God.
因此,為了說明人類已經遠離上帝,
So in order to say that mankind has turned away from God,
我們首先必須認識到,就是保羅所說的,“他們知道上帝”。
we must first recognize that, as Paul’s words, “they knew God.”
“他們知道上帝。”
They knew God.
上帝已經向各族各國啟示了祂自己。
God has revealed Himself to all nations.
我們將這樣的啟示稱為“普遍啟示”,
We call this general revelation,
因為這個啟示已經藉著上帝的一切創造賜給了每一個人。
because it reaches to everyone in all of God’s creation.
打個比方,如果我在飛機上對旁邊的人說,
You can sit on a plane next to someone and when you tell them
“我親耳聽見希拉里·克林頓在總統大選的辯論中說,
that Hillary Clinton openly said in a debate, I heard them in my own ears,
一個懷有九個月身孕的孕婦還可以去醫院殺死腹中的孩子。”
you can be nine months pregnant and you can go into the hospital and kill that baby.
就算我旁邊坐的人是個無神論者,聽到這樣的話,
The person who’s sitting next to you on the plane can say, I am a atheist,
他也會屏住呼吸說,“希拉里怎麼能說這樣的話?”
and still sucking their breath when they hear this and say, how could she have said that?
因為“他們知道上帝”。
Because they knew God,
就算一個無神論者,也會在他生命的某個時刻有一些這樣的意識。
even the atheist has some impression at some point in his life,
雖然他很努力地想要壓制這樣的認識,
and though he’s trying to suppress it,
努力地想讓自己相信,世界上並沒有上帝。
trying to believe there’s no God more than he really believes there’s no God.
面對上帝在各個地方都給了我們普遍啟示的這一事實,
To such a point that we’ve come now is unspeakable.
我們竟然還是淪落到了這樣的地步,這真是令人難以啟齒。
In the face of the fact that God gives us general revelation everywhere.
無論是日月星辰,還是整個自然界,都在呼喊著:
And that the sun, and the moon and the stars and all of nature is shouting out,
有一位上帝,祂才是賜下生命和拿走生命的那一位,不是人。
that there’s a God, and He is the giver and taker of life, and not man.
因此藉著這個短短的介紹,
So I want you to feel by this little introduction
我希望我們能夠重視普遍啟示的教義。
that as we approach this doctrine of general revelation,
有時候,甚至是我們改革宗的基督徒,在談到普遍啟示的時候,
we are not talking about something that, you know, sometimes people, even in our circles,
顯示出的是一種不太重視的態度。在他們眼中,
you sort of get the feeling, they talk about general revelation, well,
好像超自然啟示才是真正重要的,
supernatural revelation is what gives us salvation so that’s the only thing that’s important,
而普遍啟示不那麼緊要。
general revelation isn’t very important.
我希望大家明白,普遍啟示仍然是非常重要的,
General revelation is still important,
羅馬書第1章和第2章就在這一點上表現得很明確。
Romans 1 and 2 make that abundantly plain.
所以我們需要瞭解普遍啟示。
And so, we need to understand general revelation,
特別是你們中要作牧師的人,更需要明白。
and particularly you, who hope to be pastors,
因為當我們與那些不相信特殊啟示的人接觸時,
in order to relate and evangelize people also, who don’t believe in special revelation,
當我們向他們傳福音時,可以從普遍啟示的立場上與他們對話,
so you can approach them on the grounds of general revelation
使他們相信,這個世界上有一位上帝。
and the conviction that there is a God.
我們在護教時也可以以這個角度為起點,因為他們不相信上帝的話語,
And do apologetics from that perspective, beginning there, because they don’t believe
所以毫無疑問,我們需要向後退一大步,
in the Word of God, so you’ve got to take a big step back, no doubt,
但是我們一定要從普遍啟示這個方面出發來與他們交談。
but you’ve got to approach it from general revelation.
所以,這個教義很重要,特別在幫助我們與別人談論上帝的時候。
So this doctrine is very important for talking to people about God,
尤其是在當今這個時代,許多人都不相信特殊啟示。
particularly in our day when so many people don’t believe in special revelation.
好,現在我們來看第一點,第一個大標題,
Now let’s look then at my first point, my first heading,
“在人周圍創造中的啟示”。
revelation around man in creation.
正如我們所看到的那樣,詩篇19篇說,
As we’ve seen, God’s created works
上帝的創造之工“訴說上帝的榮耀”。
“declare the glory of God,” Psalm 19
我們同時也看到,就像“沒有一物被隱藏不得太陽的熱氣”一樣,
has said, as we’ve seen, that just as nothing is hid from the heat of the sun,
地球上也沒有任何一個人可以躲避上帝在創造中
so no person on earth can escape the radiant majesty
所散髮出的光芒四射的威嚴,詩篇19篇第4節。
of God shining in His creation, verse 4.
而且,人是按上帝的形象所造的,
And being made in God’s image,
當他看著上帝所創造的完美世界時,他也會和上帝一樣,
man also looked upon God’s perfect world, and like God,
認為它“甚好”。
saw that it was “very good”.
所以,儘管人類墮落了,但是在今天,在我們周圍,
So despite the fall of man, this revelation of God’s glory and goodness in the world,
這種對上帝的榮耀與良善的啟示仍舊在繼續著。
the world around us continues until today.
首先,這種啟示是對上帝屬性的普遍啟示。
First of all, it involves the general revelation of the divine nature.
我們必須要來解決這樣一個問題,
We need to address the question,
即自然界到底能教導我們哪些關於上帝的知識,
exactly what does nature teach us about God,
不能教導我們哪些關於上帝的知識。
and what doesn’t it teach us about God.
羅馬書第1章第19節說,“上帝的事情人所能知道的,
Romans 1:19 and 20 says, “That which may be known of God is manifest in them;
原顯明在人心裡,因為上帝已經給他們顯明。
for God hath shewed it unto them.
自從造天地以來,上帝的永能和神性是明明可知的,
For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen,
雖是眼不能見,但藉著所造之物就可以曉得,
being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead;
叫人無可推諉。”
so that they are without excuse.”
因此,如果我們來分析這兩節經文,即羅馬書1章19節至20節,
And so if we unpack this text, Romans 1:19-20,
我們就會發現,使徒在教導我們一些關於上帝普遍啟示的真理。
we find the apostle teaching several truth about God,
我已經在大綱里把它們列出來了,
I’ve outlined them for you,
我就帶著大家簡短地過一遍,講一講其中的七個真理。
I just wanna briefly run through them, seven of them.
第一個,普遍啟示在一定程度內顯明瞭上帝。
Number one, general revelation reveals God to a limited degree.
保羅說,”上帝的事情人所能知道的。“
Paul spoke of “that which may be known of God.”
最有可能的情況是,這句話是在
Most likely, this phrase here contrasts this revelation to that
將普遍啟示與前面幾節所提到的“福音是上帝的大能”進行對比。
which is found in the gospel which refers to, in verse 17, as the power of God unto salvation.
彼得‧馬特‧菲密格理這樣說道,
Peter Martyr Vermigli said this,
“這是因為我們自己無法自然地就認識到上帝的許多奧秘,
“This is said because there are many divine mysteries that we cannot reach naturally,
比如上帝會讓我們得以白白被稱義,
such as that God would justify us freely,
上帝會因為基督上十字架而赦免我們的罪,
forgive our sins through Christ crucified,
以及上帝會使我們的身體複活,並活在永恆的幸福里。”
and restore these very bodies of ours to eternal happiness.”
所以,自然啟示只能在一定程度上顯明上帝。第二個,
So natural revelation only reveals God to a limited degree. Number two,
普遍啟示以公開明顯的方式顯明上帝。
it reveals God in an open and plain manner.
保羅說,普遍啟示是”顯明“的(希腊語是phaneros) ,
It is “manifest,” Paul says, “phaneros”,
不是”隱秘“的。
which is the opposite of secret.
換言之,普遍啟示不足以拯救我們,
In other words, general revelation,
因為我們通過普遍啟示所獲得的對上帝的知識還不夠,
though it doesn’t go far enough to save us, because we don’t learn enough about God,
我們既不能通過它認識到三位一體,也不能通過它認識到基督的寶血.
we don’t learn about the Trinity, we don’t learn about the blood of Christ.
但只要在普遍啟示中顯明的,都是公開且明顯的。
What it does reveal, it plainly reveals.
我們不需要通過別人的介紹才能進入上帝自然啟示的奧秘,
There is no initiation into the mysteries of the secret of the natural knowledge of God
我們自己就能瞭解與認識它們。
that you need to be inducted into before you can grasp them.
它們明明白白地寫在天空中,閃爍在陽光里,
It’s written in the sky, it’s shining in the sun,
也顯明於那隻在小草上爬行的瓢蟲身上。
it’s on the little lady bug climbing up a blade of grass.
它是清晰明確的。
It’s clear, it’s not a secret code
它不需要數學家或物理學家對其解密後,才能證明上帝的存在.
for mathematicians or physicists to discover that proves God’s existence.
我們既不需要任何特殊技術,也不需要什麼望遠鏡或者顯微鏡。
You don’t need any special technology, you don’t need any telescopes or microscopes.
它是一目瞭然的。
It’s clear.
巴文克很有意思地寫道,“所有的啟示都是擬人化的,
Bavinck puts it so interestingly, “All revelation is anthropomorphic,
上帝用了一種非常人性化的方式來啟示祂自己。
a kind of humanization of God.
在自然啟示中,上帝通過祂的被造物,將自己神聖與永恆的思想
In natural revelation his divine and eternal thoughts have been deposited in creatures
放在創造中,讓人類能夠通過思考去理解它們。”
in a creaturely way so that they could be grasped by our human thought processes.”
你們知道嗎,
You know, the most beautiful scenery I’ve ever seen in my life,
我一生中見過的最美麗的風景是瑞士阿爾卑斯山上的少女峰。
is that Jungfraujoch in the mountains of the Alps in Switzerland.
我記得,少女峰的頂上一年中只有二、三十天的時間有陽光。
And there was only like 20 or 30 days a year, I think it is,
而作為歐洲最高的山脈之一,
where it’s really sunny on top of that mountain,
它大部分的時間里都是籠罩在烏雲密佈中。
so almost always in shroud and in clouds, it’s one of the highest mountains in Europe.
而我和我太太都特別想在蜜月的時候能看到少女峰,
And my wife and I really wanted to see it on our honeymoon,
我們蜜月就是在瑞士過的。但是那幾天一直都是陰天。
we were on our honeymoon in Switzerland, and but it just kept being cloudy, cloudy, cloudy.
後來我們到了日內瓦,我們的蜜月也只剩下一天了。
So we finally made our way to Geneva, and then we had one more day on our honeymoon
結果,我們得知那天少女峰上的天氣特別好。
and we found out that the weather was absolutely perfect on top of the mountain Jungfraujoch.
於是我們就給少女峰旅游局打了個電話,他們說少女峰特別陡峭,
And we called up Jungfraujoch Tourist Office and they said,
所以上去時需要乘坐一輛登山齒軌鐵路列車,
well, the last cogwheel train that goes up the mountain, it’s so steep,
而最後一輛列車的出發時間是下午五點。
you need a cogwheel train, it goes up at 5 pm.
那時候還沒有導航,
And we looked at our map and, you know,
我們只能通過查看地圖來計算路上需要花費的時間,
we didn’t have GPS in those days, and we figured out how long it would take,
然後我們覺得我們可能可以在4點45分左右趕到那裡。
and we thought maybe we can make it by 15 minutes.
所以我們立刻從日內瓦出發,想要儘快趕到那裡去,
So we took off from Geneva and we, and we did speed a little bit,
也確實在路上超了點速。
and we went as fast as we could,
結果,我們在列車出發前5分鐘左右終於趕到了。
and we got there five to seven minutes before the cogwheel train went up. And it took us up there,
我們坐著齒軌鐵路列車一路向上,到達了頂峰。
and the splendor and the beauty, the snow was like, and this is middle of the summer, August,
雖然正直八月中旬,但是我們周圍全是15米至45米深的大雪。
and the snow was like 50 to 150 feet deep everywhere around us.
並且,我們從四面望出去,每個方向都能看到15至20個山嶺,
And you can see 15, 20 mountain ranges in all four directions,
我們舉目,四處皆是皚皚白雪和高聳的山嶺。
all you can see is just white, white, and mountain peaks everywhere.
在我們踏出列車的那一剎那,
It was so stunning, it just, you step out,
所看到的景色令人炫目,美得令人窒息。
it just takes your breath away. And you can be on the top of that mountain and you,
我們在山頂的時候還去滑了15分鐘的越野滑雪。
because we did that, we went, what do you call it, cross country skiing up there for 15 minutes,
山上極冷,我們穿著冬天的外套,卻又全都被曬傷了。
completely sunburn and it was cold, like you have your winter coats on.
當我們感受到那裡的氣候、那裡的空氣、那裡的美麗時,
There’s just something about the weather up there, something about the air,
我們知道,上帝就在那裡。
something about the beauty, I mean, God is in this place.
沒有人可以否認這一點。
I mean, you can’t possibly not feel it.
有意思的是,在瑞士這個自稱在信仰上中立的國家,
And interestingly, in Switzerland, that’s claiming to be so neutral to God,
在這個幾乎沒有任何宗教的國家,我們卻能在少女峰的山頂上,
very little religion, all over the place on top of that mountain
隨處可見刻著聖經經文的小紀念牌,
there are these little plaques of Bible texts about God,
這些經文宣告著上帝的偉大、上帝的良善和上帝的威嚴。
and God’s greatness and God’s goodness, and the majesty of God, everywhere.
我覺得在瑞士這個國家裡,很少會有地方對基督教有這樣的容忍。
I don’t think there’s another place in Switzerland, or very few, they tolerate.
人們會抗議:
People would object,
“你們為什麼要到處貼、到處放這些有關上帝的東西?”
what are you doing, putting all these things up about God?
但是就在那個美不勝收的地方,
But there in the middle of that beautiful sight, you see, everyone,
每個人都感受到了上帝的真實性,所以沒有人膽敢提出質疑。
everyone feels the reality of this, so nobody even dares to challenge.
不過現在上去的一些科學家也許會提出質疑。
Maybe, maybe the scientists out there now,
但是無論如何,上帝的真實性顯而易見。
I don’t know, but it’s plain.
這才是重點,就是”上帝真實地存在著”。有問題嗎?
That’s the point, that God exists. Yeah.
學生:您還記得那個地方的名字嗎?
Student: Do you remember the name of the…?
周必克教授:你說少女峰的位置嗎?
Beeke: Jungfraujoch?
確實是在它附近,但是好像不是同一個地方。
It’s close to there, I think, I don’t think that’s the same place.
對,格林瓦德,少女峰在格林瓦德附近。
Grindelwald, it’s by Grindelwald too.
格林瓦德也是一個非常漂亮的地方。
Yeah, and Grindelwald is very beautiful too. But
但是少女峰確實格外的美麗。
Jungfraujoch is just extraordinary.
第三個,普遍啟示按上帝的旨意來顯明祂。
Number three, it reveals God according to His will.
保羅在羅馬書1章19至20節這樣說,
Paul says, I am staying right in Romans 1:19-20,
上帝祂自己已經向他們“顯明”,這個詞的字面意思就是“表明”,
God himself has “shewed”, literally “manifested”,
希腊語是phaneroō。
“phaneroō”, it to them.
孟思恩對”上帝已經給他們顯明”這句話的理解是,
Robert Mounce translates this “God has made it plain” as is intentional,
上帝按著自己的心意,特意向人類顯明自己。
divine revelation to mankind according to His will.
這不是從上帝的創造之工中偶然產生的副產品。
This is not an accidental by-product of God’s work.
上帝創造,就是為了讓人們看到祂的榮耀,
God works to cause people to see His glory
由此呼召他們悔改並敬拜祂。
in order to call them to repentance and worship.
第四個,普遍啟示顯明瞭這位無形無體的上帝。
And number four, it reveals the invisible God.
保羅說,“雖然眼不能見…… 但……是明明可知的。”
Paul said “the invisible things of him are clearly seen.”
加爾文說,保羅在這裡使用的動詞既可以指感覺,也可以指心智。
And the verb here can refer to sense perception or to mental intelligence, as Calvin puts it.
保羅將它與”可以曉得“一起連用,
Combined with “being understood,”
很有可能指的是人既要使用感覺、又要使用心智,
it probably indicates that it involves the use
去認識上帝的普遍啟示。
of both the senses and the mind.
而正如一位學者所觀察到的那樣,
One scholar puts it this way,
“普遍啟示並不止步於認識,它還要人們進行反思,
“The revelation does not stop with perception but is expected to include reflection,
從而得出有關造物主的結論。”
the drawing of conclusions about the Creator.”
因此,我們心中對“上帝存在”這一事實的直覺感受,
So existence of God is within us intuitively
對我們理解我們所處的世界而言是必須的,
and that intuitive knowledge is necessary to make sense of the world around us,
因為這個世界清楚地顯明瞭這位無形無體的上帝。
because it’s so plainly reveals the invisible God.
賀智寫道,“在自然情況下,
A. A. Hodge writes, “The constitutional faculties of the human soul
人類靈魂中的本能或多或少能夠自發地認識到,
do under all natural conditions, secure the spontaneous recognition, more or less clear,
上帝是一切存在的根基,也是我們良心的主人。”
of God as the ultimate ground of all being, and as the Lord of conscience.”
因此,保羅的意思是,人”知道上帝“,
So the result is, Paul is saying, men “knew God,”
雖然不一定愛祂或敬拜祂,但是他們至少是知道祂的。
not necessarily, of course, with love and with worship, but with at least cognition.
第五個,普遍啟示顯明瞭上帝的神性。
Now number five, it reveals God’s divine nature.
保羅說,普遍啟示不僅表明瞭上帝的存在,還表明瞭祂的屬性。
General revelation, Paul says, not only demonstrates God’s existence, but also His attributes,
比如保羅提到了“祂的永能”。
such as, and he mentions this, “His eternal power.”
所以,普遍啟示使人們認識到了“不能朽壞之上帝的榮耀”。
So, general revelation makes known “the glory of the incorruptible God.”
“那造物的主 – 主乃是可稱頌的,直到永遠。”
“The Creator, who is blessed for ever.”
保羅在接下來的1章23節和25節中繼續使用了這兩個短語,
Those are the very phrases Paul goes on to use in verses 23 and 25,
即“不能朽壞之上帝的榮耀”
“the glory of the incorruptible God”
和“那造物的主 – 主乃是可稱頌的,直到永遠”。
“The Creator, who is blessed for ever.”
而被譯為“神性”的這個詞,它“表明的是
So the word translated “Godhead” or “divinity”
上帝之所以是上帝、並擁有被敬拜的權利的這樣一種性質”。
means “that which shows God to be God, and gives Him the right to be worshiped.”
我很清楚地記得,在少女峰峰頂上的那些經文和牌匾,
So all of those signs, by the way, on top of Jungfraujoch, I remember vividly,
不只提到了上帝的屬性,還提到了我們需要敬拜祂。
were not just about the attributes of God, but also about how God needed to be worshiped.
當我們在自然啟示中感受到了上帝的真實性,
When you feel the reality of God through natural revelation,
我們就知道,我們需要俯伏敬拜祂。
you know you need to bow down.
這是人的本能,我們要俯伏敬拜祂。
It’s instinctive, you need to bow down and worship Him.
第六個,普遍啟示在整個歷史中顯明瞭上帝。
Six, it reveals God throughout history.
保羅在1章19節和20節中說,“自從造天地以來”,
Paul’s words here in verse 19 and 20 are “from the creation of the world.”
這些事情“是明明可知的”。
These things “are clearly seen.”
保羅在這裡採用的是現在時,
They are in the present tense,
表明這是一直在持續、在反覆發生的動作。
implying that Paul is speaking of continuous or repeated action.
是自上帝起初創造世界時就一直在進行著的動作。
This action has been going on since the initial creation.
接下來是第七個,普遍啟示借上帝所創造的世界來顯明祂。
And seventh, it reveals God through His created world.
保羅所說的“所造之物”指的是上帝起初所創造的一切。
“The things that are made,” Paul says, referring to the original creation.
所以,保羅通過使用“人”“飛禽”“走獸”和“昆蟲”等詞,
So Paul alludes to Genesis 1 with the words “man,” and “birds,” and “fourfooted beast,”
暗指創世紀第1章。
and “creeping things.”
因此,保羅在羅馬書第1章中所談論的啟示,
So Paul is not speaking here, see, Romans 1 is not speaking about
不是指通過上帝的話語或者神跡的顯現而出現的特殊啟示,
special revelation through divine words or appearances of miracles,
而是普通啟示,即那些在上帝所創造的世界中存在的普通生物,
but about ordinary creatures in God’s universe, general revelation,
比如飛禽、走獸和昆蟲。
birds and beasts and creeping things.
約翰·默里這樣寫道,
John Murray writes this,
“這些現象揭示的是上帝那超然完美又獨具神性的本性”。
“Phenomena disclose the noumena of God’s transcendent perfection and specific identity.”
所以從一開始,上帝就是我們的大教師,並與我們同在,
So from the beginning, God is present with us as our Teacher,
而上帝祂自己就是我們在世界這所大學校中要研究的最重要的課題。
as the greatest subject that we learn in the school of the universe is God himself.
上帝無處不在。
He manifests Himself everywhere.
同時,我們要知道,上帝在墮落的世界中也普遍啟示了祂的忿怒.
Now there’s also such a thing as the general revelation of divine wrath in a fallen world.
保羅在羅馬書1章18節中這樣說道,
Paul says in the verse before, Romans 1:18,
“原來,神的憤怒從天上顯明在一切不虔不義的人身上,
“For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness
就是那些行不義阻擋真理的人。”
and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness.”
等一下,我們是不是應該1點45分下課?
Wait a minute, we are supposed to close at 1:45, right?
這堂課是應該上到1點45分對嗎?哦,好吧。
Is it 1:45? This class is supposed to? Yeah, okay.
那我們就只有下周再接著講了……
All right, I am gonna pick up here next week, so we will…
但是,再給我幾分鐘吧,我很快就能講完。
give me one minute and I can finish this.
這樣我們下次就可以從一個新的大點開始講。
And then we are at another main point.
可以嗎?實在很抱歉,但是在這裡停下來確實很奇怪。
Okay. I am sorry. But no sense stopping right here.
雖然上帝是在福音中顯明瞭祂救贖的公義,
So God reveals His saving righteousness of Himself in the gospel,
但祂同時也在普遍啟示中顯明瞭祂對罪人的普遍性忿怒,
but at the same time, in general revelation, though there is not enough Gospel to save us,
即使普遍啟示中並沒有足以拯救我們的福音。
He does reveal something of His universal wrath against sinners.
這就是保羅在羅馬書1章16節至18節中所說的。
That’s what Paul is saying in 16 through 18.
默里這樣評論道,“上帝的忿怒真實又有力地在顯明於人的世界中,
And so John Murray comments, “The wrath of God is dynamically, effectively operative
而正因為它來自天上上帝的寶座,所以它十分活躍。”
in the world of men and it is as proceeding from heaven, the throne of God, that is thus active.”
而18節中的”顯明“一詞所採用的是現在時態。
But the word “revealed” here is in the present tense.
如果一個人不信主、又從未讀過聖經,他不可能說,
You can’t look out in nature if you are an unbeliever, you’ve never heard of the Bible and
我能從大自然中看出最後會有一個審判日。
say, I see in nature the final judgment day.
這樣的認識只能通過特殊啟示而來。
That comes through special revelation.
但是一個人卻可以說,藉著歷史上所發生的事情,
But you can say through acts in history that you can see enough in natural revelation
他從自然啟示中可以看出上帝是一位反對不義的忿怒的上帝。
to see that God is an angry God against unrighteousness.
因此,保羅在這裡總結了舊約中的這類主題,
So Paul draws here upon the Old Testament themes of God’s sending blindness,
即上帝任憑罪人瞎眼、心硬和愚昧,以此作為對他們的屬靈審判。
and hardness, and foolishness as a spiritual judgment upon sinners.
保羅在另一個處說,這樣的審判也可能以身體上災禍的形式出現。
Now that judgment, Paul says elsewhere, can also be seen at times,
但是我們在這方面一定要非常小心,不要亂下結論。
we have to be careful, of course, with all our conclusions here, with physical calamities.
人身體上的災禍有時候是表現上帝忿怒的一種普遍警告,
Physical calamities can also be received as general warnings of divine wrath,
上帝以此呼召他們悔改,
as calls to repentance,
而人的自然良心甚至也會對這一點有所反應。
and that echoes even in the conscience of the natural man.
好了,我今天的課就講到這裡。
Alright, I am going to stop there.
非常感謝你們讓我能夠多講這幾分鐘。
Thank you for giving me those few extra minutes.
在人裡面的啟示。
Revelation within man.
上帝的普遍啟示並非僅僅顯明在人以外的自然世界中,
God’s general revelation doesn’t just happen in nature outside of us.
它也會在自然人心中有所顯明。
It also happens within even the natural man.
而人裡面的普遍啟示主要涉及到兩個主要方面。
And it involves two major things.
它既包括我們裡面的上帝的形象,
It involves the image of God in us,
也包括我們裡面對上帝的義務感與責任感。
and also an inner sense of divine obligation, divine accountability.
我們接下來就是要查考這兩點。
And we want to look at those two things.
首先,在上帝形像中的普遍啟示。
First then, general revelation according to the image of God.
既然人是按著上帝的形象所造,
As God’s image,
那麼人性中就保留著上帝代表的這個烙印。
human nature is imprinted with a representation of God.
它存在於我們的基因中。
That’s in our DNA.
當然,我們最初所處的狀態是”甚好“的,
And our original state, of course, it was called “very good”,
因為人是對上帝的真理、仁義和聖潔的一個活生生的啟示。
because we were a living revelation of God’s knowledge, righteousness, and holiness. And those
而上帝的形象本質中所含有的這三樣東西,即真理、仁義和聖潔,
three things that belong to the essence of the image of God, knowledge, righteousness, and holiness,
也是一個人在與基督連接、得以重生之後,得以被更新的三樣東西.
are the same three things that are renewed when we are born again, and united to Christ.
保羅在兩處廣為人知的經文中所說的,就可以證明這一點,
That’s what Paul says in the two famous proof text for this,
這兩節經文當然就是以弗所書4章24節和歌羅西書3章10節。
texts you should memorize well, Ephesians 4:24
你們應該把它們牢記下來。
and, of course, Colossians 3:10.
當然,從廣義上來說,人在墮落後仍然保留著上帝的形象。
In another sense, of course, God’s image remained in man after the fall in a wider sense.
我記得上次我在白板上給大家畫了一個圖,我再畫一遍。
So as I drew on the board, I believe last time, let me just revive that a moment, knowledge,
先是狹義上的真理、仁義和聖潔,然後有一個廣義上的上帝的形象,
righteousness, holiness in a narrow sense, and then there’s a wider sense of the image of God,
它裡面有著我們在還未重生時仍然還擁有的東西。
which contains other things that we still have even when we are not regenerate,
雖然這些東西都被罪污穢了,甚至變得面目全非,
though those things are defaced, sometimes almost beyond recognition,
但是它們確實還在。
yet there are there.
比如,我們既不是動物,也不是魔鬼。
And to this category belongs things like this, we are not animals, we are not devils,
我們不是動物,我們比它們高級。
we are superior to the animals,
我們也不是魔鬼,雖然我們全然敗壞,但我們終究不是魔鬼。
and though we are depraved in every part of us, we are not like the devils.
至少在改革宗的圈子裡,我就曾經聽人這樣說過,
I’ve heard people say, at least in my circles,
“主啊,我的心如此敗壞,和魔鬼的心一樣邪惡。”
Lord my heart is so bad, it’s every bit as bad as the devil’s.
這是不對的。
Well, that’s not true.
因為魔鬼的良心是完全封閉起來的。
The devil has his conscience entirely seared shut.
我們是人,是有自我意識的人,
The fact that we are also personal beings, self-conscious personal beings,
我們是與動物分別開來的人。
separates us from the animal kingdom as well.
雖然因為墮落,我們的道德被污穢了,
And that we have a sense of morality, it’s defaced,
但是我們仍然是有道德感的。
of course, because we are fallen. But
我們仍然是擁有道德的主體,仍然有責任要按著上帝的旨意行。
the fact that we remain moral agents accountable to God
這是深深印在我們的心上的。
for doing His will is something that impress within us.
但有時候我們所做卻是與這一點脫節的,
It’s sometimes a disconnect from our views,
即我們表現得就像沒有道德性一樣。
or it seems to be so.
剛剛上課前,
I mean, I was just listening, just before I came now,
我正好聽了幾分鐘希拉里·克林頓的敗選演講。
to Hillary Clinton’s concession speech, and it was just a few minutes there.
在她上臺講話之前,
But you see, just before she came on,
人們不停在說她是一位多麼好、多麼道德的女性,
they were saying what a wonderful wonderful moral woman she is,
還說她的宗教信仰會對她有所幫助。
and that her religious faith will help her.
人們一直在強調她多麼的重視宗教信仰,
They kept stressing how religious she was,
說她是一個非常好、非常敬虔的基督徒。
how Christian she was, how godly she was.
然後她上臺,向特朗普做了一個很好的敗選演講。
And then she came on and said, now I am gonna still fight for everything,
她說,”我看重的是所有人的生命,
she did a nice concession to Trump and so on, but she said I am gonna stand for everything
我要照顧的是人一生中的每一方面,每一個人都是重要的。”
for human life, for every aspect of human life, that all people will be included.
這當然是一個很好的道德原則,
Well, that’s a good moral principle,
她由此展現出,她是有良知的,有道德原則的。
so she’s showing she’s got a conscience, a moral principle.
一個動物說不出這樣的話,對不對?
An animal couldn’t say that, right?
但是這裡有一個脫節的地方。
But there’s a disconnect.
就是那六千萬個還沒出生就被流產的嬰兒,他們的生命呢?
What about the sixty million unborn babies, you see?
從這裡我們就能看出,她的良心並沒有在正常地工作。
There her conscience, her conscience is not functioning rightly.
我這樣說並不是為了要貶低她,
And I am not saying this to put her down,
我只是說她的良心沒有在正常地工作。
I am just saying that her conscience isn’t functioning rightly.
每一個人都是按照上帝的形象所造。
Every human being is created in the image of God.
但是,我願意給她這個無罪推定,
And yet, I gave her the benefit of the doubt,
我確實真心地相信
I really earnestly believe that
她真的相信她自己是為了讓人們能在這個世界上過得很好。
she earnestly believes that she wants people to fare well in this world.
但是我們也省察一下自己,雖然我們已經蒙恩得救,
But let’s go to ourselves, even when we are saved,
我們仍然在道德上有脫節的地方,我們仍然有自己看不到的盲點。
we have moral disconnects, in which we don’t see, we have blind spots.
這是希拉里·克林頓的盲點,即她不覺得自己所說的話是矛盾的,
This is a blind spot for Hillary Clinton, she doesn’t see the oxymoron character of saying
就是她說”一個孕婦可以選擇在生產的那天殺死她腹中的嬰兒”。
a woman can kill her baby the very day she goes into the hospital to deliver the baby.
希拉里沒有看到這裡面道德脫節的地方。
She doesn’t see the disconnect.
但是反觀我們自己,我們是否又看到了自己在道德方面的脫節呢?
But do we see our disconnects in moral areas as well.
我們在這裡要強調的重點是,
But you see, the point we are making here is,
雖然我們因墮落而在道德上有許多脫節的地方
despite all the moral disconnects, because of our fall,
(感謝上帝,我們在天堂里不會再有任何敗壞),
and in heaven we won’t have any of those anymore, thank God.
但是正如《比利時信條》所說,
In spite of it all, even in our fallen unregenerate state,
我們身上仍然殘留著廣義上的上帝形象的一小部分,
it is still a remnant, as the Belgic Confession calls it,
即使是還未重生得救的人。
a remnant of the image of God in its wider sense.
人類是有他的卓越之處的。
And you also have human excellence.
我們不是動物,我們有著諸多的才能和恩賜。
We are not animals in the sense of our capabilities and gifts either.
動物也可以做很多很好的事情,但是人類是不一樣的。
Animals can do some wonderful things, but the human race is different.
人類在農業、建築業、畜牧業、音樂、科技和詩歌藝術方面
We have excellence, our skill in agriculture, in architecture, in animal husbandry,
擁有著卓越的技藝。
in music, in technology, in poetry.
我們從聖經的記載中就可以讀到這一點,
I mean, you read about it, post-fall already
比如在人類墮落之後的創世紀4章2節,17節,20節至24節。
in Genesis 4:2, Genesis 4:17, Genesis 4:20-24.
上帝毫無分別地將一切這些恩賜都賜給所有人,
God gives all these gifts to mankind in general
讓墮落的人也能夠取得一些驚人的成就。
as fallen creatures to do some surprising things.
加爾文說,人類“是一個體現上帝力量、良善和智慧的罕見例子.
John Calvin said, man “is a rare example of God’s power, goodness, and wisdom,
光是他自己身上的奇跡,就足以讓我們思想到永永遠遠。”
and contains within himself enough miracles to occupy our minds.”
看看人類發明創造的這一切,
Look at all the inventions man has made.
我們根本就無法明白這所有的內容。
You can’t even fathom them.
加爾文稱它們為奇跡。
Calvin calls them miracles.
這就是在墮落的人裡面的普遍啟示。
This is fallen man, general revelation.
人之所有能擁有任何能力,都是因為他的造物主自己是無限完美的。
Any ability possessed by man belongs in infinite perfection to his Creator.
因此,這是上帝的普遍啟示,不是我們的普遍啟示。
So this is God’s general revelation, not our general revelation.
詩篇94篇第9節說,“造耳朵的,
Psalm 94:9, “He that planted the ear,
難道自己不聽見嗎?造眼睛的,難道自己不看見嗎?”
shall he not hear? He that has formed the eye, shall he not see?”
因此,我們不僅能在原始荒原和廣闊海洋中見證上帝的普遍啟示,
So, we encounter God’s general revelation not only in pristine wilderness
也能在城市街道、花園、工廠、圖書館、廚房、辦公室里,
and a broad ocean but also in city streets, and gardens, and factories,
和這個深受人類文化影響的世界中的許多其他方面里,
and libraries, and kitchens, and offices, and all aspects of the world
看到上帝的普遍啟示。
shaped by human culture.
所以,正如上帝有對祂自己的意識一樣,
So just as God is personally aware of Himself,
按上帝形象而造的人也有對自己的意識。
so men created in God’s image are aware of themselves.
並且,既然我們在廣義上擁有上帝的形象,
And we have this image, this wider sense of the capacity of knowing other people,
我們就有能力在某種程度上認識彼此、認識上帝。
and knowing God, at least to some degree.
這就是為什麼加爾文會說,每個人裡面都有“宗教的種子”。
This is what Calvin meant when he said there is a “seed of religion” in every man.
加爾文在另一個地方說,
And elsewhere he said,
人有“對上帝神聖威嚴的某種理解”,有“對上帝的某種認識”。
there’s “a certain understanding of His divine majesty” and “awareness of divinity.”
當然,我們將此稱為我們“生來就有的對上帝的認識”,
Now that’s, of course, what we call our innate knowledge of God,
而我們會在”人論”這門課中更加詳細地講這一點。
we talked about that in another section in Anthropology in much more detail.
我們天生就有這樣的認識,但是隨著我們年歲漸長,
But we are born with it, but it’s also acquired
隨著我們對世界文化的瞭解加深,我們也可以獲得對上帝的認識。
as we grow older, as we look at culture around us.
因此,“在各時各地的各個文化中,
And so “in all cultures, at all times and places,
人們都相信一個比自己更高的現實的存在。”
men have believed something higher than themselves.”
正因為人類在廣義上有上帝的形象,
There’s a “universal tendency,” because of the image of God the wider sense,
他們便有一種“敬拜那至聖者的普遍傾向”。
“to worship the holy.”
雖然我們對聖潔的上帝的認識常常是扭曲的。
Even if we have a distorted view of who the holy One is.
這種“我們對上帝有應盡的義務”的認識,
Now that awareness of obligation to Deity,
集中起來就是我們所說的“人類的良心”,
is centered in what you and I call the “human conscience,” the human conscience,
也就是我要講的第二點,“在人類良心中的普遍啟示”。
which brings me to my second thought, general revelation through the conscience.
這也是保羅在羅馬書第1章和第2章中所談到的內容。
That’s what Paul refers to quite a bit in Romans 1 and 2.
他在羅馬書1章32節中說,
He says in Romans 1:32, the grossest sinners know
就連最惡劣的罪人也知道“上帝判定行這樣事的人是當死的。”
“the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death.”
我們可以看到,
You see,
不僅是那些知道上帝話語的人才有對上帝和對上帝的審判的認識,
there’s an awareness of God, of His judgment among all the nations.
各國各民都有。
Not just those who have His Word.
這同樣也是因為人在廣義上有上帝的形象。
Again, it’s because of the image of God in the wider sense.
保羅在羅馬書2章第14節至15節中對此進行了更多的解釋。
And Paul goes on, explaining that more in Romans 2:14-15.
羅馬書2章14節和15節是非常重要的經文。
Romans 2:14 and 15, important, this is a very important text.
“沒有律法的外邦人,若順著本性行律法上的事,
“For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law,
他們雖然沒有律法,自己就是自己的律法。
these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves:
這是顯出律法的功用刻在他們心裡,他們是非之心同作見證,
which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness,
並且他們的思念互相較量,或以為是,或以為非。”
and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another.”
而對這一點的真實性,沒有人比牧師瞭解得更清楚了。
And there is nobody that knows this is true more than a pastor.
因為我們作為牧師,一直在與人交通。
Because as a pastor, you are talking to people all the time,
我們會與人們談論道德問題和屬靈問題;
and you are talking to people about moral issues, spiritual issues,
我們會詢問他們,幫助他們查看自己的內心和與上帝的關係。
you are asking them questions about their own heart, their own relationship with God,
在這個過程中,我們會一而再、再而三地發現,
in which you find over and over and over again,
即使是還未信主的人,也總是在試圖為自己找藉口,
even in unconverted people, always trying to excuse themselves
而他們有時候也會自責。
or sometimes accusing themselves.
好像每當他們面對一位牧師時,他們的良心就更加活躍與清醒。
It seems like when they get around the minister, their conscience speaks double.
就像我們在路上開車時,如果看到路邊停著一輛警車,
Sort of like, when you are driving down the road, a policeman sitting on the side of the road gives you
我們就會變得更加警覺一樣。
suddenly a double concern.
而當人們面對一位牧師時,他們道德良心中的聲音會變得更加響亮,
Well, there’s a moral conscience, and when people come in the presence of a minister,
因為在他們面前,牧師就是上帝的代表。
that conscience seems to speak just a little bit louder, cause you’re representing God to them.
我們要註意,保羅在這裡並沒有說外邦人“行律法”,
Now Paul does not say, you notice, that the Gentiles “do the law,”
而是從字面意思上來說“行律法的事”。
but literally, “the things of the law.”
因為人的自然良心無法從現實、從本質上來行律法。
For the natural conscience doesn’t do the law in reality in its essence.
人的自然良心並不會盡心地愛上帝,也不會愛人如己。
The natural conscience doesn’t love God above all, doesn’t love our neighbor as ourselves.
但是,人憑著自然良心會“行律法的事”。
But the natural conscience does the things of the law.
他們會在行為習慣上遵守律法的部分教導,
It partially conforms to some actions of the law,
因為他們的良心會提醒他們:
because the conscience is saying,
你不要殺人、不要搶銀行,你要好好對你的妻子。
you know, don’t kill your neighbor, don’t go out and rob a bank, or treat your wife decently.
所以,保羅說,
So such behaviors, Paul says,
人的這類行為是出於顯明上帝旨意和譴責罪惡的“律法的功用”。
arise from “the work of the law” to reveal God’s will and to condemn sin.
所以我們在這裡所講的,
So we are talking here,
還不是聖靈的拯救的工作,而是人生來就有的共同立場。
not about saving work of the Holy Spirit, but just the common position of mankind by nature.
我們當今的問題是,許多教會和許多自稱為基督徒的人,
And the problem today, is that so many churches and so many people,
不去區分人共有的良心和使人得救的真信心之間的區別。
so many who name the name of Christ, don’t realize the difference
前者讓我們具有某種宗教性,
between this common conscience which makes us somewhat religious from true saving faith,
而後者讓我們成為在基督里的人、並改變我們的整個生命。
which puts us all in Christ and transforms our entire life.
有一次在歐洲,我在飛機上給我旁邊的一個年輕人傳福音。
You know, I was flying on a plane over Europe and evangelizing a young man sitting next to me.
在飛機降落前,他對我說,
And before we land, and he said this to me,
“對我來說,你就像是博物館里的一個展覽品一樣。”
he said, you are like a museum piece to me.
我問,“你的意思是?”
I said, what do you mean by that?
他說,“在這之前,我還沒遇到過70歲以下、跟我談上帝的人,
He said, well, I never dreamed I’d meet anyone, I have never met anyone in my life
也從沒想像過,我會真的遇到一個這樣的人。”
under 70 years of age that ever talk to me one word about the Lord.
你們知道嗎,對他而言,我就像是從另一個世界來的一樣,
And I was like in such another world to him, that you know,
他完全無法與那個世界產生任何共鳴。
he just couldn’t identify with this world.
但也正是因為如此,他反而非常感興趣。
And he was kind of intrigued by it, that here’s this person,
他親眼看到,當時四五十歲的我跟他講上帝的真實性,
at that time I was in my probably early 50s, or upper 40s. Here’s this person,
講認識上帝可以翻轉我們的整個生命,講這是令人激動的事情,
who’s talking to him about the reality of God and how it transforms your whole life, and
還講認識上帝是我們唯一應該有的生與死的方式。
it’s exciting, and it’s the only way to live and die. And
對他而言,他一輩子都沒考慮過這些事情的可能性。
this was just, was not even on the horizon of his existence that this is even a possibility.
在今天這個時代,因著人屬靈水平的低下,
And so what happens today, is because the level of spirituality is so low,
人們常常將普遍恩典、普遍啟示
men mix common grace, common revelation
與拯救人類靈魂的特別啟示混為一談。
with saving special revelation to the soul.
而這就是為什麼,許多牧師們主持葬禮的時候,
And this is why, when it comes time for pastors to do funerals,
會說去世了的這個人是去了天堂。
they just put everybody in heaven, because
他們解釋是因為這個人很不錯,做了一些善事。
Well, he wasn’t too bad, you know he did some moral things,
只因為這位去世的人因著上帝的普遍啟示做了幾件善事,
he did a few things by general revelation, we would say,
他們就說這個人是因此得救的。
and therefore he’s saved.
因此,當我們在講道和教導中談到普遍啟示、普遍恩典和共同認識時,
So it’s very important when we talk about general revelation, we talk about common grace,
我們必須要把它們與聖靈的工作作出對比,這至關重要。
common impressions, that we make sharp distinctions in our preaching and teaching
聖靈的工作會拯救人、改變人,
between that and the saving transforming work of the Holy Spirit
會向我們顯明有關基督的真理。
and taking the things of Christ and revealing them to us.
那麼,一些古希腊和古羅馬哲學家
Now some ancient Greek and Roman philosophers referred to this universal sense of right and wrong,
也會將這種人本性中普遍含有的是非觀和內在的道德
this inner morality embedded in our human nature as the law of nature or natural law,
稱為“自然法”或者“自然律”,
the law of nature, or natural law, which would of course, then,
當然,這就是廣義上上帝形象的一部分。
itself be part of the image of God in the wider sense.
例如,羅馬哲學家西塞羅說:“法則是根植於自然的最高理性,
Cicero, for example, Cicero said, “Law is highest reason, implanted in nature,
它使事情以它應有的方式發生,而非以相反的方式發生。”
which orders those things that ought to be done and prohibits the opposite.”
這是不是很有意思?
Isn’t that interesting?
這可是西塞羅說的,在基督降生6年前說的。
Cicero says that. Six years before Christ.
“法則是根植於自然的最高理性,
“Law is highest reason, implanted in nature,
它使事情以它應有的方式發生,而非以相反的方式發生。”
which orders those things that ought to be done and prohibits the opposite.”
然後西塞羅接著說,“我們為正義而生,
And then Cicero goes on to say, “We have been born for justice
這項權利不是通過人的想法建立起來的,
and that right has been established not by opinion
而是根植於我們的本性之中。”
but by nature within us.”
早期的基督教神學家也採用了這個說法,
Now early Christian theologians took up this terminology,
他們認識到自然律的作者便是那造物主。
recognizing that the author of natural law is the Creator.
奧古斯丁這樣寫道:“上帝已經在人心中寫下了自然法”,
Augustine wrote, “God has written the law of nature in the hearts of men,”
當然了,他引用的就是羅馬書2章14至16節。
and of course, he quotes Romans 2:14-16.
所以,這種道德感就像一束光,
So like a light that still shines on those who have turned away,
它仍在照亮著那些迴轉歸向上帝的人,它使得不信的人思想永恆,
this moral sense moves the ungodly to consider eternal things,
也使得讓他們在道德上去評價別人。
and to make moral judgements on others.
加爾文將其稱為“創造法則”,
Calvin referred to this as “the law of creation” that puts a sense of divinity
它將上帝的真實性刻在人的心中。
so that it is engraven on human hearts.
保羅在羅馬書2章15節中
Paul calls this inner testimony of natural law
將這種對自然律的內在見證稱為“良心”。
the “conscience”, Romans 2:15.
它是人靈魂中的一種能力,
That is the faculty of the soul
能夠讓人知道,他是得罪上帝的,還是使上帝喜悅的。
that convinces a person whether he has offended God, or whether he has pleased God,
約翰福音8章9節。
John 8:9.
保羅又在另一處經文中,將人的良心比作法庭上的一個證人。
Elsewhere, Paul compares the conscience to a witness in a courtroom,
這是一個非常有意思的例證,
a really interesting example,
羅馬書9章1節和哥林多後書1章12節。
Romans 9:1, and 2 Corinthians 1:12.
因為良心可以使用一個人心中對上帝律法的認識,
Because the conscience uses the mind’s knowledge of God’s law
來證實我們的所作所為在上帝眼中究竟是對還是錯,
to testify whether we have done right or wrong in God’s sight,
它也能預測到這位大法官的裁定和判決。
and anticipates the conscience, anticipates the verdict, the sentence from the Judge.
這就是保羅的意思,良心要麼指責我們、要麼促使我們去找藉口。
It’s what he’s saying, conscience accuses or excuses.
所以對一個自然人而言,良心就像一位住在我們心中的警察,
So conscience is like a, for the natural man, it’s like an internal policeman,
當我們意識到上帝的臨在時,我們的良心會變得活躍。
and it’s energized by a sense of being in God’s favorable presence.
哥林多前書4章2節。
So that the 2 Corinthians 4:2,
因此,如果我們想要靠近上帝去敬拜祂,
so that a good conscience, therefore,
一個運作良好的良心十分關鍵。
is crucial for drawing near to worship God,
希伯來書9章14節。
Hebrews 9:14.
這就是為什麼清教徒們花了很多筆墨
It’s why the Puritans wrote so much
來寫“人要有好的良心”的重要性。
about the importance of a good conscience.
因為人有各種各樣的良心,
Because there are all kinds of consciences,
變得剛硬的良心,乾枯的良心,沉睡的良心,還有倒退的良心。
hardened consciences, seared consciences, sleepy consciences, backsliding consciences.
但是我們要知道,一個人如果有好的良心,
But a good conscience, you see,
他會每日飛奔到基督那裡去尋求罪的赦免,
flies to Christ every day for forgiveness of sin,
他會活出基督,他會與上帝和好。
lives out of Christ, lives in the right relationship with God,
清教徒在這方面寫了很多。
and the Puritans wrote a great deal about that.
順便提一下,我們出版社(改教傳統圖書出版社)
In fact, that’s gonna be our next book,
預備出版的下一本書實際上就是清教徒的關於良心的書。
by the way, in that series of, on the Puritans.
書名就是《有良心的生活》。
It’s gonna be called Living with a Good Conscience.
我們現在就是在為出版這本書而預備著。
And we are working on that book right now.
清教徒光在良心這個主題上就寫了大約15本左右的書。
Puritans wrote about 15 different books just on conscience.
但是今天,人們幾乎已經不談論這個話題了。
Today that’s a forgotten subject for the most part.
你們在聽道時什麼時候聽過傳道人講“人的良心”?
When have you heard a preacher preach a sermon on your conscience?
不太經常吧?
Not very often.
上帝是在人的良心中啟示了祂自己,
In conscience, God has revealed Himself in man
讓人知道祂是無所不在的主,也是無所不知的法官。
as the omnipresent Lord and as the omniscient Judge.
所以,即使是一個沒有信主的人,
So that even the unconverted man, now that can be distorted,
也可以在某種程度上知道有一位上帝認識他、對他無所不知。
but has some impression that there’s a God who knows him,
雖然這種認識有可能是扭曲的。
who knows everything about him.
因此,從廣義上來說,上帝賜下的這種責任感、義務感,
So that sense of obligation, that sense of duty, that we owe to God, and through God to man,
這種虧欠上帝的感覺,是上帝形象的一部分。
is something that’s part of the image of God in the wider sense.
那麼,這就有了一個問題,
Now that raises the question then,
即我們今天應該如何來使用普遍啟示這一教義?
how can we use general revelation today
以及它能在哪些方面取得有效的成果呢?
and in what areas is it efficacious?
所以,我們接下來要講“普遍啟示的作用與功效”。
So the use and efficacy of general revelation.
我先講這個部分,然後大家可以向我提問題。
I’ll cover this section and I’ll open up for questions.
普遍啟示不是“可能的啟示”,而是實實在在的啟示。
General revelation is not potential revelation, it’s not potential revelation. It’s actual revelation.
“諸天訴說上帝的榮耀。”
“The heavens declare the glory of God.”
“上帝已經顯明”這些事情,
“God hath shewed” these things,
羅馬書1章20節(更正:1章19節)。
Romans 1:20 (Correction: 1:19).
但是我們必須要問的是,普遍啟示對人類有什麼影響?
But we need to ask then, what is the effect of general revelation upon humanity?
當然,聖經首先記錄了全人類對上帝的背叛。
Well, first of all, of course, the Bible reports of a universal defection from God on the part of mankind.
全人類的背叛。
Universal defection.
創世紀6章5節說,
Genesis 6:5, “God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth,
“耶和華見人在地上罪惡很大,終日所思想的盡都是惡。”
and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.”
這樣的情形實在是糟糕至極。
That sounds pretty bad.
人終日所思所想的都是罪惡。
Every thought of the imagination of his heart was only evil and continually.
當然,詩篇14篇中的描述也是震撼人心的,不是嗎?
And of course, Psalm 14 is powerful, isn’t it?
耶和華從天上垂看世人,卻找不到一個行善的人。
God looks down on this earth and he can’t find anyone who’s doing good.
並沒有行善的,連一個也沒有。
No, not one, not one.
所以,雖然各國各民有上帝的普遍啟示,
So despite general revelation,
但他們都不認識上帝,特別是祂的救恩。
the nations do not know God savingly.
聖經告訴我們,人們知道上帝,卻不認識上帝。
They know Him but they don’t know Him, is what the Bible saying.
彼得‧馬特這樣寫道,人“對上帝的認識有兩種”:
Now Peter Martyr wrote that “the knowledge of God is of two kinds”:
一種是可以改變我們生命的“有效”認識,
“effectual” to change our lives
另一種是我們良心中“冷淡的”認識。
or “frigid,” only known in our conscience.
要知道,人有可能只在頭腦和良心中對上帝有一種冷淡的理性認識,
You see, it’s possible to have a cold intellectual knowledge of God in the mind and conscience,
卻沒有帶著信心和愛的、從心裡的認識。
and yet not know Him with faith and love in the heart.
那麼,普遍啟示的功效到底是什麼呢?
So what are then the effects of the general revelation?
第一,普遍啟示教導人們,上帝存在並創造了萬有。
Well, number one, general revelation teaches people that God exists and has created all things.
我們在這一點上已經講得比較多了,我就不再更詳細地說了。
I think we’ve touched on that enough, I don’t need to detail that for you.
只是,保羅在羅馬書中要表達的意思是,自然主義,
But Paul is saying that naturalism,
即那種認為物質世界之外什麼都不存在的觀點,
which is the belief that nothing exist beyond the physical universe
這是一個赤裸裸的謊言,而我們的良心也是知道這一點的。
is a patent lie, and the conscience knows that.
因此,一個信奉自然主義的人,
And so someone who embraces naturalism
總是在試圖說服他自己,他真的相信這個觀點。
is always trying to convince himself, that he really believes it.
巴文克是這樣說的,”所有人生來就知道有超自然事物的存在。
Bavinck puts it this way, “All human beings by nature recognize the supernatural.
自然主義,就如無神論一樣,只是哲學中的一種發明創造,
Naturalism, like atheism, is an invention of philosophy
人的本性中找不到任何可以支持這一觀點的證據。”
but has no support in human nature.”
第二,普遍啟示教導人們,無神論是愚昧的。
Number two, atheism is foolish.
否認上帝存在的人是一個“愚頑人”。
The person who denies the reality of God is a “fool”.
這不是對一個人智商的侮辱,
This is not an insult to the person’s intelligence so much as a,
而是說一個人十分頑固,拒絕承認他自己心知肚明的真相。
a recognition of his stubborn refusal to acknowledge what he really knows to be true,
箴言1章22節。
Proverbs 1:21.
而他之所以頑固地不承認”上帝是上帝”,
And the stubborn refusal to acknowledge that God is God
是因為他心裡充滿了驕傲和邪惡。
flows out of his pride and wickedness,
詩篇第10篇第4節。
Psalm 10:4.
所以上帝所譴責的,不僅是那些理論上的無神論者,
So God condemns not only theoretical atheism,
也有那些實踐中的無神論者。
but also practical atheism,
我們所有人都有這樣的傾向,即使是在我們蒙恩得救後。
which is prone to infect us all, even after grace sometimes.
實際上,“實踐中的無神論”所指的,
And practical atheism is actually the failure of mankind
就是人類既不榮耀上帝,也不在萬事上感謝祂。
to glorify God and see Him and give Him thanks in all things.
這就是為什麼有的人雖然相信上帝,卻仍舊活得像個無神論者。
That’s why it can be possible for a man to believe in God and live like an atheist.
第三點,普遍啟示教導我們,上帝獨具神性。
Number three, God has unique divine nature.
保羅在羅馬書1章20節中說,創造不僅顯明瞭上帝的存在,
Creation not only reveals the existence of God but Paul says, Romans 1:20,
也顯明瞭祂的“神性”。
it reveals something of His “Godhead.”
上帝在世界各地的普遍啟示,向我們揭示了上帝的許多屬性,
So God’s general revelation throughout the world reveals a number of God’s attributes
以及祂本來的身份。我給大家舉幾個例子。
and the shape of who He is as it were, let me just give you several of them.
普遍啟示向我們揭示了:造物主是榮耀的,
That our Creator is glorious,
自然人也能看到這一點,詩篇第8篇第1節;
natural man can see that, Psalm 8:1;
上帝是永恆與全能的,就是保羅在羅馬書1章20節中所說的;
That God is eternal and powerful, that’s what Paul says in Romans 1:20;
上帝是智慧的,詩篇104篇24節;
That God is wise, Psalm 104:24;
上帝是萬物之主,使徒行傳17章24節,
That He’s the Lord of all, Acts 17:24,
這裡記錄的就是保羅在亞略巴古的講話,所以我們可以看到,
that’s where Paul’s talking on Mars’ hill,
就算對那些不相信聖經里的上帝的人,這也是真理;
this is true even of the, you see, of people who don’t believe in the God of the Bible.
上帝是自給自足的,是與我們同在的,使徒行傳17章25節至27節;
That God is self-sufficient, and present with us, Acts 17:25 to 27.
上帝是良善的、滿有恩典的,使徒行傳14章17節;
That God is good and generous, Acts 14:17.
上帝也是配得我們敬拜的,羅馬書第1章21節。
And that God is worthy of worship, Romans 1:21.
自然啟示會在我們的良心中向我們顯明這些與上帝有關的事情,
So natural revelation in our own consciences can tell us all these things about God,
但是如奧古斯丁所說,自然啟示不能教我們關於三位一體的真理。
but as Augustine said, natural revelation has not revealed the Trinity.
第四,普遍啟示讓我們知道,偶像敬拜是邪惡的。
Number four, idolatry is wicked.
保羅在羅馬書1章23節中說,各國都要為他們
Paul says in Romans 1:23, the nations are guilty
離開“不能朽壞之上帝的榮耀”、轉而敬拜上帝的受造物而負責任。
for turning from “the glory of the incorruptible God” to worship God’s creations.
所以,這就包含了所有形式的偶像敬拜。
So that would include all kinds of idolatry.
比如在當今的西方世俗社會中常見的對物質的貪戀,
It would include our secularized idolatry in common Western society today of materialistic greed,
歌羅西書第3章第5節。
Colossians 3:5.
還有對人的崇拜。保羅說,我們不敬拜永生的上帝,
Well, it would include the worship of men, we worship those “of like passion” with us,
卻去敬拜那些與我們“性情一樣”的人,
says Paul, instead of the living God,
使徒行傳第14章第15節。
Acts 14:15.
所以,其實我們的良心中會有聲音提醒我們,
So there’s something in our conscience that knows
自己不應該去崇拜人,也不應該去敬拜人造的偶像。
we should not give our worship to man or to what man makes.
第五,普遍啟示教導我們,
Number five,
上帝向處於祂道德律之下的人類追究責任。
God holds man accountable to His moral law.
我們的良心能讓我們分辨是非善惡,
When that conscience testifies what is right and what is wrong,
它能夠讓我們感到一絲責任感。
there’s a, the conscience feels a sense of accountability.
當然,這種是非感和責任感可能是扭曲的,
Then again, it can be distorted,
但是我們在良心中確實是有對上帝的道德律和審判的認識的。
but there’s an inner testimony to God’s moral law and judgment.
最後,第六,普遍啟示教導我們,
And six, finally,
罪人處於上帝的憤怒之下,且毫無藉口。
sinners are under God’s wrath and without excuse.
保羅在羅馬書1章20節中說,“叫人無可推諉”。
So Paul says in Romans 1:20, “they are without excuse.”
保羅接著在2章12節中說,
So when people sin, and sin without repenting,
當人們犯罪且不悔改時,他們“必按律法受審判”;
they will “be judged by the law,” Paul says, Romans 2:12,
他們的良心中有聲音發出,告訴他們,他們是有罪的,
and there’s something in their conscience that tells them they are guilty,
但是他們試圖掩蓋或者拒絕自己良心的聲音。
but they just try to cover it up, or they try to push it away.
他們不願意到主耶穌基督那裡去尋求他的拯救。
They don’t want to go to the Lord Jesus Christ for salvation.
因為他們還是想要自己掌控一切。
Cause they want to stay in charge of themselves.
有時候人們也會說一些類似這樣的話來試圖說服他們自己,
And so people are trying to convince themselves, I am not too bad,
我還不錯,上帝不會把我送到地獄里去的,我可比我的鄰居好多了。
God would never send someone like me to hell, I am better than my neighbor, that type of thing.
大概20年前,
That’s why it’s so interesting
《美國新聞與世界報道》在美國進行了一項關於“地獄”的調研,
that when U.S. News and World Report did a study about “hell” in American society,
他們提出的第一個問題是,“你相信有地獄嗎?”
maybe 20 years ago now, probably the percentage is even lower now.
But they ask people, do you believe in hell?
要知道,這是20年前的調查,今天這個比例可能會更低一些。
他們提出的第二個問題是,“你是否認為許多人都會去地獄?”
Second question, do you believe that many people will be in hell?
所以從這兩個問題的回答來看,
So they understood that
人們知道有地獄這樣一個地方,並且很多人都會去地獄。
hell is a place that many people are going to go.
然後他們提出了第三個問題,
Then the third question,
“你認為上帝是否有可能會把你送到地獄里去?”
is there any possibility that God would send you to hell?
一個世俗的周刊雜誌居然做了這樣一項調查,真是太奇妙了。
It’s amazing, a secular periodical, or magazine, doing this survey.
大家可以猜一下,
And what percentage chance, anybody wanna guess what percentage chance that people say,
那些認為上帝有可能把自己送進地獄的人所占的比例是多少?
there’s at least chance that God would possibly send me to hell?
你說20%嗎?再低一點。
Four, four percent.
大家要記得,在那個時候的美國,60%的人是去教會的。
Now remind you, at that time in America, 60% of people are going to church,
今天去教會的人的比例已經降到了46%,
today it’s down to 46%,
所以我不知道如果今天再做這個調研,得出的結果又會是如何。
so I don’t know what the figures will be today.
但是我們能從這個調查中看到,人是多麼自以為義。
But you understand how man justifies himself, somehow, you know,
人總是覺得,我還沒有那麼壞,我不會下地獄的。
it can’t be for me, you know, I am not that bad.
所以我們按著自己的本性,總在試圖為自己的良心辯護。
So you’re constantly trying to justify your own conscience by nature.
告訴自己說:我沒問題的,我最後一定是沒事的。
And say it’s gonna be okay. I am gonna be okay in the end.
好,那麼人們對普遍啟示的共同回應是什麼呢?
Alright, what now about the universal response of mankind then?
讓我們從另一個角度來看這一點。
Let’s continue this in a different light here.
我只提一點。
I want to just give you one thought here,
人類面對自己裡面良心的聲音,所給出的回應,是蓄意的悖逆。
mankind response to this inner witness of conscience, therefore, with willful rebellion,
他們想隨己意來保持他們的自我形象,產生了諸多惡果。
wanting to keep up his own image of himself, and that has different fruits.
保羅在羅馬書第1章和第2章中說,對許多人而言,
Paul is saying in Romans 1 and 2, for some people, for many people,
這種蓄意的悖逆造成的後果就是道德上的輕率與不慎。
it leads to a moral carelessness.
因此,他們的心變得剛硬,保羅在羅馬書1章21節中說,
So that they become hardened, they “became vain,” Paul says, verse 21, Romans 1:21,
他們“的思念變為虛妄,無知的心就昏暗了。”
“in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.”
所以,人在道德上的黑暗會折磨人的良心。
So moral darkness now afflicts the conscience.
還有一些人的回應方式,
Other people respond by trying to do outward things
是盡可能多地做外在的善事,過一個十分道德的生活。
in a decent way, trying to live a fairly moral life.
但是,保羅在羅馬書1至3章中想要表達的是,
But in all cases, general revelation will never save anyone,
普遍啟示在任何情況之下,都無法拯救任何人。
that’s the point that Paul’s making in Romans 1, and 2, and 3.
眾人都犯了罪,我們都需要福音。
We are all guilty, and we all absolutely need the gospel.
普遍啟示絕對無法將罪人引向上帝,
So the absolute failure of general revelation
但這不是上帝的失敗,而是祂的成功,
to lead sinners back to God is not a failure on God’s part,
因祂的目的是在福音中榮耀祂的兒子,即那唯一的救贖之道。
but the success of His purpose to glorify His Son in the gospel, is the only way of salvation.
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》一開始就是這樣說的。
And so Westminster Confession of Faith begins that way,
大家可能都讀過這一段了,但是我還是給你們讀一遍。
I am sure you know about this paragraph, but let me read it to you anyway.
第一章,第一段。
“雖然自然之光、上帝的創造、護理工作
“Although the light of nature and the works of creation and providence
彰顯上帝的善良、智慧、權能,叫人無可推諉;
do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God, as to leave men inexcusable;
卻不足以使人認識上帝及其旨意,以致得救。
yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God, and of His will,
所以上帝願意多次多方將自己向他的教會啟示,
which is necessary unto salvation. Therefore it pleased the Lord, at different times,
並向教會宣佈他的旨意。”
and in different manners, to reveal Himself, and to declare His will unto His Church.”
所以簡而言之,普遍啟示仍是人類生命中的一個非常重要的方面。
So general revelation, in summary, remains a crucial aspect of human life.
對於各國各族而言,
And for the nations,
普遍啟示是我們認識上帝存在這一真理的基礎,
it lays the foundation for our sense of divine reality
也是我們的道德責任感的基礎,
and moral accountability
世界上那些假宗教里有的一星半點的真理都是從普遍啟示而來的。
which sustains every fragment of truth in the false religious of this world.
因此,在基督徒如何正確使用普遍啟示上,
So let me conclude this whole section by giving you two thoughts
我想用兩點來總結這一部分。
about the proper Christian use then of general revelation.
第一種使用方式是宣教性的。
The first use is missiological.
要知道,基督徒可以在傳福音的時候應用普遍啟示的教義,
You see, Christians can use general revelation evangelistically to show people
來向人們證實他們需要福音,也呼召他們為自己敬拜偶像而悔改。
their need for the gospel and call them to repent of their idols.
保羅在羅馬書1章中講到了普遍啟示,
You see, Paul introduced general revelation in Romans 1,
但是他沒有把它作為福音的代替品,
not as an alternative to the gospel,
而是作為向人們顯明他們的罪惡的方式,證明他們需要福音。
but as a means of showing people their guilt, so that they would need the gospel.
這就是為什麼保羅在與人交流時,
So that’s why Paul approaches them
更多的是與他們談普遍啟示中的良心和罪疚感,
from the side of their conscience in general revelation and the guilt,
因為他們不相信上帝的話語。
because they are not believing in the Word of God,
所以,我們無法從聖經出發,去與他們交流。
you can’t approach them from that perspective,
保羅的目標是“好塞住個人的口”,不管是猶太人還是外邦人,
and his goal then is to show the Jew and the Gentile, every single man,
“叫普世的人都伏在上帝的審判之下”。
and the conclusion of course, is Romans 3:19,
這當然就是保羅在羅馬書3章19節中下的結論。
on which Jonathan Edwards has a powerful, powerful sermon,
喬納森·愛德華茲有一篇關於這節經文的、震撼人心的講道,
you got to read it sometime, that every mouth may be stopped
你們一定要抽時間讀一下。
and all the world become guilty before God.
在談了這一點之後,保羅才開始傳福音。
And then, he preaches the gospel.
所以,約翰·默里說,“從羅馬書1章18節到3章20節,
So John Murray said, “From Romans 1:18 to 3:20
保羅所談的主題一直都是全人類的罪、以及對他們的定罪。
the theme of the apostle is the universality of sin and condemnation.
保羅這樣安排,是為了表明所有人都需要福音所提供的救贖。”
The design is to show that the salvation provided in the gospel is the need of all.”
所以,當我們遇到一個不相信聖經的人時,
So that’s the point of contact that you use
我們要以普遍啟示為起點,來與他們進行交談。
when you meet someone and they don’t believe in the Bible, you start there.
我們可以使用的一種方法就是直接與別人談他們的良心,
And one way of doing that is simply talking to people about their conscience,
談他們與上帝之間的關係。
about their relationship with God.
我們可以問他們:“你相信上帝嗎?”
You say, well, you believe in God?
通常情況下,他們會說,相信啊。
And they usually say yes.
然後我們繼續問他們,“那你與上帝有個人的關係嗎?”
And you say, you know, what do you think, do you have a relationship with God?
通常情況下,他們又會說,有啊。
And they usually say yes.
然後我們就開始談他們的良心和我們自己的良心,
You start talking about it. You start talking about their conscience and your own conscience,
問他們,“基督是你的救主嗎?你是一名基督徒嗎?”
and saying, you know, is Christ your Savior, are you a Christian?
“哦,不不,我不是。
Oh no no no, I don’t think we need Jesus
我覺得我們不需要什麼基督,也不需要什麼代贖。”
and all this business of substitutionary penal atonement, if they know that language.
或者他們會說,“耶穌已經替我死了,所以我只要儘力而為就行了。
Or, they’ll say it one way or another, that Jesus has taken our place, I do the best I can,
我相信上帝會讓我進天堂和祂在一起的,
and I believe that God will take me home to be with Him in heaven,
我又不是一個壞人。”
I am not a bad person, you understand.
千千萬萬的人都是這樣想的。
This is the way they talk. Millions of them.
這就是為什麼我們要先談普遍啟示。
That’s why you use general revelation,
當然,如果我們可以一開始就提聖經,那是最好不過的了,
it would be nice if you can go straight to Scripture,
但是他們並不相信聖經。
but they don’t believe in the Scripture.
所以保羅的意思是,我們只好從普遍啟示開始了。
So you start with general revelation, that’s what Paul’s saying,
保羅自己在使徒行傳14章中就是這樣做的。
that’s what Paul himself did in Acts 14.
我們還可以這樣接著問他們,“好,你相信上帝會憐憫你。
Then you say something like this, so you think God’s going to have mercy on you,
但是你也相信上帝是聖潔的,對不對?”
but you do believe that God is holy, right?
他們會說,“對啊。”
And they go, yeah, yeah.
然後我們可以說,“但是上帝是如此的聖潔,祂不能容忍罪。
Well, you see, God is so holy that God can’t commune with sin,
這就是祂的本性。上帝是沒有罪的,對不對?”
that’s His nature, God has no sin, right?
我們可以從自己開始,把自己和傳福音的對象放在同一水平線上。
Then you start saying, but I am a sinner. Start with yourself, put yourself at their level,
“但是我是一個罪人。
you know, without a Savior,
你知道嗎?若沒有一位救主,
I would never get to heaven,
不管我外在的東西做得有多好,我永遠也進不了天堂。
no matter how good I do outward things, I am a sinner, I’ve got a bad record.
我是一個罪人,我留下了纍纍罪債。我的心是敗壞的。
I’ve got some bad things in my heart. What about you?
那麼你呢?你的良心可曾在你做錯事的時候,提醒你做錯了?”
Has conscience ever convicted you that you are not doing something right?
到目前為止,我還從來沒有遇見一個認為自己非常完美的人。
Everybody you talk to, I’ve never met a person yet, who claims he’s perfect.
所以,我們可以讓他們在理性上明白並接受這一點,
So if you can convince them that God is perfect, just through reasoning,
即“因為上帝是完美的,因此祂不能與任何不完美的人相通,
it doesn’t always work, of course, and that God therefore cannot commune with anyone
因為祂是聖潔的。所以我們需要一位救主來為我們這些罪人代贖”.
who’s less than perfect, because God is holy. Therefore we need a Savior
當然,這種方式不總是奏效。
to take our place as sinners.
但是,至少這是借普遍啟示與人交談的一種方式。
You see, that’s at least a way of approaching through general revelation.
所以,當我們考慮與人交談、跟別人傳福音時,
So when you think about approaching, evangelizing people,
我們需要想一想保羅的榜樣。
just think of Paul’s model.
然後我們需要盡我們所能地去說服他們,
And do whatever you can to convince them,
讓他們“塞住個人的口”,並“伏在上帝的審判之下”。
that shut their mouth and become guilty before God.
當我們不再為自己申辯,“伏在上帝的審判之下”時,
Stop defending yourself and become guilty before God, and then you see,
我們才會看到福音的必要性。
there’s room for the gospel.
所以,雖然普遍啟示無法拯救罪人,
So though general revelation is impotent to save sinners,
但是,當我們正確使用它時,當聖靈祝福這樣的工作時,
general revelation, when rightly handled, can, when the Holy Spirit grants it to be so,
普遍啟示能夠讓人們在某種程度上看到,
show people to some degree
他們因為自己的罪而與上帝處於隔離的狀態。
that they are alienated from God, because of their sins.
因為他們的良心在指責著他們。
Cause their conscience accuses them.
因此,普遍啟示在傳福音的初期階段是非常有幫助的。
So that can be very helpful for the beginning stages of evangelism.
但是,這當然與我們給自己教會裡的人傳福音不同。
Now that’s very different, of course,
因為教會裡的人宣稱:”我信聖經,我信從創世紀1章到啟示錄22章,
from evangelizing people in your congregation, who are unsaved,
都是上帝所默示的話語。”但是他們是還沒有得救的人。
who claim yes, I believe the Bible is the inspired Word of God from Genesis 1 to Revelation 22.
對這些人,我們可以直接給他們看,可以對他們這樣說,
See you can come straight in there and just show them,
“你們知道嗎?律法首先要求我們要愛上帝,也要愛我們的鄰舍。
you know, the law demands love to God above all, love to your neighbor as yourself,
但是朋友,你從沒愛過上帝,對不對?因為你的靈魂還沒有得救。
and guess what, friend? You’ve never ever loved God above all, have you? Cause you are unsaved.
這就意味著,你總是把自己擺在第一位。
And that means that you’ve always got yourself number one.
那麼,隨著你的生命一分一秒的流逝,你始終都在得罪上帝。
So every tick of the clock, every single second of your life, you are sinning against God.
你也從未像愛自己那樣愛過你的鄰舍,你一直把自己放在第一位。
And you’ve never loved your neighbor as yourself, you always put yourself first,
你所處的境況是十分危急的,你極其需要救主,
you are in desperate condition, you desperately need the Savior,
就是你自稱相信的聖經里所提到的那位救主。”
whom you say the Bible proclaims.
當一個人說自己相信上帝的話語時,
I mean you can just get right in their face much much quicker
我們可以更快地與他直接談到正題。
when someone says I believe in the Word of God.
但是不管怎麼說,普遍啟示是我們與不信主的人溝通的一條渠道。
But general revelation is an avenue to approach the unbeliever.
即使普遍啟示單憑自身是沒有效果的。
Even though it can’t be effectual all by itself.
而我在總結中想說的第二件事情,
And the second thing I would say, in conclusion here,
就是教會可以使用普遍啟示來贊美上帝。
is that there’s a doxological note here about general revelation.
教會不單是在傳福音和宣教時可以使用普遍啟示這一教義,
We use, the church uses general revelation evangelically or missiologically,
也可以在贊美上帝時使用它。
but also doxologically.
我們在聖經中反覆讀到,
Again and again and again in the Bible,
上帝在自然中的啟示和在人良心中的啟示,是配得我們的贊美的。
God’s revelation through nature, God’s revelation to man in his conscience, is worthy of praise.
贊美上帝。
Doxology.
我們之前已經提到了詩篇,詩篇第8篇,第19篇,第104篇,
The psalms, we’ve already looked at that, Psalm 8, Psalm 19, Psalm 104,
都在熱情洋溢地贊美著上帝,慶祝祂在創造中所顯明的榮耀。
praise God exuberantly, celebrating His glory in creation.
“耶和華的聲音發在水上,
“The voice of the Lord is upon the waters:
榮耀的上帝打雷,耶和華打雷在大水之上。耶和華的聲音大有能力,
the God of glory thundereth: the Lord is upon many waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful;
耶和華的聲音滿有威嚴。”贊美上帝!詩篇29篇。
the voice of the Lord is full of majesty,” praise the Lord! Psalm 29.
這樣的例子舉不勝舉。
And it’s endless, there’s a number of quotes here, but
因為時間的關係,我就不一一讀了。大家可以自己去查找一下。
for time’s sake, I just won’t read them to you, you can find them yourself.
但是要知道,聖經里這樣的例子不是一處兩處,而是數百處。
But it’s not just one or two or five or ten, it’s hundreds of times in the Bible.
所以,當我們為上帝在創造中所顯現的榮耀而贊美祂時,
So praising God for His glory in creation
就是在預先品嘗那永恆國度的滋味。
is a foretaste of eternal kingdom,
因為那時我們要為祂的拯救和創造而不住贊美祂。
when we shall praise God for His salvation and His creation.
當然,在上帝永恆的國度里,那受咒詛的受造之物
And there, of course, God’s cursed creation
“仍然指望脫離敗壞的轄制,得享上帝兒女自由的榮耀”。
“shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.”
因此,在新天新地里,無論是在世界上,還是在我們自己的心中,
And therefore, in the new heaven and new earth, there will be no hindrance
都不會再有任何東西能攔阻我們完全地榮耀上帝了。
in the world or in us to giving God complete and perfect glory,
這樣的未來,是我們單靠普遍啟示不能到達的,
far beyond what we could ever do with mere general revelation,
它的實現只能通過上帝在基督里的拯救。
because of His salvation in Christ.

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