系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第21講 為調和各宗教而變得含糊不清的特殊啟示(斯莫利牧師)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

歡迎大家回到系統神學緒論的課堂。
Welcome back to the prolegomena lectures.
這堂課我們將繼續探討大綱上的第15大點,
In this lecture, we will be continuing with heading 15 in the outline,
“關於特殊啟示的謬誤”。
errors regarding special revelation,
現在要講的,是15大點的第三小點,
and we’ll be getting with sub-point C,
“為調和各宗教而變得含糊不清的特殊啟示”。
special revelation diffused to harmonize all religions.
講課之前,我先讀一節經文,詩篇119篇第105節,
Before we begin, I would like to open with scripture reading, from Psalm 119:105.
“你的話是我腳前的燈,是我路上的光。”
Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path.
我們來禱告。
Let’s pray.
哦,偉大又滿有主權的上帝,我們稱頌你,
O, great and sovereign God, we bless you
因為你已將你的話語賜給了我們,
that you have given to us your word,
因為你的話語就是真光。
and that Your Word is indeed a light.
你的話語告訴我們,真理是什麼。
It shows us what is true.
但是主,你並沒有用抽象的理論來顯明你的真理,
And it shows us what is true, Lord, not merely in an abstract and theoretical way,
而是帶領我們的腳步,指引我們當走的路,
but in a way that guides our feet, that shows us the right way to go,
引導我們走上平安的路、走上那永遠通向你的道路。
the safe way to go, and the way to go that leads us to you forever.
主啊,我們祈求你,願你使用系統神學緒論的內容,
Lord, we pray that you would use this material in the Prolegomena class
讓我們熱愛你的話語、珍惜你的話語、
to cause us to love your word, to cherish your word,
相信你的話語、也跟隨你的話語,
to believe your word, to follow your word,
也讓我們與一切使人遠離你話語的事物作鬥爭。
and to stand against all that would draw people away from your word.
主耶和華,求你使用這門課,
Please strengthen us and equip us
讓我們自己的信心得到堅固、信仰得到進一步的裝備,
in our own faith through these lectures and equip us as well, Lord God,
也預備我們,讓我們能夠幫助別人、並好好教導你的兒女,
to help other people, to teach your children well,
也幫助那些還未成為你兒女的人,
and to help those who are not yet your children
讓他們從虛假的光中迴轉過來,來追隨這真光,就是聖經的光,
to turn away from false lights and to follow the true light that will guide them in the way,
這真光會帶領他們走那當走的路。
the light of the Holy scriptures.
我們禱告祈求是奉耶穌的名。阿門!
We ask it in Jesus name. Amen.
剛纔讀的詩篇119篇105節提醒我們,
Well, that passage that I just read from Psalm 119:105 reminds us
無論我們把什麼當作上帝的啟示,
that whatever we regard as divine revelation,
我們都會依靠它來照亮我們前方的道路、來引導我們走向上帝。
we’re going to depend upon that to illuminate our way and to guide us toward God.
因此,如果我們以之為光來依靠的東西,實際上卻是黑暗,
And therefore, if what we’re depending upon to be our light is actually darkness,
那麼我們所處的黑暗是多麼巨大、多麼可怕。
how great and how terrible is the darkness that we’re in.
所以,我們必須要瞭解圍繞上帝的特殊啟示的種種謬誤。
Therefore, we must be aware of errors regarding special revelation from God.
那麼在前面的課上,我們已經探討了兩個毒害教會的重大錯誤。
Now in the previous lectures, we’ve examined two fundamental errors that plagued the church.
一個是高舉人的教訓、使之與上帝的啟示平起平坐,
One is the exaltation of tradition to the level of divine revelation,
這是羅馬天主教所犯的錯誤。
and the second is the subjugation of revelation
另一個是將上帝的啟示置於人類理性與情感之下,
to human reasoning or emotion. The first is primarily the error of the Roman Catholic church.
這主要是新教的自由主義教會所犯的錯誤。
The second is primarily the error of the Protestant liberal church.
論及此類假教師,雖然我們心中憂傷,
Of such false teachers, we may rightly,
但是我們還是要援引約翰一書2章18節的話,
although with sadness in our hearts,
因為這節經文所說的正適用於他們:
invoke 1 John 2:18 which says this,
“小子們哪,如今是末時了。
“Little children, it is the last time,
你們曾聽見說那敵基督的要來,現在已經有好些敵基督的出來了;
and as you have heard that antichrist shall come, even now, there are many anti Christs,
從此,我們就知道如今是末時了。”
whereby we know that it is the last time.”
我們將繼續來探討人們在特殊啟示教義上所犯的謬誤,
In this lecture we continue our study of errors regarding
而我們這堂課要討論的,是現代自由主義的三個產物。
the doctrine of special revelation by looking at three offspring of liberal modernism.
第一個產物是多元主義。
The first is a pluralism
多元主義認為,所有宗教都是上帝的有效啟示,都可以領人得救。
that regards all religions as valid means of divine revelation for salvation.
而第二個和第三個產物,新正統神學和聖經神學運動,
The second and third errors are liberalism’s rebellious children,
則是自由主義產下的“悖逆的後代”。
Neo orthodoxy and the biblical theology movement,
它們對自由主義雖然都持批判態度,
which criticized liberalism
但依舊沒能擺脫它的懷疑主義的主觀性的影響。
and yet did not escape its skeptical subjectivity.
這就有了我們大綱上15大點下的這第3小點,
This brings us then under main point 15 to consider sub-point C,
“為調和各宗教而變得模糊不清的特殊啟示”。
special revelation diffused to harmonize all religions.
我們前面講過,自由主義神學輕視基督教的教義部分,
As we noted, theological liberalism minimizes the doctrinal content of Christianity,
對合乎聖經的正統神學持懷疑態度,將之視為糟糠,
skeptically discarding biblical orthodoxy as chaff,
但它試圖保留其中很小一部分的精髓,
and seeking to retain a small kernel
就是人所體驗到的“上帝是愛”。
that is a God of love revealed in human experience.
這種簡化基督教、使之成為一種對上帝的主觀認識的做法,
This reduction of Christianity to a subjective awareness of the divine
自然會引發人們的疑問:
logically raises the question
其他宗教里會不會也有上帝的啟示?
of whether other religions may also contain revelation from God
其他宗教是不是也可以讓人認識上帝?
and be the means of knowing him.
宗教多元主義認為,上帝透過所有宗教工作,
Religious pluralism is the belief that God works through all religions,
所以,無論一個宗教是否教導對耶穌基督福音的信心,
so that they are pathways to the divine,
它都可以將人領到上帝那裡去。
with or without faith in the gospel of Jesus Christ.
那麼,在我們回應這一觀點之前,我們首先需要澄清三點。
Now, before we proceed, we need to make three points of clarification.
第一,當我們說“宗教多元主義”時,
First, by religious pluralism,
我們不是指我們周圍的人有各種宗教信仰的現實,
we’re not referring merely to the fact that people around us follow a variety of religions,
也並非是要剝奪人們遵從自己的良心敬拜的信仰自由。
nor are we denying people the freedom to worship according to their own conscience.
相反,我們在這節課上所用的“宗教多元主義”,
Rather, when we use the phrase “religious pluralism” in this lecture,
是指一種宗教觀或者哲學觀。
we’re speaking of the religious or philosophical belief
這種觀點認為,上帝顯明瞭許多方法,
that there are many paths that God has revealed
這些方法或多或少都能把人帶到上帝那裡去。
that are more or less valid ways to get to him.
所以,我們在批判“宗教多元主義”時,
Therefore, when we criticize religious pluralism,
並不是提倡在政治上對某一宗教實行神權統治。
we are not calling for the theocratic enforcement of a particular religion by political force.
我們不主張、也不支持那種無法容忍其他宗教人士的宗教偏見。
We are not advocating or supporting intolerant bigotry towards people of other religions.
相反,我們是在提出一個宗教方面的問題:
Rather, we are raising a religious question:
上帝究竟是怎樣啟示祂自己、啟示救恩的?
does God reveal himself savingly
是透過許多宗教,還是唯獨透過合乎聖經的基督教?
through many religions or only through biblical Christianity?
第二,我們需要明白,
Second, we need to know
宗教多元主義裡面實際上有多個信仰體系。
that religious pluralism is actually a cluster of belief systems
這些同享一個共同點的信仰體系通常會被分為三類。
that share a common tendency, and a widely used threefold classification.
在哈羅德·內特蘭斯看來,
Harold Netlands distinguishes
多元主義不同於排他主義、或包容主義,
pluralism from exclusivism and inclusivism,
因為包容主義者認為,基督會通過其他宗教來拯救失喪的人。
where inclusivism is a belief that Christ works through other religions to save the lost.
但是正如大衛·克拉克指出的那樣,
However, as David Clark points out,
這三類信仰體系的內部分支十分龐雜。
there is much variety in these three categories,
如某些包容主者教導說,
and some forms of inclusivism teach that
認識上帝、獲得救贖的最好途徑是基督,但他不是唯一的道路。
Christ offers the best but not the only way to know God and be saved.
於是包容主義所代表的,
Inclusivism then represents
是將排他主義和多元主義結合起來的各類嘗試。
various attempts to combine exclusivism and pluralism.
例如,某位包容主義者可能在救贖觀上持有排他主義,
For example, an inclusivist might assert exclusivism with regard to salvation.
他可能會說,只有基督才能拯救人;
He might say Christ alone saves people,
但是他可能在啟示觀上持有多元主義,
and yet he might assert pluralism with regard to revelation,
他可能說“基督會通過許多不同宗教的教導來施行拯救”。
by saying “Christ saves through the teachings of many different religions.”
因此,雖然這種分類能概括性地展現多種信仰體系,
Therefore, while the threefold classification is helpful as a generalized spectrum of beliefs,
但是我們在課上只會講到多元主義。
we’re simply going to speak of pluralism here.
第三,我們需要認識到,
Third, we have to acknowledge that this question of pluralism
多元主義的問題,從許多方面來說,屬於基督論的一部分。
in many ways properly belongs to the locus of Christology.
因此,對這個問題的充分討論將會涉及到一系列教義,
To address it fully would require a development of the doctrines
如道成肉身的主的獨特位格,
concerning the unique person of the incarnate Lord
還有基督作為上帝與人之間唯一中保的獨特職分,等等。
and his office as the only mediator between God and man.
我們在系統神學緒論這門課中對多元主義的探討,
Here under the locus of Prolegomena, we will address pluralism
將會集中在它對上帝啟示這一教義的影響上。
as it impinges on the doctrine of divine revelation.
宗教多元主義,至少在理論上,
Now, while religious pluralism is at least theoretically affirmed
已經獲得了印度教、佛教等宗教的認可,
in religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism,
但是在認信的基督徒中,它只獲得了一部分人的認可,
it has gained a foothold among professing Christians
這部分人中的絕大多數都持有這樣一個觀點:
largely insofar as they have embraced the idea
所有正確使用理性和意志的人都能夠得救。
that all people can attain salvation by a right use of their reason and will.
因此,正如弗朗西斯·圖倫丁指出的那樣,
Thus, as Francis Turretin noted,
這種“上帝的救贖啟示已在福音之外傳到各國各族”的觀點,
the extension of saving revelation to the nations, apart from the gospel,
通常是伯拉糾派、半伯拉糾派、蘇西尼派、和亞米念派的教義。
has often been the doctrine of Pelatians, semi Pelagians, Socinians and Arminians.
藉著自由主義神學的傳播,
In the modern age, religious pluralism
宗教多元主義已經在現當代蓬勃發展起來了。
has flourished through the teaching of theological liberalism.
弗里德里希·施萊爾馬赫認為,
Frederick Schleiermacher,
“人需要上帝”的常識可以取代特殊啟示。
who replaced special revelation with the common awareness of dependence upon the divine,
他在談到人類宗教信仰時這樣說:
said this about man’s religions.
“如果我們考究人類宗教的起源以及它的最初組成部分,
“If you investigate them at their source and their original components,
我們會發現一些死灰殘渣,
you will find that all the dead slag
它們是人類各樣的宗教之火燃燒後,傾倒而出的灰燼。
that was once the glowing outpouring of the inner fire that is contained in all religions,
而這些,或多或少就是宗教的真正本質。
and is more or less the true essence of religion,
正如我之前所說的那樣,
as I have presented it to you,
每一種宗教都只是這其中的一種形式,
each religion was one of the particular forms,
因為不可避免地,永恆無限的宗教需要以某些有限的形式出現。
eternal and infinite religion necessarily had to assume among finite and limited beings.”
宗教多元主義在20世紀的最主要的代表人物,
Well, the premier representative of religious pluralism in the 20th century was John Hick,
是學者約翰·希克(1922-2012)。
a scholar who lived from 1922 to 2012.
受到伊曼努爾·康德區分現象與本體的理論的影響,
Hick was influenced by Emmanuel Kant’s distinction
希克將康德的理論稍作改動,用進了他自己的理論之中。
of the phenomenal and the noumenal, adapting it into his own distinction
希克的理論,是“不同的宗教觀與人類無法形容的那一位的區別”,
between diverse religious conceptions and the ineffable divine being,
並將後者稱為“終極現實”。
which Hick called “The Real.”
希克認為,世界上存在著一個超然的終極現實,
Hick argued for an ultimate transcendent reality,
我就用“終極現實”來指代它,
which I am referring to as “The Real,”
它超越人類的思想範疇,人也無法直接經歷到它本體,
which, being beyond the scope of our human concepts, cannot be directly experienced by us
只能當它以人的不同思想形式出現時,人才能經歷到它。
as it is in itself, but only as it appears in terms of our various human thought forms.
接著,希克認為,那些關於神的各種觀點
Well then, the next step that Hick took was to identify the various ideas of the gods as
是”‘終極現實’在不同歷史模式的人類意識中的不同體現”。
“different manifestations of ‘the Real’ within different historical modes of human consciousness.”
顯然,一個擁有這種觀點的人,
Now, of course it’s difficult to do that
很難認真傾聽耶穌在福音中關於他自己的教導。
and carefully follow what Jesus says about himself in the gospels,
希克承認,他對基督的認識屬於自由派神學的範疇。
and Hick acknowledged that his view of Christ falls within the tradition of liberal interpretation
由施萊爾馬赫、施特勞斯、哈納克等人建立的自由派神學,
established by Schleiermacher, Strauss, Harnack, and others,
認為耶穌是一個從加利利來的醫治者和傳道人,
in which Jesus was a Galilean healer and preacher,
耶穌的重要之處,在於他極其敏銳的感知上帝的能力。
whose significance lay in his extremely intense God consciousness.
人們常用這個大象的寓言來說明宗教多元主義:
A religious pluralism is often illustrated by the parable of the elephant.
一群盲人偶然發現了一頭大象,
In this parable, a group of blind men stumble upon an elephant,
而每個盲人都碰觸到了大象身上的某個部位;
and each one of the blind men encounters a different part of the elephant.
其中一個盲人接觸的是大象身體的側面,
And so one man encounters the side of the elephant and feeling it,
他一邊感受這個部位,一邊說,這個東西像一堵牆;
he says, this thing is like a wall.
又有一個盲人碰到了大象的鼻子,
Second comes to its trunk
他一邊摸著大象鼻子一邊說,不對,它像一條蛇;
and feeling it, says, no, it’s like a snake.
另一個盲人碰到的是大象的腿,
A third touches its leg
他說,不,不,不,你們倆都錯了,這東西像一棵樹;
and says, no, no, no, you’re both wrong, this thing is like a tree.
隨後,這幾個盲人按照他們各自的發現展開了一場激烈的辯論。
And what ensues is a rather fierce argument amongst the blind men about what they have found.
結果是,雖然他們確實都碰到了大象,
Consequently, they have all truly encountered an elephant,
但他們誰也沒有對大象有正確的認識。
but they are all mistaken in what the elephant actually is.
他們誰也沒有真正明白,他們遇見的這個事物究竟是什麼。
None of them really understands what it is they’ve encountered.
多元主義最主要的論點與這個寓言的結局相似:
And this is the great thesis of pluralism:
所有宗教都在探索同一個神聖的存在,
all religions are groping after the same divine reality
但沒有哪個宗教能夠充分全面地描述這個存在。
that none of them can adequately describe.
我們承認,多元主義確實能夠提醒我們,要謙卑,
Well, pluralism does appeal to our appreciation for humility.
也提醒我們要愛所有人,
It appeals to our compassion for all people,
它還提醒我們,要記得“上帝無法側透”,祂是一個奧秘。
and it also appeals to our sense of the mystery of an incomprehensible God.
此外,它也勾起了我們對宗教衝突的恐懼,
Furthermore, it taps into our fears of religious conflict
觸動了我們記憶中那些可怕的宗教戰爭的回憶。
and our memories of horrible wars fought over religion.
但是,宗教多元主義在好幾個方面都有問題。
However, religious pluralism fails on several counts.
首先,我們前面課上講過的一些反對現代自由主義的觀點,
For one thing we could bring against it the objections that we brought
也可以用來反對宗教多元主義。
in a previous lecture against liberal modernism.
此外,我們針對宗教多元主義還可以提出以下反對意見。
In addition, we may raise the following objections specifically to religious pluralism. They are as follows.
首先,宗教多元主義擁有一種自相矛盾的
First, religious pluralism assumes
自認超越世上一切宗教的姿態,
a posture of self-contradictory superiority over the world’s religions.
我們從這個大象寓言中就能看出這一點。
And we see this actually in the parable of the elephant,
在這個寓言里,只有我們才能看到大象真正的樣子,
where we stand in judgment over the blind men,
所以我們處在一個判斷盲人的位置。
because we alone can see what the elephant truly is.
同樣,宗教多元主義者認為,
In the same way, religious pluralists assume
他們知道客觀、真實的終極現實是什麼。
that they have a knowledge of ultimate reality that is objectively true.
但是,他們自己的哲學又斷言,
However, their own philosophy asserts
人類對“終極現實”的一切認識,不僅極其有限、
that all human knowledge of the real is severely limited,
也是間接有缺陷的。
indirect and flawed.
因此,如果一位多元主義者保持他觀點的一致性,
So if the pluralist is going to be consistent,
那麼他實際上應該把自己算作第七個盲人。
he really needs to count himself as the seventh blind man.
那盲人能帶領盲人嗎?
And shall the blind lead the blind?
萊斯利·紐比金(1909-1998)說,
Lesslie Newbigin, who lived from 1909 to 1998, said,
這個講述盲人寓言的人,好像覺得他自己能看見,
that telling the story about the blind man as if the narrator has sight
他所代表的,是“一種極其傲慢的人,
represents “the immensely arrogant claim of one
他聲稱自己知道全部的真理,
who sees the full truth,
就是全世界的宗教都在探索的那個真理。”
which all the world’s religions are only groping after.”
因此,宗教多元主義與所有形式的懷疑主義一樣,
And therefore, religious pluralism, like all forms of skepticism,
是一種自相矛盾的傲慢的愚昧。
is arrogant foolishness that refutes itself.
第二,宗教多元主義並沒有緩和各個宗教的關係,
Second, religious pluralism does not harmonize the various religions,
而是在侮辱它們、否認它們。
but insults them and denies them.
宗教多元主義雖然聲稱自己認可所有宗教,
It claims to affirm all religions,
但它實際上認為這些宗教都是錯的。
but in fact declares them all to be wrong.
比如,基督教教導,基督是上帝的獨生子,
For example, Christianity teaches that Christ is the unique Son of God.
伊斯蘭教教道,真主阿拉沒有兒子,耶穌只是一個先知。
Islam teaches that Allah has no sons and Jesus was merely a prophet.
顯然,這兩種教導在邏輯上無法共存,
Now, both of those assertions cannot be true without a logical contradiction,
如果硬要共存,我們就只能陷入非理性的泥沼。
which would cause us to lapse into irrationality.
宗教多元主義者會說,基督教和伊斯蘭教都不對。
What religious pluralists do is they tell us that neither Christianity nor Islam is right,
他們很有可能會說,從某種意義上來說,我們都是上帝的孩子。
and most likely would assert that we’re all God’s children in some sense of the term.
多元主義者認為,
Pluralists classify Christianity and Islam, insofar as
忠於各自聖書的基督教和伊斯蘭教,
they remain faithful to their sacred writings,
與世上其他盲目探索的宗教一樣。
as among the blind groping religions of the world.
這就是多元主義者所謂的“認可”。
How very affirmative!
宗教多元主義其實並不是一種多元主義,
Religious pluralism fails as pluralism,
它只是提出了另一種宗教,
and it succeeds only by proposing an alternative religion
一種不同於先知、基督、以及使徒的教導的宗教。
that contradicts the prophets, Christ, and his apostles.
因此,所有自稱為基督徒的人都必須拒絕宗教多元主義,
And therefore, those who would count themselves Christians must reject religious pluralism,
因為基督徒就是相信上帝話語的基督的門徒。
for Christians are disciples of Christ who believe God’s Word.
第三,宗教多元主義中的懷疑主義
Third, the skepticism of religious pluralism
源自他們對上帝和人的關係的一種錯誤認識。
starts with a false view of God’s relation to mankind,
他們過分強調上帝的超然性,
a hyper transcendence
認為這位造物主與按祂形像所造的人之間無法有連接,
that breaks the link of the Creator with people created in His image,
因此多元主義者聲稱,我們不可能真正認識上帝。
claiming that we can’t really know God.
但諷刺的是,這種過分強調超然性的教導,
Ironically, such a hyper transcendence
最終變成了一種過分的崇高,
ends up collapsing into hyper eminence,
以至於人只能通過感受、而非理性真理才能認識上帝。
so that God is known only through feelings, rather than rational truths.
好在合乎聖經的基督教為我們提供了一個更加合理清晰的視角。
Biblical Christianity offers a much more coherent view.
它既肯定了上帝的無限,
For it affirms the infinity of God
又肯定了人可以認識上帝,因為人是按上帝的形像造的。
and yet affirms human knowledge of God, because we are created in His image.
雖然我們無法完全側透上帝,
We cannot fully comprehend God,
但是我們可以認識祂,因為我們是按祂的形像造的,
but we can know Him, because we are created as His image bearers,
這就意味著,
which implies
我們對上帝的認識與上帝對祂自己的認識不在同一個層面上,
that our knowledge of God is not on the same level as His knowledge of Himself,
我們的認識是類比性的,這就是“影像神學”。
but it is analogical knowledge. It is image theology.
但即使是類比,也能夠闡述真理。
And analogies can express truth.
只要滿有主權的耶和華願意向我們啟示祂自己,
We can have a true knowledge of God insofar as the sovereign Lord wills
我們就能夠真正認識祂。
to reveal Himself to us.
對信徒而言,對上帝的認識就是永生活水的泉源,
And this knowledge of God is like a fountain of living water for believers,
因為耶穌在約翰福音第17章第3節中說,認識上帝就是永生。
because to know God is eternal life, Jesus says in John 17:3.
因此,基督教遠遠勝過空洞無物的懷疑主義,
And therefore, Christianity is far superior to the barren skepticism
也遠遠勝過模棱兩可的宗教多元主義。
and vague philosophy of religious pluralism.
我們提出的第四個異議是,
Let me also raise a fourth objection.
宗教多元主義有一個前設,即上帝不會對人說話。
Religious pluralism operates under the assumption that God does not communicate verbally.
我們來回顧一下那個大象的寓言,
Let’s go back to the parable. There are the blind men,
回到盲人開始爭論大象是什麼的時候。
they’re going, they’re starting to argue about what the elephant is.
我們現在來稍稍改動一下故事。
Now let’s change the parable.
如果大象可以開口說話,它就可以告訴這些盲人,它究竟是什麼。
What if the elephant could talk, then he can tell the blind man what he is,
如果這些盲人相信大象的話,他們就會知道真相。
and if they believe him, they will know the truth.
那麼,聖經中明確告訴我們,上帝已經說話了。
Well, the Bible asserts that God has spoken.
宗教多元主義者為了捍衛他們的主張,選擇拒絕聖經的教導,
And in order to make its claim, religious pluralist must adopt a position
他們說,不,上帝沒有說話,因此聖經不是上帝的話語。
that says no, God has not spoken and therefore the Bible is not the Word of God.
所以,儘管多元主義者聲稱自己支持“人類多方尋求上帝”,
So even though they claim that what they’re doing is they’re affirming seeking God in many ways,
但他們卻拒絕這位通過祂的話語向他們說話的上帝。
pluralist rejects the God who is speaking to them through His Word.
第五,上帝在祂的話語中啟示我們,
Fifth, God has revealed in His Word
教導我們如何正確看待其他宗教。
a true perspective on other religions.
正如我們之前在探討非基督教哲學時指出的那樣,
As we noted in our discussion of non-Christian philosophy,
因為上帝賜下了普遍啟示,
general revelation results in
所以不信主的人也能認識一些有效且有用的真理,
unbelievers retaining some valid and useful truths
但是這些真理所在的思想體系與福音是敵對的。
embedded in systems of thought that are antithetical to the gospel.
墮落之人通過上帝的工作,能夠認識到上帝的存在,
Though fallen man is aware of God through His works,
但是他的思想卻是敵對上帝、且遠離上帝的。
man’s mindset is hostile to God and alienated from him.
因此,儘管其他宗教中可能有某些關於上帝、道德的真理,
As a result, though other religions may recognize some truths about God and morality,
但從根本上來說,合乎聖經的宗教與這個世界的宗教是對立的。
there is a fundamental antithesis between biblical religion and the religions of this world.
合乎聖經的基督教認清了其他宗教的本質,
Biblical Christianity has no illusions about the character of other religions.
它知道,其他宗教無法把人帶到上帝那裡去。
It does not view them as pathways to the true God,
合乎聖經的基督教教導我們:其他宗教的神是偶像,
but teaches us that their gods are idols,
它們的敬拜是邪惡與敗壞,它們教導的是虛假歪曲的教義。
their worship is corrupt, and their teachings are distorted by falsehood.
我們在申命記12章29節至30節中、詩篇96篇5節中、
We see that in Deuteronomy 12:29 to 30,
耶利米書10章1節至16節中、以及約翰福音4章22節中,
Psalm 96:5, Jeremiah 10:1 through 16,
都能讀到這樣的教導。
and John 4:22.
保羅在哥林多後書4章4節中將撒旦稱為“這世界的神”,
Satan, Paul says, is the god of this world, 2 Corinthians 4:4.
又在哥林多前書10章20節中說,
And Paul also says that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice,
“外邦人所獻的祭是祭鬼,不是祭神”。
they sacrifice to devils and not to God. 1 Corinthians 10:20.
啟示錄9章20節也提到了這一點。
And on this point, you can also see Revelation 9:20.
自從亞伯拉罕被呼召,一直到以色列人出埃及,
From the call of Abraham to the exodus of Israel from Egypt,
耶和華神總是教導祂的子民,
the LORD told His people
不要沾染其他宗教,分別為聖,唯獨侍奉耶和華。
to separate themselves from other religions, and to serve Him alone.
信基督的人與不信基督的人之間,不會有任何屬靈的團契與交通。
Believers in Christ have no spiritual fellowship with unbelievers.
保羅在哥林多後書6章14節至15節中寫道:
Paul writes in 2 Corinthians 6:14 and 15, “for what fellowship
“義和不義有什麼相交呢?光明和黑暗有什麼相通呢?
hath righteousness with unrighteousness, and what communion hath light with darkness,
基督和彼列有什麼相和呢?”
and what concord hath Christ with Belial,”
“彼列”是對撒旦的另一個稱呼。
which is another name for the devil.
新約聖經一再告誡我們,
The new Testament repeatedly warns against false teachers
謹防那些試圖將教會帶離聖經正統的假教師。
who seek to draw the church away from biblical orthodoxy.
此外,新約聖經啟示我們,如加拉太書1章8節至9節,
Furthermore, it identifies the origin of false doctrine as demonic,
假教義源自魔鬼,假教師的最終下場是毀滅與咒詛,
and the destiny of false teachers as damnation, as what we see in Galatians 1:8 and 9.
圖倫丁說:
Turretin argued,
“一個宗教里若沒有基督、沒有對基督的信心,就沒有救恩,”
“There can be no saving religion without Christ and faith in him,”
他引用了幾處經文來支持這個論點。
he cites several scripture passages,
然後圖倫丁說,“但只有福音啟示了基督,
“but Christ is revealed,” Turretin says, “nowhere except in the gospel,
只有上帝的話語啟示了信心,因為‘信道是從聽道來的’。”
nor is faith given without the Word, since it comes by hearing.”
因此,基督沒有叫人們接受他們宗教中的可取之處,
And so the word of Christ does not call people to embrace the good that is in their own religions,
而是如帖撒羅尼迦前書1章9節所說,
but it calls them to turn to God from idols,
要人們“離棄偶像歸向上帝,要服侍那又真又活的上帝”。
so that they might serve the living and true God, 1 Thessalonians 1:9.
最後,我們對宗教多元主義的第六個回應是,
Our sixth and last response to religious pluralism is this,
我們可以且應該、以真理和愛來對待其他宗教的教徒。
our relationship with people of other religions can and should be characterized by both truth and love.
多元主義無法解決宗教衝突的問題,
Pluralism does not solve the problem of religious conflict
因為它荒謬地將真理棄之不顧,
because it irrationally discards the truth,
於是它喪失了呼召人們走平安道路的權柄。
and it loses its authority to call men to the way of peace.
我們剛剛提到,聖經教導我們說,
As noted above, the Bible teaches us
一切其他宗教都是虛假的、屬魔鬼的,是對罪人的詛咒。
that all other religions are false, demonic, and damning to sinners.
但聖經同時也教導我們,
However, the Holy scriptures also teach us
所有人,無論男女老少,都是照著上帝的形象造的。
that all men, women, and children are created in the image of God.
因此,聖經要我們務必尊重所有人,愛他們,併為他們祈禱。
And therefore the Bible teaches us that we must honor them, love them, and pray for them.
我們絕不可以仇恨他們、辱罵他們。
We must not hate them or curse them.
讓我們思想我們主的教導,如馬太福音5章43至45節、
Consider our Lord’s teachings in Matthew 5:43 to 45,
雅各書3章8至10節、還有彼得前書2章17節。
or in James 3:8 to 10, and 1 Peter 2:17.
我們不得不承認,
We must admit
基督徒對其他宗教的不容忍是一個可悲的現實,
that religious intolerance is a sad reality
我們需要為自己在非基督徒身上所犯的一切罪行認罪悔改。
and Christians need to repent of any sins they have committed against non-Christians.
然而,以基督的教導為恥、或假裝所有宗教都是合一的
Nevertheless, the pathway to peace is not by being ashamed of Christ’s claims
並不能讓人踏上通往平安的道路。
and pretending that all religions are one,
相反,平安的路是跟隨這位和平的君,
but the pathway to peace is found by following the Prince of peace
他用自己的寶血,將人們召到平安之中。
and calling men to peace through his blood.
好,我們的第三小點,
This concludes our study
“為調和各宗教而變得含糊不清的特殊啟示”,
of “special revelation diffused to harmonize
就講完了。
all religions.”
接下來我們要探討第四小點,
Next, we’ll consider “special revelation
“被重新定義為‘神聖的相遇’的特殊啟示”。
defined as holy encounters,” sub point D in the outline.
不過,我們現在先稍稍休息一下。
But before we do that, let’s take a break.

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