系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第04講 我們在哪裡從事神學研究

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

那麼,我們在哪裡研究神學?這也是一個非常重要的問題。
Where do we do theology? That’s important as well.
特別是當我們在神學院學了三、四年、
Particularly when you’re in seminary for three, four years,
已經習慣與神學生(他們總是對神學研究很有興趣)討論,
and you’re talking with seminary students who are always very interested in doing theology,
我們可能開始覺得自己好像在一個人造的泡沫世界里,
you can start to feel like you’re in a little bit of an artificial bubble world
這個泡沫在我們離開神學院時就會破裂。
that’s going to burst as soon as you leave seminary.
這也是神學院的畢業生最常有的擔憂。
One of the most common concerns I hear when a man leaves seminary,
比如,我們宗派有一位弟兄去牧養一間15個人的教會,
for example, a brother in our denomination who left for a church of 15 people,
他得到的資助中有一部分來自我們教會的“帶職宣教基金”
and got supported by “Tentmaking Fund” from our church, part of the supports,
這樣他就不必做其他工作,可以專心牧會。
so he was able to not have to work.
當然,他仍然要做所有牧師都要做的工作。
I mean, he still has a lot of the same work that every minister has,
他要為每周主日預備兩場講道,也要帶領周中的一次禱告會。
he has to preach two sermons every Sunday, you know, he had a midweek prayer meeting class, so.
但是他告訴我,大多數時候的周一至周六,
But he said to me, from Monday to Saturday, you know, most weeks,
沒有人在醫院需要我探望,也沒有人可以探訪
I have no one in the hospital,
(我剛到教會的前兩周就探訪完了所有人)。
and I visited my entire congregation the first two weeks I was there.
雖然我很喜歡預備講章,但是我真的非常孤單。
And I love preparing sermons but I am so lonely,
我十分想念和神學院里其他弟兄的團契交通。
I miss the fellowship of the other brothers in the seminary so much.
真是不可思議!
It’s unbelievable.
這位弟兄真的是非常的孤單。
And this man is really really lonely.
他對我說,雖然我的教會裡有15個人,
Well, you see, he said to me, even the 15 people in my church,
但是我沒有辦法像在神學院一樣地跟他們暢談神學。
I can’t talk theology the way I could at the seminary.
但願不是每個人都像這位弟兄這樣的孤單,但我們需記住,
So what you got to do, now hopefully not everyone is in the lonely situation,
我們在神學院研究神學時,不能像在象牙塔中一樣。
but you got to remember that you are doing theology always,
在神學院,好像每個人採用的方法都一樣,
not in an ivory tower in seminary where everybody is rowing the boat the same way,
每個人都是改革宗的,每個人都希望能在真理上達成共識。
everybody is reformed, everybody wants to come to an agreement of the truth.
我們是在墮落的人類中研究神學,
You are doing theology among fallen mankind,
也是在墮落的罪人聚集的教會中研究神學。
also in the church with fallen sinners.
我們在講道中研究神學,在教導中研究神學,
You are doing theology from the pulpit, and in teaching
也在輔導中研究神學。
and in pastoring to that woman who just fell in love
比如面對一位墜入婚外戀的姐妹,我們要對她說些什麼?
with someone else who is not her husband. You know, what do you say to such a person?
因此,在研究神學的過程中,
So not only are we sinners,
不僅我們自己仍然是罪人、仍在與殘留的軟弱作鬥爭,
who still grapple with our remaining frailty in doing theology,
我們所服侍的對象也是墮落的罪人。
but the people we minister to are fallen people.
從我們學校畢業的一位神學碩士畢業生
I just had one of our graduates who got a ThM here recently
最近剛接受了某間教會的呼召,他也正在預備去這間教會。
and he’s accepted a call, he’s in the process of going to the church.
他才給我寫了一封長達一頁半紙的信,
And he just wrote me a long letter, a page and half,
寫他在這間教會中看到的所有的問題,他說他覺得很緊張。
of all the problems he sees in the church, and he says he’s getting cold feet.
他已經接受了呼召,但是他對去這間教會感到很擔心。
He’s accepted the call, but he’s kind of worried about going to this church.
我剛給他回了一條信息,我問他,弟兄,你對我說過,
I just shot him back a note and I said, brother, you told me
是上帝呼召你到那間教會去的,你期待什麼呢?
how God called you there, and what do you expect?
你期待一間完美的教會,每個人都在神學上完全正確嗎?
You expect a perfect church where everybody is perfectly sound theologically?
那他們就不需要你了。你要面對的是真實的人、真實的處境。
They wouldn’t need you at all. You are going to real people in a real situation.
世界上沒有一間教會是沒有很多問題的,因為我們都是罪人。
you can’t go to a church where there’s not a lot of problems, because people are sinners,
每一間教會都隨處可見各樣的問題。
there’s problems everywhere in every church.
如果你又想作牧師、又想逃避問題,
If you are gonna try to be a minister and avoid problems,
那麼首先你就不是蒙上帝呼召的。
you better, well, you are not called in the first place.
因為現實就是,
Because you can’t do anything in life
一個人不可能從事任何與人打交道的事情而不遇見問題。
with people without facing problems.
如果你以為在撫養孩子的過程中,你不會遇見任何問題,
And if you’re thinking you’re gonna raise kids without ever facing a problem,
你最好就不要生孩子了。不對,我不應該這樣說。
you better not have children. I shouldn’t say that.
“生養眾多,遍滿地面。”上帝會幫助你的。
Replenish, fill the earth. God will help you.
但我想說的是,我們在面對會眾時,也是同樣的情況。
But the point is, with the congregation it’s the same thing.
因為總是會有各種各樣的問題。
There’s always problems, there’s always problems.
如果在你和你的長執會一起服侍的過程中,
And if you can work together with your entire session
沒有一個人跟你唱反調,那你實在應該感謝上帝。
and not have one person row the boat the other way, just thank God.
但通常,牧師們遇到的情況都不是這樣。
But that’s not the common experience of ministers.
至少在我的經歷中,似乎總是會有這麼一個人,
It just seems like that there’s always one person, at least in my life, almost always one person
他處處針對我,要阻攔傳福音的異象。你會遇到這類的事情。
who’s just really at me to stop the vision of spreading the Gospel, and this type of thing.
我們不僅在教會裡墮落的人群中從事神學研究,
So you are doing theology in the middle of fallen mankind in the church,
也身處於這個外部世界來研究神學。
but also in the exterior world.
我們要過的,是一種與世界孑然不同的生活。
And so you are living, and it needs to be this way, you are living a life of antithesis against the world.
“世界會恨你們,因為它已經恨我了。”
“The world will hate you because it hated me.”
因此,不要指望這個世界、或世界上每個人都會向你伸出橄欖枝,
So don’t expect the friendship of the world, the friendship of everybody,
也不要指望每個人都能與你志同道合。
everybody always agreeing with you.
耶穌說過,對一個神學家的呼召就是受逼迫的呼召。
Jesus said, the calling of a theologian is a calling to suffer persecution.
“所以我差遣先知和智慧人並文士到你們這裡來,
“Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes:
有的你們要殺害,要釘十字架,有的你們要在會堂里鞭打,
and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; some of them ye shall scourge in your synagogues,
從這城追逼到那城,叫世上所流義人的血都歸到你們身上,
and persecute them from city to city: that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth,
從義人亞伯的血起,直到你們
from the blood of righteous Abel
在殿和壇中間所殺的巴拉加的兒子撒迦利亞的血為止。”
unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.”
我不知道你們中有多少人在我的辦公室里看見過一句話,
You know, I don’t know if many of you have seen that, but I have in my room,
就是我在辦公室的電腦前貼了一句話,
I got my computer in front of me, right? And right underneath it,
這句話是司布真說的,
I’ve only got one thing taped to my computer,it’s a quote of Charles Spurgeon,
我幾乎每個星期都會讀上一邊,因為它就貼在那裡。
and I read it nearly every week because it’s right there.
司布真這句話的基本意思是,
And basically what Spurgeon says is this,
當我們遭受逼迫時,不要顧影自憐。
stop feeling sorry for yourselves when you get persecuted.
是有人已經打斷了你的骨頭嗎?
Has anybody broken your bones yet?
還是有人把你關進了監獄呢?
Has anybody thrown you in prison yet?
若為基督的緣故受逼迫,視之為一份榮幸,並堅持下去。
Count it an honor to suffer the persecution for Christ’s sake, and keep on going.
當然,我們需要捫心自問,批評我的人說的對不對,
See, of course you have to ask, are my critics right
如果在某種程度上他們是對的,那我們就必須要作出改變。
and you have to change if your critics are right to whatever degree they’re right.
若一個人成為了帶領者,並從事神學研究、教導會眾真理,
But you can’t be a leader and you can’t be doing theology and telling people what truth is
那麼,反對真理的人一定會集中火力攻擊他。
without getting barraged, deluged with people that opposes the truth.
真理會帶來分歧。
The truth creates division.
還記得我剛來大溪城服侍,大概一年左右的時間,
I was in Grand Rapids for about one year in my ministry here,
我和我的前任牧師有諸多不同之處。
and my predecessor was very different from what I was.
有一些人希望我能變得和前任牧師一樣,這確實不可能。
And there were people that wanted me to be exactly like he was, it just is impossible.
會眾要麼就是特別喜歡我,要麼就是特別不喜歡我。
And it seemed like people either loved me or hated me.
當時我去弗羅里達州看望內斯特·雷辛格,在他那裡住了幾天。
And I went to see Ernest Reisinger in Florida, I stayed with him for a couple of days.
他是牧師中的牧師,是一位非常敬虔的弟兄。
He was a pastor of pastors, very great godly man.
我剛到的那天,他帶我出去吃晚餐。他是一個非常有個性的人。
He took me out to eat, first night, and he was quite a character.
我們去了一家很不錯的餐廳,有人在演奏鋼琴,
Came into the restaurant, he walks over, there was a pianist,
弾的曲子雖然不是贊美詩歌,但也不是不堪入耳的音樂。
it’s a nice restaurant, pianist playing some secular music
進了餐廳以後,他走到弾鋼琴的人那邊,
but it wasn’t bad music, just secular music.
不動聲色地給了她什麼(我也不知道是什麼,
He went over there, I don’t know what he slipped her,
但我猜是五美元的鈔票之類的),又對她小聲地說了些什麼。
I think a five dollar bill or something, and you know whispered something.
只聽見突然間,她就開始彈奏贊美詩歌了。
All of sudden, she started playing these Christian hymns, you know.
我們入座後,他看著我說,“好了,周必克,
And we sat down, so he looks at me, goes, all right Joel, he says,
跟我說說你在大溪城究竟怎麼樣。”
tell me how it’s really going for you in Grand Rapids.
我說,“我真的不太清楚,事情非常的蹊蹺。
And I said, well, you know I really don’t know, I really don’t know.
因為會眾要麼就是很不喜歡我,要麼就是很喜歡我。
I said, but it’s just really strange, I said, because nobody is neutral to me,
好像沒有人持中立的態度。
people just either hate me or they love me.
我也找不到更好的方式來說明這個情況了。”
I don’t know how to explain it any way else.
雷辛格年輕時曾是一名建築工人,後來很奇妙地悔改信主了。
And he was a construction worker when he was young, he got wonderfully converted.
所以他高大強壯,還有一雙很大的手。
He was just big husky fellow with these huge hands.
聽完我的話後,他舉起他的大手,一巴掌拍在我的膝蓋上,
And he took his big hand and he slapped across my knee and he goes,
他說,“真是太好了!”
that is great!
我很意外,“這是什麼意思,為什麼?”
What do you mean, what do you mean?
他說,“這意味著你有突破,意味著真理正在進行突破。
Well, he says, it means that you are getting through. It means that the truth is getting through.
因為如果不是這樣,他們既不會喜歡你,也不會討厭你。”
Because they won’t hate you, they won’t love you, if the truth was not getting through.
我永遠也忘不了他說的這一席話。真是受益匪淺。
I never forgot that statement. That was so helpful for me.
如果一位牧師說,我的教會中萬事順利,
You know, when a minister says, well everything is going well in my church,
沒有人悔改信主,我也沒有遇到任何問題, 沒有人讓我憂心,
you know, I’ve got no conversions, I’ve got no problems, nobody gives me any griefs,
長執會也總是非常配合,一切都順利,沒有任何麻煩。
the consistory is always cooperative, everything goes smoothly, never have any troubles.
我想說的是,等一等,聖靈還在這間教會作工嗎?
I say wait a minute, wait a minute, is the Holy Spirit working?
還是這隻是一間失去生命力的教會?
Or is it just a dead church?
當我們研究神學的時候,
You see, when you do theology,
當我們在教會裡或世界上向墮落的人傳授真理的時候,
and you teach truth among fallen mankind in the church, outside the church,
我們一定會遇見問題和麻煩。
you are gonna come into trouble.
保羅說,“所以,我為選民凡事忍耐,
Paul said, “Therefore I endure all things for the elect’s sake,
叫他們也可以得著那在基督耶穌里的救恩和永遠的榮耀。”
that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory”.
我凡事忍耐。
I endure all things.
此外,當你在教會裡從事神學研究時,有一個益處,
Also, when you do theology in the church, the positive side is that
即有一些人(但願是大多數人)會在屬靈上成長。
there will be a number of people, hopefully the majority of people, who will grow, grow spiritually.
隨著你自己對神學的理解在屬靈洞見上逐漸成長,
And as your understanding of theology grows in spiritual insight,
而會眾能從周復一周的講道中、教導中(無論你在哪裡教導)
and they hear from the pulpit week after week,
聽出你在屬靈洞見上有成長,
or from the the classroom, wherever you are teaching,
如艾伯特·馬丁所說的,當他們能夠聞到
that you are growing in spiritual insights.
你身上散髮的、因那周與基督在一起而有的馨香時,
And they can, as Al Martin would say, smell the aroma that you’ve been with Jesus that week,
當他們能看出你在服侍中成長時,通常,他們會和你一起成長。
that you are growing in your ministry, they normally will grow with you.
令人憂心的是,如梅欽所說,
Now here is the frightening thing, remember what Machen said,
一間教會的敬虔程度鮮有超過其牧師的敬虔程度的。
a church’s level of holiness will seldom rise above the level of their minister’s holiness.
但是鼓舞人心的是,如果我們靠著上帝的恩典在敬虔上成長,
But the encouraging thing is, if you by the grace of God are growing in holiness
在神聖的神學上成長,我們的會眾一定會和我們一起成長的。
and growing in holy theology, your people will grow with you.
而我們,也會和他們一起成長、在他們中成長、也藉著他們成長.
And you will grow with them and in them and through them,
因為我們是一個群體,我們是一個教會大家庭。
because you’re a community, you’re a church family.
例如,我獨自在書房中研究神學,
So when I do theology in my study privately
忙碌地在電腦上寫著某本書的某一章,
and I am typing away on a particular chapter for a particular book,
然後我出門,去探訪一位敬畏上帝的姐妹,
and then I go out and visit that God fearing woman
她在過去一年中精進不止,有許多美好的經歷和感受要分享。
who’s grown so much in the last year and she has some wonderful nuggets to share with me,
她所分享的如此美好,有許多可供我思考、默想的東西。
and gives me wonderful meditations to think about.
所以,當我結束探訪時,
So that when I walk away from her,
我覺得似乎是她在牧養我,而不是我在牧養她。
I feel like she’s pastoring me more than I’m pastoring her.
你們知道嗎?當我回到書房,繼續寫沒寫完的那一章時,
Guess what? When I come back into my study and continue that chapter,
我有了新的活力,可能還有了更加深刻的見解,
I’ve got fresh vigor, I’ve got maybe deeper insights,
因此,這不是從書本上獲得的知識,而是靠著聖靈的恩典,
So it’s not just knowledge I get from books,
她使我在屬靈上更加成熟,我也使她在屬靈上更加成熟。
she matures me and I mature her by the grace of the Holy Spirit.
所以這就是從事神學研究的美妙之一。
So this is one of the beautiful things about doing theology.
也是和眾位老師們一起教導神學的美妙之一。
It’s one of the beautiful things about teaching on a faculty
因為我們都在研究神學,老師們可以彼此鼓勵、互相切磋。
because as theologians, the faculty can encourage each other and challenge each other.
同學們能夠在一起學習也十分的美好,
It’s a wonderful thing about fellow students,
鐵磨鐵,你們要多交流,一起談論神學,這樣真的很好。
iron sharpens iron, do talk to each other, do talk theology with each other, that’s great.
你們能夠極大地造就彼此。
You’ll help each other a lot.
所以,一位牧師若能夠體會到以弗所書4章所寫的內容,
So as a minister, it’s a wonderful thing to experience Ephesians 4,
這實在是件美好的事情:教會裡的弟兄們能夠合一,
the unity of the brethren in the church,
能在教會中有一些摯友。
and to have certain friends in the church.
當然,你不能直接公開宣佈誰是你的摯友,
You don’t make those friendships explicit,
也不能在每次敬拜結束後總是找同樣的人交流,
you don’t always walk up to the same people after church service on the parking lot in the open,
當然不能這樣,你不能偏心。
of course not, you don’t play favorites.
但你心中知道,有一些人可以讓你有所成長,
But privately, there are certain people that you know you can grow from.
你要使用他們的幫助,你要去拜訪他們,
You use those people, you visit those people,
就是為了有更多的收穫、能多花一點時間和他們在一起,
just to tap it more and spend a little bit more time with them
因為他們可以讓你成長。而這對整個肢体也會有益處。
because you can grow from them. And that would help the whole body.
保羅在以弗所書第4章描述的就是這一點,在基督肢体中,
And so Paul describes that in Ephesians 4,
由教義上的成長與關係上的成長的交織結合而帶來的屬靈成長。
a spiritual growth as the intertwining of the doctrinal and relational development in the body of Christ.
你在與他人在關係中成長,也與他人一起在教義中成長。
You are growing in relation with others, you are growing in doctrine with others.
保羅說,這就是神學的目標,即“在真道上同歸於一”,
And he says, this is the aim of theology, the unity of the faith,
這是一種在神學上的合一,
a theological unity inseparable
與在愛中所經歷、”聖靈所賜合而為一的心”不可分割 (弗4:2-3).
from the practical “unity of the Spirit”, verses 2 and 3, experienced in love.
所以他在15節中說,你們應該“用愛心說誠實話”,
And so you “speak the truth in love,” he says, verse 15,
但這不是指誠實,而是指談論正道(弗4:14)。
which is not mere honesty, but it’s conversing about sound doctrine, verse 14.
因此,當你有在神學上的服侍時,
And so when you have theological ministry,
你就要學會與人誠懇地分享上帝榮耀的真理。
you learn to talk to people from heart to heart about God’s glorious truth.
而在這一點上,我沒見過比莫裡斯·羅伯茨做得更好的導師了。
And I know of no one better as a mentor here than Morris Roberts.
我已經見過他好幾次了,他是蘇格蘭人。
I’ve been around him a number of times now, and from Scotland.
當他與人在一起時,他有這樣一種恩賜,
And he has such a gift when he’s around people,
能把比較錶面的對話控制在五分鐘之內。
he actually won’t allow more than five minutes of mere level one conversation about shallow things.
比如問問天氣如何,家裡人還好嗎,等等之類的。
How is the weather, you know, your family is doing okay, okay.
這些事情確實也重要,但如果只談這些,我們能聊多久呢?
I mean, those are significant things, but how long can you talk about that?
這樣的對話能對我們的靈魂有什麼造就呢?
What does it really profit your soul?
而莫裡斯·羅伯茨是這樣做的。
And but he will just do something like this.
比如,大家圍在一個餐桌上用餐,這時出現了片刻的沉默。
Say you are around the dinner table and there’s a moment of silence.
他就會說,“你們知道嗎,有一天我在想基督的代求,
He’d say, “You know what, I was thinking the other time about the intercession of Christ
就是他每時每刻都在為我代求的這一事實,
and the fact that he intercedes for me every moment, every single moment,
不僅為我,也為其他每一個信徒。
and every believer as well.
我想聽聽你們在這一點上有沒有什麼可以分享的呢?”
I wonder if any of you have given any thought to that?”
“基督在同一時間、為每一個信徒代求,
“How is that possible for Christ to intercede
為每個上帝的兒女代求,
for every believer at once
好像每一個上帝的兒女都是祂唯一的孩子,這怎麼可能?”
and for each child of God as His only child, how’s that possible?”
他就這樣把這個問題拋出來。
He just throws it out as a question.
一瞬間,談話的內容就改變了,對不對?
Immediately all the conversation is changed, right?
突然大家就有了一個非常有實質性的話題,
Suddenly you have a substantive conversation
可以進行一場實質性的討論。
about a very substantive subject.
因此,你可以在教會裡通過面對面的交流、
And so, in the congregation, when you can do this through face to face fellowship,
通過講道、通過教導、通過輔導來這樣做。
through preaching, through teaching, through counseling,
如果你平時也時常寫作的話,也可以通過寫作這一管道,
through writing if you are a writer,
給你的會眾寫牧者信函、或其他內容。
to write to your congregation pastoral letters and other things.
我所提到的這些方法都可以以最佳方式來發展神學。
This can all generate theology in the best sense of the word.
不要忘記你在研究真神學時的目標,是什麼?
And your goal in all real theology, don’t forget this, is what?
是為著上帝的榮耀,與上帝交通。
Communion with God, to the glory of God.
為了讓人們能夠因信基督耶穌而更好地認識上帝,
So people get to know God better in the faith of Jesus Christ,
在上帝的恩典和主耶穌基督的知識上有長進。
and grow in the grace of God in the knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ.
在約翰一書開篇的第三節,約翰對他的服侍做了一個概括,
And so when John summarizes his ministry, he says, in the opening words, verse 3 of 1 John,
他說,我的目標是什麼?
what’s my goal?
“我們將所看見、所聽見的傳給你們,使你們與我們相交;
“That which we have seen and heard, declare we unto you that ye also may have fellowship with us
我們乃是與父並他兒子耶穌基督相交的。”
and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ.”
這是多麼美好的一件事,絕不要把它視為理所當然的。
Now this is the beautiful thing, this is so beautiful. Don’t ever take it for granted.
如果你走到街上去,到某公司去工作。
You go down the street, and you get a work for a certain company.
在公司里,你可能得午餐時間才能跟別人說幾句關於上帝的話。
You can go in and maybe at lunch time, you can speak a few words about God to somebody.
而即使這樣,你也必須是小心翼翼的,因為可能會遇見麻煩,
But you have to do it carefully, you might get into trouble,
你不知道你到底能夠分享多少。
you don’t know how much you can say.
而你在工作的時候也不能講關於主的事,因為你得專心工作。
And during work time, you can’t speak about the Lord because, well you know, you got to be working.
但是一名為福音服侍的牧師是不同的。
But as a minister of the Gospel,
約翰說,看哪,我們有彼此的相交,
look at this, John says, we have fellowship with one another,
但我們實際上乃是與父並祂兒子的相交。
and truly our fellowship is with the Father and the Son.
這是一個多麼好的職業!
What an incredible profession!
讓我們有機會可以一直跟人們談論主。
You have the opportunity to speak about the Lord all the time to people.
你們知道嗎,我可以今天下午下課後,
You know, I can leave this classroom this afternoon
就去養老院探望某位孤寡老人,
and I can go visit some widow in a nursing home
與她誠心誠意地談論上帝的事情。
and just have a heart to heart conversation with her,
只要我想去,今天下午就可以!
this afternoon if I want to, about the Lord.
這是何等的榮幸!
What a privilege!
千萬不要把這視為一件理所應當的事。
Don’t take that for granted.
就是我們每天都可以沒有忌諱地公開研究神學。
You can do theology every day openly.
那麼,就讓我們在基督教會的團契中來研究神學吧,
So let’s do theology, let’s do it in the fellowship of Christ’s church
雖然我們不時地會受到逼迫與反對。
despite the opposition we do, from time to time, receive.

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