系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第14講 普遍啟示之哲學與科學

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

接下來我要講的這個部分,
I want to move to the next section, general revelation.
大家也註意到了,標題是:“普遍啟示:哲學與科學”。
And you notice it’s entitled “philosophy and science.”
我相信,普遍啟示中的一切知識和技藝都來自上帝。
I recognize that in general revelation that all knowledge and skill come from the Lord.
這就意味著,無論是政治學、動物學、植物學,
And that means that matters such as politics, or zoology, or botany,
還是聖經里所記載的但以理的三位朋友,
or what the Bible says about Daniel’s three friends,
“在各樣文字、學問上有聰明、知識”,
they had “knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom,”
所有的這一切都屬於上帝的普遍啟示。
all of this belongs to general revelation.
因此,如果我們有符合聖經的信仰,
So biblical faith does not require us
我們就不會將自己封閉起來,無視整個人類的藝術和科學,
to shut ourselves up in a room and disregard the human arts and sciences
也不會說,只要有我和我的聖經就足夠了,這就是生命的全部。
and just say, it’s just me and my Bible, that’s all there is to life.
加爾文這樣說道,“如果我們將上帝的靈視為真理的唯一來源,
Calvin said, “If we regard the Spirit of God as the sole fountain of truth,
我們就不會拒絕真理本身,也不會在真理出現時輕視它,
we shall neither reject the truth itself, nor despise it wherever it shall appear,
除非我們想要對上帝的靈不敬。”
unless we wish to dishonor the Spirit of God.”
加爾文接著說,因著普遍啟示的緣故,
And then Calvin goes on to say, that there are certain human academic disciplines,
即使是那些不信主的人,也可以在一些人類學術學科里為我們提供幫助,
such as law and politics, natural science, disputation and rhetoric, medicine,
比如法律、政治、自然科學、辯論修辭學、醫學、數學等等。
and mathematics, where the ungodly can assist us because of general revelation.
他接著說,
He went on to argue,
“如果主的旨意是要不信主之人用工作和服侍在這些領域幫助我們,
“If the Lord has willed that we be helped in such fields by the work and ministry of the ungodly,
那我們就要利用這些幫助。”
let us use this assistance.”
當然,加爾文補充道,如果沒有“堅實的真理根基”,
Now, Calvin went on to add, of course, that without “a solid foundation of truth,” for the ungodly,
人的智慧“在上帝眼中”仍然是“十分不穩固、且非常短暫的”。
their understanding is still “unstable and transitory thing in God’s sight.” And though there’s vanity
儘管不信主之人的知識中有虛妄、也有驕傲,還有其他有罪的元素,
in some of their knowledge that they have with which they can assist us, and they are proud of it,
但是,這也不代表我們就不能利用普遍啟示中的知識,
or whatever, whatever sinful things they have attached to it, doesn’t take away from the fact
即使是需要通過不信主之人的幫助。
that we can use knowledge from general revelation, even from ungodly instruments. And that makes
而這就使得信徒與聖經外的啟示之間的整個關係變得比較複雜。
the whole relationship between the believer and extra biblical revelation to be rather complex.
因為一方面,我們作為基督徒,
Because on the one hand, we as Christians,
理應熱情洋溢地支持人類在科學、醫學上的進步
should enthusiastically support endeavors of, say, science,
和在探索哲學真理上所做的努力。
or medical advances, or philosophical truth.
但另一方面,
On the other hand,
我們卻又必須要在採用人類文明成果時保持警惕性、具有分辨力。
we must be watchful and discerning in our use of human culture.
因為人類文明的各個方面都已經被罪污染了。
Because human culture is stained with sin on every side.
如果我們要來查考所有這些不同的分支
Now, I could spend easily, easily, the rest of this course,
以及它們與基督教的關係、與啟示的關係,
looking at all these different branches, and saying how does it relate to Christianity,
我們就算用掉這門課剩下的所有時間也不夠。
how does it relate to revelation.
不僅時間不夠,恐怕這門課也會變得有點單調乏味。
Obviously we don’t have time to do that, you know, it probably will get a little tedious too.
所以,我決定用40分鐘左右的時間,
So what I am going to do, is spend the next forty minutes,
跟你們一起探討幾個比較重要的地方,
I’m just gonna give you a few highlights, a bird’s eye view of just two areas,
概括性地查考兩個領域,即哲學與科學。
philosophy and science, philosophy and science.
第一部分,基督教與理性哲學。
So first section, Christianity and rational philosophy.
在基督教誕生之時,
Christianity is born into a world
信主的猶太人已經與各種哲學接觸已久,
where Jewish believers in the Lord had interacted for a long time
特別是希腊羅馬世界里的各種哲學。
with the philosophies of the Greek and the Roman world in particular.
在基督道成肉身以前,這個問題,
And the question of how much is a man able to deduce
即“人在沒有上帝特別啟示的情況下,單靠理性能推斷出多少真理?”
by reasoning apart from the special revelation from God, was already, pre-Christ,
已經是一個熱門話題了。
a burning question.
我們還可以換個方式來問這個問題,人的哲學到底有多可靠?
Or to ask it another way, how reliable are the philosophies of man?
或者這樣問,
Or to ask it another way, how might rational philosophy
理性哲學如何在認識上帝和理解我們的世界這兩點上來幫助基督徒?
assist Christians in the work of knowing God and understanding our world?
當然,針對這個問題,人們已經給出了許多答案,
And of course, there has been a lot of responses to that,
這些答案也使這個問題變得更加複雜。
that makes it all the more complex,
也有很多基督徒嘗試解答這個問題。
a lot of responses from Christians.
加上哲學本身歷史悠久又多元化,這個問題的複雜性便再次升級。
And philosophy itself makes it all the more complicated because it has a very long and diverse history.
哲學最初源自一些盛行多神論與泛神論文化的古老國度,
It’s rooted in the ancient polytheistic and pantheistic cultures
如埃及、希腊、羅馬、印度、波斯和中國。
of Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, and China.
然後,因著古代和中世紀的猶太教、因著基督教和後來的伊斯蘭教,
It was developed, to some degree, in monotheistic directions by the ancient and medieval Jews,
哲學在某種程度上便往一神論的方向發展。
by Christians and later on, by Muslims.
隨後,人們又用理性主義、經驗主義、理想主義、存在主義、
And then it was modified and often secularized in modern forms,
實用主義、分析哲學、後現代主義等各種現代形式來對哲學進行修改,
forms like rationalism, empiricism, idealism, existentialism, pragmatism,
通常是將它變得更加世俗化。
analytic philosophy, postmodernism.
所以,哲學領域非常寬廣,哲學里的問題也是錯綜複雜。
So the field is very very broad, and the questions very complex.
事實上,連“哲學”這一術語本身的含義都是不明確的。
In fact, even the term “philosophy” is ambiguous.
大衛·克拉克發現,當人們使用“哲學”一詞時,
David Clark identifies four senses in which
常常指的是這四種意思中的一個。
the word “philosophy” is often used.
第一種意思是“一個人的世界觀”,
Number one, “a person’s worldview,”
換句話說,就是“生活的哲學”,是每個人都有的。
in other words, a philosophy of life, everyone has one.
第二種意思是”一系列的學科”,
Two, “a cluster of academic disciplines,”
比如現代大學中對邏輯、認識論、形而上學、美學或者倫理學的研究,
such as the study of “logic, epistemology, metaphysics, esthetics, or ethics”
人們將這些統稱為“哲學研究”。
in modern universities, it’s called studying philosophy.
第三種意思,“科學、法律、歷史的哲學,即對一階活動的二階分析。”
Three, “philosophy of science, law, history, a second-order analysis of any first-order activity.”
學生:您能再重覆一遍嗎?
Student: Can you say it again?
周必克教授:好的,這句話說得有點不是很清楚,
Beeke: “Philosophy,” yeah, that is not very plain,
我只是在引用大衛·克拉克的原話。
I am just quoting David Clark, “philosophy of science, law, history,”
他說,“科學、法律、歷史的哲學”是”對一階活動的二階分析。”
in other words, “a second-order,” he says, “analysis of any first-order activity.”
換句話說,比如我們先有歷史,然後二階活動就是歷史哲學。
So you’ve got history, but then your second-order is a philosophy of history.
所以,克拉克所說的在哲學上也適用。
So that can refer to philosophy as well.
接下來是哲學的第四種意思,
And third, and fourth rather,
指的是一種哲學性的思考,即“致力於清晰的、具有分析性的思考”。
“a commitment to clear, analytical thinking” can sometimes refer to this philosophical thinking.
那麼我在這堂課里要講的,是克拉克所說的哲學的第二種意思,
Now, what I am going to address here briefly is Clark’s second usage,
即“一系列的學術學科”,我們要查考基督教是如何來回應這些學科的。
the academic disciplines as a cluster, how does Christianity respond to them.
那麼我在這裡具體指的學科有:邏輯學,即理性論證理論;
I am thinking here then of logic, which is the theory of rational argument;
認識論,即知識理論;形而上學,即存在理論;
epistemology, which is the theory of knowledge; metaphysics, which is the theory of being;
美學,即美學理論;還有倫理學,即道德理論。
aesthetics, which is the theory of beauty; and ethics, which is the theory of morality.
當我們把將這些綜合起來時,就大致涵蓋哲學的整個領域了。
So in combining all of these, you have roughly the field of philosophy.
要知道,確實也是有一些基督徒哲學家的,
Now it is true, there are Christian philosophers,
他們所做的既可能有些益處,也可能沒有益處。
so that’s helpful, can be helpful, can also not be helpful.
但是我在這裡想要說的是,哲學的範疇比基督教的範疇要大很多。
But the point I am making here is that philosophy is much much much larger than Christianity.
因此,如果現在有人想學哲學,特別是年輕人,
So when people want to do academic philosophy today, especially young people,
我一般都會勸阻他們,除非他們的基督教信仰根基特別的扎實。
I always discourage them, actually, unless they are really well grounded in the Christian faith.
因為他們不可避免地需要學習那些非基督徒哲學家的主要哲學體系,
Because invariably they’ll be studying the great systems of non-Christian philosophers,
不管是古代的還是現代的。
both ancient and modern.
所以,如果他們自己的基督教信仰不夠扎實,
And if they are doing that, sitting at the feet of professors
而他們的教授所相信的是這些不符合基督教信仰的哲學,
who embrace these non-Christian philosophies,
那麼,當他們受教於這些教授時,
there’s a great danger that they’ll be impacted
他們極有可能會受到一些負面影響。
if they are not strong in their Christian commitment.
因此,這一切都讓我們思考:
So all of this raises the question,
基督徒應該如何看待非信徒發展出來的哲學體系?
how should Christians view philosophical systems developed by unbelievers?
我在這裡給你們講幾個主要的基本原則。
And I am just going to offer you several general principles. Number one,
第一個,非基督教哲學不是人認識與榮耀上帝所必須知道的。
non-Christian philosophy is not necessary to know and glorify God.
雖然哲學在古代的地中海地區地位顯著,但聖經卻極少與它互動。
The Bible rarely interacts with philosophy, despite its prominence in the ancient Mediterranean world.
相反,聖經的特點是特殊啟示,“耶和華如此說”。
Instead, the Bible’s specialty is special revelation, “thus saith the Lord.”
並且聖經還說,聖經里有智慧,
And the Bible says that the Bible is wise,
能使我們“因信耶穌基督有得救的智慧”。
can make you “wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.”
所以我們需要警醒,神學家們需要警醒,
So we need a warning here, theologians need the warning
如果我們在教導中過多地使用哲學,
that if we overload our teaching with philosophy,
或微妙地將我們的神學建立在人的理性之上,
or subtly ground our theology upon man’s rationalizations,
我們很容易就會偏離信仰的核心真理命題,
we can easily begin to shift away from the central propositional truth of the faith
會失去平衡,變得不那麼符合聖經,甚至犯下確實的錯誤。
and become imbalanced, biblically imbalanced, if not actually erroneous.
因此,我們在研究哲學時需要謹記,
So we need to remember with every philosophy we do,
教會信息和生活的根基與實質永遠應該是上帝的話語。
that the ground and substance of the church’s message and life is always the Word of God.
好,那麼緊接第一個原則的是第二個原則,
Now having said that, number two,
即非基督教的哲學也會教導一些正確的、有用的真理。
is that non-Christian philosophy teaches some valid, some valid and useful truth.
學者們早就發現,
Scholars have long noted some parallels between Proverbs,
箴言書與埃及的智慧文學有一些相似之處。
the book of Proverbs and the wisdom literature of Egypt.
當然,我們也從保羅闡述希腊作家的觀點可以看出,
And certainly we have allusions from Paul, Paul’s statements by Greek writers,
這些觀點中有一些真理。
in which there’s some truth.
保羅在使徒行傳17章28節中對雅典的哲學家們說,
In Acts 17:28, Paul said to the philosophers of Athens,
“我們生活、動作、存留,都在乎他,
“For in him we live, and move, and have our being;
就如你們作詩的有人說:‘我們也是他所生的。’”
as certain also of your own poets have said, for we are also his offspring.”
這句“我們生活、動作、存留,都在乎他”的作者,
And that phrase “in him we live, and move, and have our being” is being attributed
或是克裡特的伊皮麥尼德,或是狄奧·克裡索斯托姆。
either to Epimenides of Crete, or Dio Chrysostom.
而保羅說的這句,“我們也是他所生的”,
And “while we are his offspring,”
實際上是在引用西里西亞的阿拉塔士。
Paul is actually quoting there Aratus of Cilicia.
那麼,更巧妙、也更重要的是,保羅他自己就明確肯定了,
So Paul himself, and more subtly and probably more importantly,
他與希腊斯多葛派哲學有一些共同相信的真理,
asserted some truth held in common with Greek Stoic philosophy,
即”上帝無所不在,以及人與上帝之間有十分緊密的聯繫。“
namely “God’s immanence and human kinship with God.”
保羅在另一處還引用了兩個非基督徒作家的話。
Now elsewhere, Paul gives two, quotes two pagan writers.
我就不細說了,你們可以自己去查看。
I won’t go into detail here, but Titus 1:12,
它們分別是提多書1章12節和格林多前書15章33節。
you can look it up, also 1 Corinthians 15:33.
但是,保羅在這一點上所掌握的平衡是很有意思的。
Now it’s interesting to notice Paul’s balance here.
比如,雖然保羅確實在使徒行傳17章中兩次引用了非基督徒哲學家的話,
So you got Acts 17 as an example,
章中兩次引用了非基督徒哲學家的話,
and you got two quotations from heathen philosophers,
但是保羅一共引用了多少次舊約中的話?數百次。
but how many quotations does Paul have from the Old Testament, hundreds.
數百次。
hundreds.
所以這就是保羅所掌握的平衡,他要強調的重點是特殊啟示。
So you see Paul’s balance, the emphasis is the special revelation. But
但是有時候
there may be cases
我們確實可以使用非基督徒哲學家的話來說明某些有用的真理。
when you can use even heathen philosophers to illustrate some useful truth.
來說明某些有用的真理。
to illustrate some useful truth.
第三個,非基督教哲學的思想體系是與福音相對立的。
Number three, non-Christian philosophy proposes systems of thought that are antithetical to the gospel.
雖然有時候(不是很常見)
So though Paul doesn’t hesitate to quote at times,
保羅毫不猶豫地引用了非基督徒作家的某些話,
not very often, specific statements from pagan writers,
但是他堅決反對這些作家所持有的思想體系。
he firmly rejects the systems of thought that those very writers upheld.
所以,保羅在哥林多前書1章20-21節中寫道,
And so he says in 1 Corinthians 1:20 and 21,
“ 智慧人在哪裡?文士在哪裡?這世上的辯士在哪裡?
“Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world?
上帝豈不是叫這世上的智慧變成愚拙嗎?
Hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?
世人憑自己的智慧既不認識上帝,上帝就樂意用人所當做愚拙的道理,
For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not God,
拯救那些信的人,這就是上帝的智慧了。”
it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that believe.”
因此,從非基督教的智慧中所產生的觀點,一般是與福音相對立的。
So normally, if not exclusively, non-Christian wisdom generates a perspective opposed to the gospel,
哥林多前書1章18節,22節,23節。
這就是為什麼保羅在歌羅西書2章8節中說:
And that’s why Paul says in Colossians 2:8,
“你們要謹慎,恐怕有人用他的理學和虛空的妄言,
“Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit,
不照著基督,乃照人間的遺傳和世上的小學,就把你們擄去。”
after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of this world, and not after Christ,”
這也把我們引到了第四個原則,
which leads me then to number four,
就是我們在使用非基督教哲學的時候,
non-Christian philosophy may be used only,
必須帶著完全符合聖經的、具有分辨的批判精神。
only with radical, biblical critique,
使徒行傳17章,保羅在亞略巴古山上對群眾說了一席令人驚嘆的話,
which is exactly what Paul was doing all throughout his amazing interaction
他所實踐的就正是這一點。
on Mars’ hill, in Acts 17.
人類哲學,
So human philosophy
起始於普遍啟示的真理與人類黑暗的錯誤的混合體。
starts with a mixture of truth from general revelation and error from human darkness.
所以我們一定要對它進行一個徹底的重新定位,
And so it always needs a radical reorientation,
因為它的根基是壞的。
because it’s got a bad foundation.
巴文克是這樣說的,
Bavinck puts it this way,
“即便某些哲學思想家能夠得出一些真實純粹的知識,
“Even if some philosophical thinkers arrived at some true and pure knowledge,
這些知識也不可避免地混雜著各樣的錯誤。
it came inevitably mixed with error of various kinds.
例如,奧古斯丁認為,在所有非基督徒的哲學家中,
Plato, for example, whose system according to Augustine
柏拉圖的思想體系與基督教最為接近。
is the most closely akin to Christianity of all non-Christian philosophers,
但是,柏拉圖卻認為人們應該拋棄體弱多病的孩子,
defends the practice of abandoning weak children,
也認為多妻制是沒問題的。
defends the practice of having a community of wives, and so on.”
克拉克說,“因此,如果基督徒要使用其他學術學科的資料、
“So if Christians appropriate materials from other scholarly disciplines, or religious viewpoints,
或宗教觀點、或哲學思想體系,他們必須要極度的謹慎。”
or philosophical thought systems, they may do so only,” says Clark, “with the greatest care.”
因為他們需要做許多的研究、反思以及討論。
For it requires much research, reflection, and discussion.
第五個基本原則,非基督教哲學重視合理的論證方法。
Number five, non-Christian philosophy recognizes legitimate methods of reasoning.
要知道,在使徒行傳17章中,
You know, Paul did not refuse to reason with those
保羅並沒有拒絕與那些不信主的人辯論。
heathen in Acts 17.
他既沒有拒絕在亞略巴古山上講話,
He didn’t refuse to speak in the Areopagus,
也沒有單純告訴這些哲學家,上帝“吩咐各處的人都要悔改”。
nor did he simply tell these philosophers that God “commandeth all men everywhere to repent.”
他確實說了這句話,但不是在最開始。
He did say that, but that’s not how he began.
保羅在與他們理論時,採用了邏輯與分析,
Paul reasoned with them using logic and analysis,
加爾文稱之為“自然論證”。
what Calvin called “natural arguments.”
保羅的論證從普遍啟示開始。
He began with general revelation.
他論證上帝是造物主、是主,
He argued from God’s identity as Creator and Lord
說明上帝並不缺乏、也不需要聖殿和人類的敬拜。
that God does not need temples or human worship.
他從人與上帝的相似之處來論證,證明上帝與人造偶像不同。
Paul argued from man’s likeness to God that God is not like a material idol,
使徒行傳17章29節。
verse 29.
保羅所使用的這些論證方法,是這些哲學家們也知道的,
And Paul argued in the kind of way that they would have argued,
因為他們在他們自己的哲學研究中也會使用這些邏輯方法。
these philosophers would recognize Paul’s logical methods, for they used them in their own philosophy.
這就使得克拉克說道,“通常情況下,
And you see, that leads David Clark to say, “Formal philosophical methods of
正規的哲學推理方法本身與福音派神學並不是相對立的”。
reasoning per se are not typically antithetical to evangelical theology.”
有著各個宗派背景的神學家們,
Theologians from all traditions
已經普遍肯定並採用了深刻分析與邏輯論證的原則,
have generally affirmed and employed principles of thoughtful analysis and logical argument
也就是不信主之人常會使用的這些原則。
that they are often held in common with unbelievers.
但是,一個人的世界觀極大地影響著他使用邏輯方法的方式,
However, how the tools of logic are employed and what authority is given to their conclusions
也會影響這個人對他所得出的結論的信服程度。
is shaped by a person’s worldview.
因此,我們必須以符合聖經的視角來審視一切哲學方法論。
And therefore, philosophical methodology must be scrutinized from a biblical perspective.
我們要將一切都順服於上帝我們的主的權柄之下。
So that we always subjugate all things to God as the Lord,
所以我們可以得出這樣的結論,
which is why we can then conclude that
系統神學,比如我們上的這些課程,
systematic theology, like these courses,
不是由哲學來支配的,而是由聖經支配的。
is not governed by philosophy. It’s governed by the Scriptures.
哲學是神學的僕人,能夠幫助我們的思考變得更加清楚。
The philosophy is a handmaid to theology, it helps us do clear thinking.
大家對這一部分有什麼問題嗎?你說。
Any questions on philosophy as part of general revelation? Yeah.
學生:“大約一兩周前,
Student: So last class, or two classes ago,
您講到奧古斯丁在寫《神學大全》時採用了亞里士多德的哲學。
you talked about how Augustine, you know, utilized Aristotelian philosophy
您認為他這是過多地使用了哲學呢,
for developing Summa Theologica. Would you consider that as an excessive use of philosophy,
還是僅把哲學當作神學的僕人在使用呢?”
or would you consider that as a handmaid, you know, use of philosophy?
周必克教授:“神學的僕人。
Beeke: He used it as a handmaid,
因為奧古斯丁沒有以哲學為核心來統領他的基本原則。
because he didn’t use it essentially to govern his foundational principles,
他的基本原則來自上帝的話語。
he took those from the Word of God,
但是他使用了哲學這個工具來幫助他建立他的神學。
but he used it as a tool to help him build his theology.
就像17世紀的新教經院主義一樣,
Much as Protestant Scholasticism in the 17th century
他們所使用的也是與哲學相關的經院方法論,
used the scholastic methodology which really is connected with philosophy as well, but
但是他們採用的實質內容還是基督教的內容。
gave it Christian content. Yeah.
當然,這其實是理查德·穆勒提出的論點,
That’s the argument of Richard Muller of course,
即新教經院主義本身只是一種方法,幫助我們更清晰地思考,
that scholasticism itself in Protestantism is just a methodology to help us think clearly
它本身沒有什麼實質性內容。
and in itself doesn’t have content. Even though
當我們讀經院主義文章和書籍時,
when you read it, you know,
它們的內容非常難理解,除非我們非常熟悉經院主義。
unless you get used to it, it’s very challenging to the mind, because,
因為我們中大多數人在哲學上都沒有什麼背景知識。你說。”
you know, most of us don’t have a real philosophical background. Yeah.
學生:”如果有人對您說,我們讀聖經的時候也要使用理性啊。
Student: How would you answer to someone who says that even when we read Scripture,
您會如何回應他呢?
we use reason. I mean,
我的意思是,我們要使用理性才能閱讀聖經和理解聖經,
reading and understanding Scripture is a use of reason, so
所以這決斷的最終標準、最終工具並不是聖經而是理性。
the final standard or the final tool is not the Scripture but reason,
因為人們是靠理性來明白這些內容,這些語言的。“
because we are reasoning the content, the language?
周必克教授:“是。
Beeke: Yeah,
人們在讀經時確實會用到理性,也會做一些推論。
there is reasoning and there are deductive conclusions that people make
對明白命題性真理而言,這是合乎邏輯的,也是十分必要的。
when reading Scripture, from reading propositional truth that are logical and necessary.
但是聖經中的主要真理非常淺顯易懂,
But all the main truth of Scripture are so plain on the face of the page
基督教信仰的基本教義也不是對聖經的總結和推論,
that the basic doctrines of the faith are not conclusions or reasonings out of Scripture,
這些核心教義都是簡單明瞭的,
all the essentials are right there on the surface of the page,
所以人們才將它們視為命題性真理。
and therefore they are to be embraced as propositional truth.
你們還記得《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》中是怎麼說的嗎?
But you know how Westminster puts that, right?
好像是第1章第5段(更正:第1章第6段),
There are certain things that are logical and necessary consequences,
‘一切必要之事,聖經都明明記載,
what is it, 1.5 (Correction: 1.6), that flow out of that.
或是可以用正當且必要的推論,從聖經中引申出來。’”
But these are always secondary truth to the main truth of the gospel.
好,我們用接下來的時間,
All right, let’s take a quick look then at,
很快地來講一下下一點,基督教與實驗科學。
in our remaining time, empirical science.
雖然科學曾經是古代哲學的一個分支,
Once a branch of ancient philosophy,
但是它從近代早期就開始有了它自己獨立的位置。
science began to take on a distinct life of its own in the early modern period.
後來,它在十九世紀一躍成為人類文明的主力軍,
And then it emerged as a major force in human culture in the nineteenth century.
直到它最終成為了一個占有統治地位的“文明權威”。
And grew in status until it became a reigning “cultural authority”.
這裡的“文明權威”要打上引號。
I am putting “cultural authority” in quotation marks.
它是二十世紀里占有統治地位的“文明權威”。
A reigning “cultural authority” in the twentieth century.
人們常將科學的進步歸因於科學方法的使用,
The advance of science is often attributed to the use of the scientific method, which is
即一種通過對實驗中可測量數據的觀察來驗證人們想法的實證方法。
an “empirical” method of testing ideas through the observation of measurable data in experiments.
科學確實給人類帶來了巨大的益處,
The benefits of science are great,
但可悲的是,這個時代同時也將一種二元論帶入了人們的世界觀。
but sadly, the modern era also brought a dichotomy to our worldview.
自啟蒙運動和浪漫主義思潮以來,
So since the Enlightenment, and since the reaction of Romanticism,
西方人們的思維方式已經分裂,被一分為二。
our Western mind-set has been split into two compartments.
一邊是科學、邏輯、物質、機械和客觀真理;
Science, logic, matter, machines, public truth on one side;
另一邊是宗教、情感、精神、道德、私人價值觀。
religion, emotion, spirit, morality, private values on the other side.
這種二元論是錯誤的。因為聖經所肯定的,是上帝是一切事物的主。
That’s a false dichotomy, cause the Bible asserts God’s lordship over all things.
它呼召我們要在一切事上榮耀上帝。
It calls us to glorify Him in all that we do.
從基督教信仰的角度出發,
A Christian approach to science must begin with recognizing
我們必須認識到科學是人類哲學的一種特定形式。
that it is a specialized form of human philosophy.
科學所做的,並非是記錄與報告實驗規律,
Science doesn’t merely report on empirical patterns,
而是試圖構建一種現實觀,即形而上學觀,
but it attempts to formulate a view of reality, that is metaphysics,
並根據這種現實觀來發展我們的思維,即認識論,
based upon what we can develop in our minds, epistemology,
和引導我們的生活,即倫理學。
and direct our lives, ethics.
因此,我們幾分鐘前談到的針對非基督教哲學的原則,
And so the principles we established a few minutes ago with regard to non-Christian philosophy
同樣也適用於非基督教的科學。
also apply to non-Christian science.
所以,第一個原則,科學並非是我們認識與榮耀上帝所必須知道的。
So science then, number one, is not necessary to know and glorify God.
特殊啟示,即聖經,也可以在這些問題上給與我們充分的引導。
Special revelation, the Bible, remains our sufficient guide also in these matters.
但是,第二個原則,科學確實可以教導我們一些真實又有用的真理。
And yet, number two, science does teach us some valid and useful truth.
這個原則不僅適用於物理、化學、醫學和工程學,
That’s true in physics, chemistry, medicine, engineering, as well as
也適用於研究人類情感、行為、關係的心理學和社會學。
in studies of our human emotions, behavior, relationships by psychologists, sociologists.
在這些領域里,我們是能找到一些真實有用的真理的。
There can be some valid, useful truth here.
但是我們還有第三個原則,
However, non-Christian science, number three,
即從非基督教科學中所產生的思想體系是與福音相對立的。
produces systems of thought antithetical to the gospel, just like philosophy.
因為得出這些思想體系的是叛逆上帝的人。
Because many of its authors operate out of rebellion against God.
這一點在現代科學假想出的無神論自然主義中體現得特別明顯。
And that’s evident in the atheistic naturalism presumed by much modern science,
因為科學是以實驗為依據的,所以這就會產生一種傾向,
because science, being empirical, there’s a tendency,
使人認為一切不能被實驗所證明的東西都是不能被承認的。
unless the scientists are Christian, there’s a tendency
除非那個科學家是一名基督徒。
to deny everything that’s not empirical.
根據這樣的假想,那麼人們就不能接受人有靈魂這一現實。
So you deny the reality of the human soul.
人類就成為了一堆物質的集合體。
Man just then becomes a blob of things.
人就只有身體。
He’s just a body.
他們否認超自然事物的存在,
You deny the supernatural
因為我們無法把那些東西放到顯微鏡下去觀察。
cause you can’t see it and put it under the microscope.
因此,最終的結果就是,
So what happens is science then
科學變成了一個上帝,變成了我們看待事物的一種方式。
can itself become a god, a way of looking at things.
目前盛行的科學模型提出,大約在140億年前,
And the current prevailing model of science proposes that the universe therefore emerged
宇宙從一個能量極大的粒子的“大爆炸”中自發出現。
spontaneously from a point of infinite energy in a “big bang” about fourteen billion years ago.
科學家還說,這個宇宙中所有複雜且精美的結構,
And all of this remarkably complex and beautiful structures of the cosmos, we are told,
都是由物質與能量在自然規律中通過偶然的相互作用產生、形成的。
developed through accidental interactions of matter and energy according to natural laws,
然後它們又以某種方式在數百萬年間進行了一系列的化學反應。
somehow producing chemical reactions over millions of years,
這就得出了我們現在所謂的進化論。
to develop what we have now the doctrine of evolution.
如果我們選擇相信這樣的理論,
You see, if you embrace that,
而不是用完全符合聖經的眼光去分辨它,
you don’t subject that to a biblical, radical critique,
那麼,對“生命是關於什麼”的這一問題,
you can embrace a very false limited view
我們就會產生一個非常錯誤、非常有限的觀點。
of what life is all about.
因為如果是那樣,
Because you are not embracing the Bible’s philosophy,
我們所相信的就不是聖經中的哲學,而是科學中的哲學,
you are embracing science’s philosophy,
科學就變成了我們的上帝。
science then becomes your god.
而那時,我們就會用物質來衡量一切。
And everything is measurable in terms of objects,
這與之前的基督教信仰是相違背的,因為上帝才是衡量一切的主。
it’s exactly the opposite of the former age of Christianity when everything is measured by God.
但是,科學仍然為我們提供了一些合理的論證方法,
However, science still offers some legitimate methods of reasoning
幫助我們建立模型和規律,來解釋一些自然現象。
for formulating models and laws to explain natural phenomena.
而基督徒可以使用這些方法,在各個科學領域服侍上帝。
And Christians may use these methods and serve God in various fields, scientific fields.
所以,科學本身與信仰並不是對立的,
So science, in itself, is not antithetical to faith,
其實它依靠的是對上帝的信心。
but depends upon faith in God.
溥偉恩說,“所有的科學家,包括那些不可知論者和無神論者,
Vern Poythress said, “All scientists—including agnostics and atheists—
都相信上帝的存在。
believe in God.
他們必須相信有上帝,否則就無法從事他們所做的工作。”
They have to in order to do their work.”
溥偉恩接著解釋道,科學家們必須要相信自然規律,
So Poythress goes on and explains that scientists must believe in scientific laws,
他們必須要相信自然世界中有一般規律,
they must believe in regular patterns of the natural world
就好像它們有無所不在、不改變和無所不能的屬性一樣。
that act as if they have the attributes of omnipresence, and immutability, and omnipotence.
但是自然世界本身並沒有這些屬上帝的屬性,
However, nothing in the natural world itself possesses such divine attributes
它不能製造出這樣的規律。
to produce such patterns.
於是溥偉恩做出了一個符合他基督徒身份的總結,
So Poythress concludes as a Christian,
即科學存在這一事實本身就要求要有一位擁有真正位格的存在。
that science itself requires the presence of a real, personal Being
正如希伯來書1章3節所說,祂用祂大能的話語來統治萬有。
who rules all things by His powerful word, just as Hebrews 1:3 says that He does.
那麼,一個符合聖經的科學研究方法並不會扼殺科學進步,
Now a biblical approach, then, to science does not strangle scientific progress,
反而會讓科學得自由、得釋放。
but releases science.
不會扼殺科學進步,反而讓科學能夠放開來做它應該做的事情。
Does not strangle scientific progress, but it releases science to do its work,
科學本身並非終點,它也不是上帝,
not as a be-all, end-all or god in itself,
但是它可以帶著上帝的祝福,遵循著上帝的話語,
but as a subset of human academic inquiry
在上帝的帶領下成為人類學術探究的一部分。
under God’s direction, God’s blessing, God’s Word.
科學確實有它一定的地位,但是它要俯伏在上帝話語的權威之下。
So science has its place, but it’s under the authority of God’s Word.
那麼接下來,我要講幾點原則來結束今天的課程。
So that gives us several principles that I want to conclude the lecture with today.
第一,科學家必須是在上帝的授權下運作。
Number one, scientists operate with delegated authority, with delegated authority.
上帝起初賜給人的祝福和命令是科學事業存在的基礎,
The scientific enterprise is rooted in the very blessing and mandate which God placed upon man
上帝要人”治理“全地、並”管理“地上所有的動植物。
in the beginning to “subdue” the earth, and “have dominion” over all its animals and plants.
聖經中提到的最偉大的科學家大概就是所羅門了。
So the greatest scientist mentioned in the Bible probably was Solomon,
上帝賜給了祂的僕人所羅門王極大的智慧,
the servant-king to whom God gave remarkable understanding,
我們從列王記上4章33節中讀到,
we are told, 1 Kings 4:33, of trees,
“他講論草木,自黎巴嫩的香柏樹直到牆上長的牛膝草,
and of beasts, and fowl and creeping things, and of fishes,
又講論飛禽走獸、昆蟲水族”。
all of which are an allusion,
這些都統指上帝的創造。
by the way, to creation.
所以,科學確實有它的尊貴性,
So, there is a nobility to science,
但是這種尊貴性始終是上帝賜下的,始終要順服於上帝的話語。
but it’s always a subordinate nobility delegated by the Creator, subject to the Word of God.
因此,科學絕不是獨立自主的,
Science, therefore, is never autonomous,
而是應該引導人類做好上帝創造的管家,
but it directs mankind to act as stewards of God’s creation,
這既是為了上帝的榮耀,也對科學發展有益。
God’s creation for its own good and His glory.
第二,科學家可以帶著對理性的信心來研究自然。
Number two, scientists can investigate nature with confident rationality.
基督教,特別是創世紀向我們展現出來的創造論,
Christianity, especially the doctrine of creation set forth in Genesis
為我們從事科學研究提供了一個合理的基礎。
provides a reasonable basis for doing science.
那麼我們要遵守的一般總原則是:世界本身並不是上帝,
And here’s your general overall arching principle: The world is not God,
所以我們要做的,是研究和管理這個世界,而不是去膜拜它;
and therefore is to be studied and ruled, but not worshiped;
這個世界是真實的,並非是幻覺;
the world is real, not an unreal illusion;
這個世界是按照它的創造主的智慧而有序安排的,
the world is ordered by the wisdom of one Creator,
它不是一團無意義的混亂體;
not meaningless chaos;
這個世界的法則是由重視規律和約的上帝所創造的,它是有規律的;
the world is regular in its patterns, being created by the God of law and covenant;
這個世界本身很好,也很有用處,
the world is good and useful in itself,
雖然它已經被罪污染了,但是研究這個世界並不是白費精力;
though it’s stained with sin, so the study of it is not a waste of effort;
因為我們是按上帝形象而造,所以我們有能力認識理解這個世界。
the world is understandable to us, for we are created in God’s image.
要知道,那些持無神論的科學家其實找不到合理的原因
You see, atheist, scientific atheist have no rational basis
讓自己去相信這個宇宙是按照有規律和有邏輯的原則在運作的。
to believe that the universe operates according to these regular and logical principles,
我們也是從聖經中學習到這一點的。
which we glean from the Scriptures.
第三,因此,科學家必須要帶著謙卑的態度來工作。
Number three, scientists must work therefore from a posture of intellectual humility.
他們必須要意識到,自己知道的其實非常少。
They must realize how little they know.
一個完美的例子就是上帝給約伯上的一堂課。
A perfect lesson here is God teaching Job,
上帝向約伯展示了祂創造中的不同事物,對他說,約伯,
showing him different things of creation, saying, Job, where were you?
“我立大地根基的時候,你在哪裡呢?
“Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare to me if you have understanding.
你若有聰明,只管說吧。你曾進到海源,或在深淵的隱密處行走嗎?
Have you entered into the springs of the sea? Have you walked in the search of the depth?
山岩間的野山羊幾時生產,你知道嗎?
Do you know the time when the wild goats of the rock bring forth?
母鹿下犢之期,你能察定嗎?”
Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”
也就是說,上帝要我們明白,
In other words, God is saying, look,
面對祂所創造的宇宙的奇妙與輝煌,
the most brilliant scientist is like child,
即使是最有才華的科學家,也應該要像一個孩子一樣謙卑。
a humble child before the awesome splendor of My universe.
第四,科學家們必須要認識到,
Number four, scientists must realize that
他們所得出的結論所具有的,僅僅是人有限的確定性。
their conclusions possess only human certainty.
也許今天還令人信服的實驗研究,幾十年後就被人棄之不用了。
Experimental studies that are convincing today may well be discarded a generation from now.
許許多多的科學理論最後都被證實是錯誤的。
So many theories of science have been proven to be not true.
我經常說的一句話就是(你們中有些人可能已經聽我說過了):
And I’ve often said in my classes, so some of you may have heard me say that,
我相信一百年後,人們會說,進化論實在是荒謬可笑。
that I believe that a hundred years from now, that people will laugh at the idea of evolution
進化論說所有事物都是從海底某個微小的物質發展而來,這怎麼可能?
that everything could come from some little matter in the bottom of the sea
我們的存在,是如此複雜,
and that your complex being,
而我們的身體結構里有數億個組成部分,我們還有靈魂,
consisting of millions and billions of body parts and your soul,
這些怎麼可能是以某種方式從海底發展出來的?
somehow could come from the bottom of the ocean?
這實在是荒唐可笑。
It will be a joke. It will be a joke.
實在是無比地令人難以置信。
It’s so incredibly unbelievable.
其實我們在許多事情上都能看到這樣的情況。
But that’s being true of many things.
我們的前輩們也犯過許多類似的錯誤。
I mean, and many times, our forefathers have been on the wrong side of those issues.
我記得以前給你們舉過威廉默斯·阿·佈雷克的例子,就是他說,
I gave you the example, I think before, of Wilhelmus à Brakel, calling his reader a blockhead
“如果有人認為地球可能是繞著太陽轉的,那這個人就是一個傻瓜。”
if he would think that there’s any possibility that the earth is actually revolving around the sun.
他說,“誰都知道太陽是繞著地球轉的,
Of course everyone knows the sun is revolving around the earth,
絕對是這樣,因為你每天都可以看到它。”
you can see it everyday.
所以,我們要明白,歷史一次又一次地見證了,
So you know, all throughout history, again and again and again,
科學結論中僅僅帶著人的有限的確定性。
science speaks with no more than human certainty.
第五,在探求知識時,科學家應該帶著禱告依靠上帝。
Fifth, science pursue knowledge, should pursue knowledge with prayerful dependency.
雖然科學家所研究的對象是普遍啟示,但是主仍然是他們的大教師。
Although their study is general revelation, the Lord is still their Teacher.
一位科學家能在探求知識和應用知識上取得任何一點實質性的進步,
Why does any scientist make real progress in knowledge and application?
都是因為上帝賜給了他才能。
God’s given him skills.
以賽亞書28章26節和29節。
Isaiah 28:26 and 29.
所以一位真正的科學家,是一個相信上帝、依靠上帝的人。
So a real scientist is one who believes in God and depends on God.
第六,科學家們應該要記住,
Six, scientists should remember that
對世界的理性研究和實驗研究終究是有限的,
rational and empirical study of the world is limited
它們不能使一個人擁有智慧。
by its ultimate insufficiency to make one wise.
真正的智慧唯獨來自屬靈真理在我們靈魂里的作工。
True wisdom can only come through spiritual truth applied to the soul.
而且,由於科學所研究的對象是可測量的實驗數據,
And since science deals with measurable empirical quantities,
所以它無法解答一個人關於個人生命的那些問題。
it can never account for the personal dimension of life,
但是一個人的個人生命也是真實的,就如那些實驗對象一樣。
which is no less real than the empirical.
科學要依靠神學。
And science alone is dependent upon theology,
如果僅憑科學,我們無法找到任何支撐意義和道德的基礎。
because science alone can never provide a basis for meaning or morality.
如果我們認為科學本身就是萬能的,就是我們追求的終點,
If science thinks it’s a be-all and an end-all in itself,
這實際上就是一種科學簡化論。
that is really scientific reductionism.
科學簡化論的主張是,只有那些在實驗中可測量的東西才是真實的。
And scientific reductionism claims that only that which is empirically measurable is real.
如果真是這樣的話,那麼生命就太荒誕了。
If that’s true, then life is absurd.
如果真是這樣,那”我愛我妻子“這個事實就毫無意義了。
If that’s true, then the fact that I love my wife is meaningless.
要知道,生命本身要比實驗研究豐富得多。
You see, life is so much more, so much more than the empirical.
僅憑科學本身,我們找不到智慧。上帝才是智慧。
Science cannot find wisdom in itself, God is wisdom.
“敬畏主就是智慧。遠離惡便是聰明。”
“Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom; to depart from evil is understanding.”
因此,真宗教才能讓我們有真正的智慧。
So only true religion can make us truly wise.
科學可以作神學的助手,但是它不能取代神學。
Science, they can be a help to theology, they can not usurp theology.
科學不能建立在它自己身上。
Science can not be the sole basis of science.
因為上帝才是創造天地的那一位。
For God is the Creator of the heavens and the earth.
第七,科學家們必須要帶著敬畏上帝的誠實正直來工作。
Seven, scientists must do their work with God-fearing integrity.
如同所有人類活動一樣,科學在道德上並非是中立的。
Science is not morally neutral, neither is any human activity.
在當今這個時代,我們的世界觀其實是非常支離破碎的。
And so, one of the dangerous implications of our divided worldview today in which
我們把各個專業分化得太過細緻,
we’ve become so specialized that
以致於一個人只有精力在一個領域里工作。
no one person can specialize in more than one area,
我們把所有事情都劃分成了一個個小小的部分。
and we divide everything into compartments.
那麼這會帶來怎樣的危險呢?
The danger of that
危險是,我們會喪失一種為上帝的榮耀而活的完整生命的整全性,
is that we lose the overall life integrity of living to the glory of God,
會以為我們自己的那個小領域就是萬能的、是我們的終極目標。
and we think, we think that our own little area is the be-all and the end-all.
正如一位基督徒不能在教會敬拜時抑制自己的心一樣,
Just as a Christian must not check his mind at the door of the church,
一位科學家也不能在做科學研究時抑制自己的良心。
so a scientist must not check his conscience at the door of the laboratory.
所有的人類活動都在為實現某個目標而努力著。
All human activity will strive after some goal.
而科學的目標,必須是榮耀上帝,
And the goal of science, must not be to boast in its own knowledge,
不能是為了誇耀自己的知識、自吹自擂。
but to glorify God.
因此,我們必須要把科學
And so science, therefore,
融合到一個更大的、以上帝為中心的世界觀中。
must be integrated into a larger, God-centered worldview.
上帝賜下智慧,政府才能濟世安民,經濟才能繁榮昌盛,
The same divine wisdom that empowers good government, promotes economic prosperity,
世界才會有井然有序,人類才得祝福。
structures the physical universe, blesses mankind,
上帝告訴我們,“敬畏耶和華是智慧的開端”。
says to us, “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom.”
所以,每一個科學家的禱告和渴望,都應該同詩篇86篇11節一樣,
And so the desire and prayer of every scientist should be Psalm 86:11,
“耶和華啊,求你將你的道指教我,我要照你的真理行;
“Teach me thy way, O Lord; I will walk in thy truth:
求你使我專心敬畏你的名。”
unite my heart to fear thy name.”
然後是最後一點,第八,
And finally eighthly,
科學家們的研究發現應該促使他們充滿感激地贊美上帝。
scientists should make use of their findings to promote grateful doxology.
過去的那些真科學家們,那些偉大的基督徒科學家們,
The real scientists of ancient past, the great Christian scientists
總是會說出類似大衛所說的話,
always spoke similar to David’s language,
“我觀看你指頭所造的天,並你所陳設的月亮星宿,
“when I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars,
便說:‘人算什麼,你竟顧念他?世人算什麼,你竟眷顧他?’
which thou hast ordained; what is man, that thou art mindful of him? And the son of man,
耶和華我們的主啊,你的名在全地何其美!”
that thou visitest him? O Lord our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth!”
約翰內斯·開普勒,生於1571年,卒於1630年,
Johannes Kepler, 1571 to 1630,
他的工作奠定了現代天文學和物理學的基礎,
whose work was foundational for modern astronomy and physics,
他說,“即使是在天文學領域,我的工作也只是為了敬拜上帝。”
said, “even in astronomy my work does nothing but worship God.”
願上帝讓我們看到更多這樣的科學家。
Oh, may God bring back more such scientists.
我們要知道,無論我們研究的是亞原子粒子物理學,
You see, whether studying the physics of subatomic particles,
還是一個活細胞的生物化學,還是鳥類的行為,
or the biochemistry of a living cell, or the behavior of birds,
還是洋流,還是太陽輻射,
or the currents of the ocean, or the radiation of the sun,
科學家們都有幸得以一窺上帝在普遍啟示中彰顯出的祂自己的榮耀。
scientists have the privilege of peering into God’s general revelation of His glory.
因此,他們其實應該比其他人更加擅長感謝上帝、榮耀上帝,
And so they should excel in thanking God and glorifying Him
也應該幫助別人去感謝上帝、榮耀上帝,而不是否認祂。
and help others to do the same, rather than to deny Him.
好了,我也只是給大家概括性地講了這兩點,
All right, I just hope, I just hope, I just took two disciplines
這兩點實際所包含的內容當然比我所講的要豐富得多。
and I just said a few words about both of them, so much more to say, of course.
但是我希望你們能夠明白和感受到,
But I hope it gives you a feel of the preeminence,
所有學科中最為重要的就是真正的神學,
the queen of all subjects is really theology,
這神學是以上帝的話語為根基的。
based on the Word of God,
而所有其他的一切,都要臣服於上帝在祂話語中所揭示的真理。
and everything else is subordinate to God’s truth revealed in God’s Word.
所以,我們可以使用科學,也可以使用哲學,
So you can use science, you can use philosophy,
但是一定要非常註意,要謹慎小心,
but do so in a very careful way
這也是我想在這堂課中給大家傳遞的基本信息。
as I tried to outline for you.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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