系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第23講 上帝的話語──聖經

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

當我們說聖經是上帝的話語時,
When we call the Bible the Word of God,
我們的意思不是說聖經是關於上帝的信息。
we do not mean that it is merely a message about God.
我們的意思是,聖經是上帝給我們的信息。
But we mean that it is God’s message to us.
清教徒湯姆·華森總是說,
The Puritan Thomas Watson always said,
聖經好像上帝寫給我們的一封長信。
it’s like a large letter written to us.
亨利·布林格說,“先知不是聖經的第一作者,
Henry Bullinger said, “The doctrine and writings of the prophets…
他們教導和記錄的,並非出於他們自己,
took not their beginning of the prophets themselves, as chief authors;
而是天上的上帝通過祂的聖靈默示給他們的。
but were inspired from God out of heaven by the Holy Spirit of God:
因為上帝藉著祂的聖靈內住在先知的心中,
for it is God, which, dwelling by his spirit in the minds of the prophets,
借先知的口對我們說話。”
speaketh to us by their mouths.”
所以,即使考慮了人的因素,我們最終仍舊相信,
So when we look at the Bible, even though we make room for the human element, supremely,
聖經絕非人那含有錯誤的話語,而是上帝無誤的話語。
ultimately, we say, don’t we, this is not the fallible words of men, but the infallible word of God.
但問題是,現在很多人認為,
And one of the problems with so many today is that
聖經中一部分出自上帝、一部分出自人。
they view the Bible as partly from God and partly from men.
例如,浪漫主義詩人、哲學家塞繆爾·柯勒律治說,
Samuel Coleridge, for example, the poet and philosopher of Romanticism, said
聖經的某些部分來自上帝的直接啟示,
some elements of the Bible arise from direct revelation,
但整本聖經不是完全無誤的;
but the whole book is not infallible,
因為這些所謂‘上帝直接啟示’的部分,
for parts of it are inspired only in the sense that
指的是它們的作者擁有非常多的恩典、與上帝有非常親密的交通。
their authors enjoyed a high level of grace and communion with God.
柯勒律治認為,他說“聖經作者與上帝有非常親密的交通”,
He thought he was being gracious to the Bible, saying all the writers
算是對聖經很高的評價了。
had this high level of communion with God.
但是要知道,我們一旦認可了這樣的觀點,就等於認可,
But you see, as soon as you say that, then what happens is you allow for the possibility
如果今天某人受感寫了一首詩,
that when you get inspired to write a poem today,
他的受感與聖經作者所受的默示是一回事;
you’re inspired the same way that the Bible writers were inspired,
既然這個人寫的詩中可能有錯誤,
and there could be errors in that poem
那麼聖經作者寫的聖經也可能有錯誤。
and there could be errors in the Bible.
那麼歸根結底,我們是在貶低聖經的權威性,
And so ultimately you reduce the Bible to say,
只將它看作人寫的一部優秀的文學作品,
this is just really good writing from men,
而不是永生上帝滿有權威、無繆無誤的話語。
rather than this is the authoritative and infallible and inerrant Word of the living God.
約翰·默里寫過這樣一段話,遠比柯勒律治說得好,
John Murray writes something much better when he says,
他說,“如果我們查考聖經,看它如何為它自己的屬性作見證,
“an examination of the biblical witness as to its character will show that
我們就會看到,上帝賦予了聖經作者一種超自然的影響力。
a supernatural influence was exerted on the writers of Scripture,
它無所不在,滲透了聖經的每個部分。
that this influence was all-pervasive, extending to every part of Scripture,”
從各個層面來說,整本聖經都是上帝的默示,
and that with “no exceptions” or “degrees” so that the Scripture is regarded as a product
無論是它的起源、屬性、真理、還是權威性,都來自上帝。”
is rendered “wholly divine in its origin, character, truth and authority.”
因此,聖經就是上帝的話語。
So the Bible is the Word of God.
上帝的話語是通過上帝的僕人傳給我們的,
Now, this Word then comes to us through His servants,
所以我們接下來要講的一點是大綱上的:
which leads me to the next section on the outline,
“先知與使徒的話語就是上帝的話語”。
“The Word of prophets and apostles is the Word of God.”
在聖經作者書寫聖經之前,上帝是直接對人說話的,
So God spoke to people before any parts of the Bible were written,
比如祂對諾亞和亞伯拉罕說話。
like Noah and Abraham.
而上帝的話語帶著權柄與大能,也是特殊啟示的一種。
And His word came then with authority and power, that too was special revelation.
但上帝的旨意是將祂的話記載成文,
But God desire to have that word recorded
因為祂希望祂的話語在世世代代都有權威、且都是準確的。
because He wants His word to be authoritative, accurate from generation to generation.
那麼,問題來了:
And the question arises, therefore,
我們能否將上帝僕人的話語視為上帝的話語呢?
can we consider the words of God’s servants, for example, to be the word of God?
我們應該如何看待先知和使徒在講道時所講的話語?
The preached word through the prophets and the apostles, how are we to regard that?
當我們看到主將他的話語賜給先知和使徒時,
Well, with the word of the Lord came to his prophets and apostles,
我們需要想明白一個事實:口述是交流的首要方式。
we need to reckon with the fact that the first mode of communicating was oral.
聖經將上帝的先知傳講的話語稱為“耶和華的話”。
And yet the preached word of God’s prophets was called the word of the Lord.
以利沙對王說,“你們要聽耶和華的話。耶和華如此說……”
Elijah told the king, “Hear ye the word of the Lord, thus saith the Lord,”
然後以利沙就向王傳道。
and he preached to him.
彌迦也對亞哈王說了同樣的話,聖經中有許多類似的例子。
Micaiah did the same thing to Ahab and so on, many many places.
在新約聖經中,使徒保羅也認為自己的講道是上帝的話語。
And the apostle Paul in the New Testament claims the same status for his preaching.
我們來聽聽保羅在帖撒羅尼迦前書2章13節中是怎麼說的,
Listen to what he says, 1 Thessalonians 2:13,
“為此,我們也不住地感謝神,
“For this cause also thank we God without ceasing,
因你們聽見我們所傳神的道就領受了;
because when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us,
不以為是人的道,乃以為是神的道。
you received it not as the words of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God,
這道實在是神的,並且運行在你們信主的人心中。”
which effectually worketh also in you that believe.”
因此,當聖經說先知與使徒的話是上帝的話時,它的意思是:
So when the Bible says that the prophets and the apostles spoke God’s word,
當先知與使徒向人們傳講上帝的信息時,
it indicates that when they taught the divine message,
這其實是上帝自己在藉著他們說話。
God was speaking through them.
這樣的事情在聖經中不是個別現象。
And this is not an isolated phenomenon.
大衛說,“耶和華的靈藉著我說,他的話在我口中。”
David said, “The Spirit of the Lord spake by me, and his word was in my tongue.”
主說,當我的先知說話時,
And the Lord said, when my prophets speak,
他們說的是“耶和華的話,是他借他僕人眾先知說的。”
they speak “the word of the Lord, which he spake by his servants, the prophets.”
所以,聖經常常將上帝先知所說的話稱作上帝的話,
So the frequency which God is referred to as speaking
這樣的例子出現的頻率之高,令人驚奇。
when his prophet’s speaking is astonishing.
在新約聖經中,主耶穌也命令他的使徒要帶著上帝的權柄傳道。
Now the Lord Jesus also commissioned his apostles in the New Testament to speak with divine authority.
基督在馬太福音10章40節中說,
Christ said that those who received their teaching
那些接受使徒教導的人,就是接受了基督他自己,
received Christ himself, Matthew 10, verse 40.
因此,使徒的權柄
So the authority of the apostles
出自賜給他們話語的聖靈所擁有的超自然影響力。
arose from a supernatural influence of the Spirit to give them their words.
馬太福音10章20節說,
Matthew 10 or 16,
“因為不是你們自己說的,乃是你們父的靈在你們裡頭說的。”
for “it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father would speaketh in you.”
使徒保羅也是這樣看待他自己說的話的。
And the apostle Paul understood himself to speak that way,
他在哥林多前書2章13節中說,我所說的,
in 1 Corinthians 2:13 he says, I speak
“不是用人智慧所指教的言語,乃是用聖靈所指教的言語。”
“not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth.”
這個主題內容極其豐富,我們還可以把它擴展開來,
So it’s a fertile field and it should be expanded much more
對它進行更詳細的、學術性的查考。
to look at it more carefully in a scholarly way,
但我們必須要明白的一點是,
but what we need to understand is that
先知們相信,他們自己必須說、且只能說上帝的話。
the prophets regarded themselves as bound to speak only what God said.
所以,先知的話與上帝的話密不可分,
So the prophetic word was so bound up with the word of God
上帝的子民相信先知所說的話是完全無誤的。
that it was deemed infallible by the people of God.
因此,一個先知之所以能夠被稱為“先知”,
And therefore, the mark of a prophet was that
是因為他說的一切都會成就。
whatever he spoke would come to pass.
否則,他就是一個假先知。
If it didn’t come to pass, he was a false prophet.
因此,先知的口述也是一種特殊啟示,
So there was a kind of special revelation through the voice of the prophets,
比如舊約先知和新約使徒的講道。
for example, in the Old Testament, and through the preaching of the New Testament apostles,
雖然他們的口述沒有被完整地記錄下來,
that even though not every word was written down,
但它們仍屬於特殊啟示。
it is belonging to the category of special revelation.
現在,上帝的心意是將祂的話語記載成文,
But now God wanted that word written down
所以祂默示摩西,讓他寫下了摩西五經,
so He begins to move Moses
也默示其他的聖經作者寫下了相應的書卷。
to write the Pentateuch and other writers,
所以現在,人們有了一種不同於先知口述的方式來獲得特殊啟示,
so now you have a different category of special revelation,
而這顯然也是最主要的方式,就是“上帝成文的話語”。
of course, the premiere category, which is called “the written Word of God.”
於是,上帝啟示給祂僕人、讓他們傳講的話語被記載成了文字。
So the revealed word, the preached word then became the written word.
我們在出埃及記17章14節中讀到,
So as Israel traveled from the Red Sea to Mount Sinai,
當以色列人一路從紅海走到西奈山時,耶和華對摩西說,
the LORD told Moses, “Write this… in a book,”
“你要將這話寫在書上做紀念”。
Exodus 17, verse 14.
然後,我們在出埃及記24章4節中讀到,
And after he gave Moses the Ten Commandments
當上帝將十誡交給摩西、
or as He spoke His laws to Moses
或者說當上帝在西奈山將祂的律法宣講給摩西之後,
on the mountain, Moses didn’t only preach them
摩西沒有隻是將律法講給以色列人聽,
to the people, but Exodus 24:4 says,
而是 “將耶和華的命令都寫上”。
Moses wrote “all the words of the Lord.”
然後在出埃及記34章中,
And then you see it again is Exodus 34,
我們又看到上帝兩次命令摩西將祂的話寫下來。
two more times, God tells Moses to write down the words.
祂把十誡、文字形式的十誡賜給了以色列民。
He gives them the Ten Commandments, the written word.
之後,上帝也不斷地提到律法書。
He speaks of the book of the law and on and on it goes.
所以摩西是一位將上帝的話語記載下來的先知。
So Moses is a writing prophet.
誠然,並非每位先知都將他們所傳的話語記載了下來。
And though not all prophets wrote down their words,
摩西寫的五捲書為上帝話語的記載奠定了基礎,
Moses’ books become the foundation of the written word of God,
也就是說,摩西五經為聖經奠定了基礎。
the Pentateuch, foundation of the Holy Scriptures.
我們讀聖經的時候,會發現其他的先知也有過類似經歷。
Now you find that kind of thing going on with the other prophets as well.
就拿耶利米來說 – 在耶利米36章第2節中,
You find it with Jeremiah. God commands Jeremiah
上帝吩咐耶利米將祂的話 -“我對你說…… 的一切話”
to write His words in a book, “all the words that I have spoken unto you.”
記在一捲書上。
Verse 2 of Chapter 36 (of Jeremiah).
所以耶利米就將這些話念給巴錄聽,巴錄把它們寫了下來。
And so Jeremiah dictated them to Baruch, who wrote them down.
耶利米書36章10節說這些話是“耶利米的話”,
And so the written document is called in verse 10, “the words of Jeremiah,”
但第4、第6、第8、以及第11節又稱之為“耶和華的話”。
and yet in verse 4, 6, 8 and 11 is called “the words of the Lord.”
所以在這裡,耶和華的話與耶利米的話是一致的。
So there’s no discontinuity here between the words of the Lord and the words of Jeremiah.
我們讀到,耶利米寫的書卷被呈到國王約雅敬面前,
And you see that scroll was taken to King Jehoiakim.
有一個官員為王一篇篇地念這捲書,
And after one of his officials read it portion by portion,
然後約雅敬王將書卷的那部分割破,把它扔到了火盆里。
remember the king cut off that part of the scroll with a knife and he threw it into the fire.
這件事發生後,上帝來對耶利米說,再把我的話寫一遍。
And then God came and said to Jeremiah, I will have my word written again.
於是耶利米又將這捲書重寫了一遍。
The scroll had to be rewritten. And he pronounced a curse
而上帝因為約雅敬燒毀了祂的話,便咒詛了他和他的後裔。
upon Jehoiakim and upon his descendants for burning the scroll of the words of the Lord.
所以,拒絕上帝先知寫的話,就是拒絕上帝的話、拒絕上帝。
So to reject the written word of God’s prophet was to reject God’s Word and God himself.
在新約聖經中,
Now when it comes to the New Testament, the apostles
使徒和其他的新約作者也都相信,舊約聖經就是上帝的話。
and other New Testament authors also believed that the Old Testament was the very word of God.
與其他敬虔的猶太人一樣,
Together with other pious Jews,
早期基督徒也將以色列的這些聖書全部視為上帝默示的書卷,
the early Christians viewed those sacred writings of Israel as a unified body
稱它們為《律法書》與《先知書》。
of divinely inspired books called Law and Prophets.
新約聖經在提及舊約聖經時,常常稱之為“聖經”(“Scriptures”),
And the New Testament often refers to the Old Testament as the “Scriptures,”
它就是“graphe”的複數形式,而“graphe”的意思就是書卷。
plural of “graphe”, a word which means the “writings.”
新約聖經作者在引用舊約聖經之前,常常先說“經上記著說”,
And the cognate verb “grapho” is often used
然後再緊接著傳講一句帶著上帝權柄的話語;
to preface Old Testament quotations with a phrase “it is written,”
而“經上記著說”中所用的動詞,就是“graphe”的同源動詞“grapho”。
and then comes a statement of divine authority.
聖經中所記載的一切,一定都會成就。
What is written in the Scriptures must be fulfilled. The New Testament writers
當涉及到聖經的無誤性與權威性時,新約作者也會指向舊約作者。
also refer to the Old Testament writers in terms of the infallibility and authority of the Scriptures.
彼得在使徒行傳1章16節中引用了詩篇中的一句話,
Peter quotes a psalm, saying, “This scripture must needs have been fulfilled,
說,“聖靈借大衛的口…… 這話是必須應驗的。”
which the Holy Ghost spake by the mouth of David,” Acts 1:16.
他又在使徒行傳2章16節和17節中
Peter preached that what “was spoken by the prophet Joel”
傳講上帝藉著“先知約珥所說的”話。
was what God “saith”, Acts 2:16 and 17.
我們在希伯來書1章1節中讀到,上帝“藉著眾先知”說話。
Hebrews 1:1, God spoke “by the prophets.”
而這一點在耶穌自己身上也得到了體現。
Now that is true also of Jesus himself.
耶穌也高度重視舊約聖經的權威性。
Jesus also had this very high regard for the authority of the Old Testament.
他說,我來不是要廢掉律法,乃是要成全它。
He said I didn’t come to destroy the law, but to fulfill it.
他說,與廢去律法的一點一畫相比,廢去天地倒是更容易。
He said it’s easier for heaven and earth to pass away than one tittle,
他所說的一點一畫,是指某個極其不起眼的地方,
jot or tittle of the law to fail, which is just a little part,
比如某個希伯來詞中的某個字母末尾的一個小筆畫。
a little tweaking end of one letter of one word of the Hebrew alphabet.
耶穌說,律法中的一點一畫都不會廢去、都會實現。
Jesus said, not a single word, not a single letter of a single word can fail.
因此,基督並沒有像今天的許多人那樣對舊約聖經進行篩選,
So Christ is not cherry picking, like so many people do today,
說其中“這些部分是無誤的,那些部分有誤的”。
which parts of the Old Testament are infallible, which parts aren’t:
比如有人說其中的教導部分是無誤的,歷史部分是有誤的;
some saying that the didactic parts are infallible, historical parts are not;
又有人與之剛好相反,說歷史部分是無誤的,教導部分是有誤的。
other people turn it right around and say, the historical parts are infallible and didactic parts are not.
但耶穌的意思是,整本舊約聖經都是無誤的。
Jesus is saying the whole, the whole of the Old Testament Scriptures is infallible.
所以,如果我們遵循耶穌或保羅的思想,
So when we read the Old Testament Scriptures in Jesus’ thinking,
那我們讀到的舊約聖經就是上帝自己的話語。
in Paul’s thinking, we’re reading the very Word of God.
在新約中,新約聖經也宣稱自己是舊約聖經的延續,
Now in the New Testament, the New Testament also claims to be the Word of God
是上帝的話語。
in continuity with the Old Testament.
耶穌也將他自己的話放在與舊約聖經平起平坐的位置上。
And Jesus places his own words on the same level as the words of the Old Testament Scriptures.
他在馬太福音24章35節中說,
He says, “Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words,
“天地要廢去,我的話卻不能廢去。”
my words shall not pass away,” Matthew 24:35.
他還在路加福音24章44節中說,整本舊約聖經都是指著他說的,
He also said, the Old Testament are the words that speak about me,
人們必須要相信“摩西的律法、先知的書和詩篇上所記的”,
and you must believe what is “written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets,
也要相信“我從前…… 告訴你們的話”。
and in the psalms,” and also “the words which I spake unto you,” Luke 24:44.
因此,相信基督的話與相信摩西所寫的話並行不悖,
So to believe Christ’s words goes hand in hand with believing the writings of Moses,
基督自己就認為摩西所寫的話準確無誤。
which Christ regarded to be infallible.
新約聖經的其他作者也和基督一樣,高度重視他說的話。
Now the other writers of the New Testament also hold the same high view of the words of Christ
約翰福音3章34節,馬太福音17章5節,還有約翰福音18章9節。
as Christ did. John 3:34, Matthew 17:5, John 18:9.
約翰說,基督“就說上帝的話”。
Christ “speaketh,” says John, “the very words of God.”
因此,使徒們認為,福音書中記錄的耶穌的話就是上帝自己的話。
So the apostles view Jesus’ words recorded by the gospel writers as the very word of God.
這也解釋了
And that explains
為什麼一位新約作者會說另一位新約作者寫的書是“經書”,
why one New Testament writer can call the writings of another New Testament writer “Scripture”,
與舊約聖經有著同等地位的“經書”。
“Scripture” on par with the Old Testament.
保羅和彼得在他們各自寫的書信中都提到了彼此。
Paul and Peter spoke of each other in their writings,
雖然彼得承認,說保羅寫的有些東西比較難懂,
Peter counted the Pauline epistles to be Holy Scriptures on the same level,
但他認為保羅書信的地位與聖經同等。
even though he admitted some things of Paul are hard to understand.
因此,從這些例子、以及更多的例子中,我們看到,
So from all of these things and more,
顯然,使徒在寫作時清醒地認識到:
the Apostles evidently wrote with consciousness
自己的教導有從上帝而來的權柄。
of the divine authority of their teachings.
雖然他們可能並不知道他們寫的東西會被稱作“新約”,
Now they didn’t know perhaps that it was going to be called the “New Testament,”
但他們意識到了:他們所寫的就是上帝的話語。
but they had a consciousness that they were writing the very word of God.
這就是為什麼保羅在談到他自己寫的書信時會說,
That’s why Paul can speak about Christ speaking to me,
“基督對我說話”,“基督在我裡面說話”。
“Christ speaking in me” when he’s talking about writing the word.
保羅在哥林多前書14章(37節)中說,
He says in 1 Corinthians 14,
“若有人以為自己是先知或是屬靈的,
“If any man think himself to be a prophet, or spiritual, let him acknowledge that
就該知道我所寫給你們的是主的命令。”
the things that I write unto you are the very commandments of the Lord.”
所以我們看到,新約聖經中有為新約聖經做見證的有力證據。
So what you have is a powerful witness in the New Testament also to the New Testament itself.
也許比起新約聖經為舊約聖經所作的見證來說,
Maybe it’s not as repetitive,
此類見證出現的頻率並不高,見證力度也沒有那麼強,
as strong as the New Testament of the Old Testament,
但聖經中的確有這樣的記載。
but it’s there.
上帝話語的特殊啟示,在新約時代仍然在繼續。
The word of God, the special revelation, is continuing.
然後,我們在啟示錄的末尾讀到了幾條嚴肅警告,
And then in the Book of Revelation, near the end, you’ve got those solemn warnings,
我相信這些是警告,我也相信這一觀點與我們先父們的觀點一致。
which I believe on good grounds with our forefathers, the solemn warnings
啟示錄22章18節和19節警示我們,
about not adding to the book anymore,
啟示錄是聖經正典的最後一捲書,
this is the final book of the canon,
不可再往聖經中添加任何內容,也不可從中刪減任何內容。
and not subtracting from the book, Revelation 22:18 and 19.
所以,約翰似乎知道自己所寫的就是上帝神聖正典的最後一捲書。
So it appears that John knew that he was writing the closing book of the sacred canon of God.
接下來是課程大綱上第16大點的第二小點,
In your outline, point 16:B,
“上帝成文的話語是聖靈默示的”。
“The spirits inspiration of the written Word of God.”
我們在前面的課中提到,聖經教導我們說,聖靈是上帝的使者,
As we’ve seen in previous lectures, the Bible identifies the Holy Spirit as the divine Agent
聖靈藉著先知、使徒來對人說話。
who spoke through the prophets and apostles.
比如,大衛在撒母耳記下23章第2節這樣寫道,
For example, David wrote, “The Spirit of the Lord spake by me,
“耶和華的靈藉著我說,他的話在我口中。”
and his word was in my tongue.” 2 Samuel 23:2.
“在我口中”,這句話寫得非常巧妙,對不對?
It’s a wonderful statement, isn’t it? “In my tongue.”
聖靈直接親自參與到了聖經作者的一切感官之中,
The Spirit is directly, personally involved and in the very faculties of the human author,
所以祂既直接影響了大衛的思想,也影響了大衛要傳遞的信息,
so that He is directly influencing both what David was thinking,
確保大衛最終寫下的就是上帝的話語。
but also what he was communicating so that the results are the Word of God.
在被猶大出賣的那晚,主耶穌基督教導他的使徒,說,
The Lord Jesus Christ, on the night that he was betrayed, taught his apostles
他會將聖靈特殊的光照賜給他們,
that he would grant them a special influence of the Holy Spirit
讓他們能夠將他在世上說過的一切話都傳揚出去;
so that they could communicate the words that he spoke on Earth
他還說,當他從死里複活後,他還會給他們更深奧的啟示。
and also deeper revelations that he would grant to them later after he rose from the dead.
基督在約翰福音14章25節和26節中說,
Christ said in John 14:25 and 26,
“我還與你們同住的時候,已將這些話對你們說了。
“These things have I spoken on to you, being yet present with you.
但保惠師,就是父因我的名所要差來的聖靈,
But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name,
他要將一切的事指教你們,
he shall teach you all things,
並且要叫你們想起我對你們所說的一切話。”
and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.”
主耶穌還在約翰福音16章12至14節中給了另一個應許,
The Lord Jesus also gave another promise in John 16:12 through 14.
他說,“我還有好些事要告訴你們,但你們現在擔當不了。
He said, “I have yet many things to say unto you, but yet cannot bear them now.
只等真理的聖靈來了,他要引導你們明白一切的真理,
Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth:
因為他不是憑自己說的,乃是把他所聽見的都說出來,
for he shall not speak of himself: but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak:
並要把將來的事告訴你們。
and he will shew you the things to come.
他要榮耀我,因為他要將受於我的告訴你們。”
He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.”
主耶穌的這些應許,現在確實可以普遍應用到信徒身上,
Now, these promises do have a general application to all believers today.
因為它們應許了聖靈對信徒的光照。
They’re promise of the illumination of the Holy Spirit.
但是我們需要記住,現在聖靈在我們生命中的光照,
But we need to remember that the illumination of the Holy Spirit in our lives today
是以聖靈的工作為基礎的,
is based upon the work of the Holy Spirit
而這聖靈的工作,
that was particularly promised to the first people
是基督特別應許給起初聽到他話語的那一群人 – 他的使徒們的。
who heard Christ’s promises when he first spoke them, and that is the apostles of Jesus.
辛克萊·傅格森寫道,
Sinclair Ferguson writes,
“這個應許,單單屬於基督的使徒們,
“They constituted a specific promise to the apostles
在他們書寫新約聖經時得以實現。”
that found its fulfillment in their writing of the New Testament Scriptures.”
主耶穌向他的使徒們應許,說聖靈會使他們記起他的話,
So when the Lord Jesus promised his apostles that the Holy Spirit would enable them
這為他們書寫福音書奠定了基礎。
to remember his words, this then sets the stage
使徒和與他們同行的人一起回顧過往,
for the apostles and those with them to later go back
精準無誤地寫出福音書,記載他們夫子的教導和作為。
and write the Gospels accurately representing the teaching and activity of their master.
同樣,主耶穌也應許他的門徒說,他還有許多事情要教導他們,
Similarly, when the Lord Jesus promised his apostles that he had many more things to teach them but
但他們還不能夠承受,但聖靈會帶領他們進入一切的真理。
that they were not ready to receive them yet, but the Spirit would guide them into all truth,
這就為聖靈引導彼得、保羅、
that then sets the stage for the Spirit of God to lead Peter and Paul
和其他書信作者的寫作奠定了基礎。
and the other writers of the Epistles to record
這些書信中記載的,
those deeper revelations of the work of Christ
是對主耶穌受死、複活之後的工作的更深的啟示。
that were given after the Lord Jesus died and rose again.
我們所說的“聖靈的工作”,是指言語啟示的工作。
Now when we talk about the Spirit’s work, what we’re talking about is a work of verbal inspiration.
也就是說,聖靈的默示不單單體現在思想觀念上,
In other words, the inspiration not just of ideas,
而是在實實在在的言語上。
but of actual words.
所以我們接下來要探討的,是“言語默示的事實”。
And so let’s consider “The reality of verbal inspiration.”
聖經從未說過、也沒有暗示過,
Nowhere in the Bible do we find any indication or even suggestion
說上帝只賜給了先知某種思想與覺悟,
that God gave a kind of insight to the prophets,
然後讓他們用自己的話語來表述這些思想與覺悟。
but then left them to formulate it in their own words.
相反,我們在聖經中反覆讀到,上帝應許“我必賜你口才”,
Instead, we find repeated promises that God would be “with thy mouth,”
例如出埃及記4章12節中,上帝就是這樣對摩西說的。
as He said to Moses in Exodus 4:12.
或者在申命記18章18節中,
Or that God would “put my words in his mouth,”
上帝在提到將要來的先知時說,“我要將當說的話傳給他。”
speaking of the prophet to come in Deuteronomy 18:18.
又或者在耶利米書1章9節中,
Or as God said to Jeremiah in Jeremiah 1:9,
上帝對耶利米說,“我已將當說的話傳給你。”
“I have put my words in thy mouth.”
我們在出埃及記4章14節、撒母耳記下14章3節和19節中
This is the same kind of expression that we see in Exodus 4:15,
都讀到過類似的表述,
or 2 Samuel 14:3 and 19,
它所描述的情景,
when one human being goes to another human being
正是一個人到另一個人那裡,將某個信息準確地傳遞給他。
and tells the second person exactly what they are to say.
比如摩西把亞倫當說的話告訴他,
Like Moses telling Aaron what to say
又如約押把當向大衛王傳遞的話告訴一位婦人。
or Joab telling a woman what to say to the king.
所以這種表述方法所描述的,
And so it’s a picture,
是一幅“將話語放入別人口中”的畫面。
putting words in someone else’s mouth,
它要表達的,是上帝將當說的話語確切地告知先知,
communicates that God told the prophet exactly what to say
然後先知們準確地傳講出上帝的話語。
and the prophet said exactly that.
我們在民數記22章38節、23章5節、23章12節和16節中,
We can see that, for example, in Numbers 22:38,
就能讀到這樣的例子。
所以,先知便成為了耶和華的口。
And so the prophet becomes the mouth of the Lord.
我們同時也在經文中註意到,
And you’ll notice that in text like this,
主說的不是“我要把我的‘信息’放入他們口中”,
it’s not just that the Lord says I will put my “word” in their mouth,
不是指一個大概的信息;
in the sense of the message in general,
祂說的是“話語”(word的複數形式),“我要將當說的話傳給你。”
it’s plural. “I will put my words in thy mouth,”
這些“話”是指聖經作者或傳講上帝話語的人要說的具體內容。
the specific words by which the writer or speaker communicates.
所以,這些話雖然看似出自人的口,但它們實際上是上帝的話語,
And so though the words come from the mouth of a man or a woman,
我們在列王記上17章24節中就能讀到這樣一個例子。
they are the words of God, as you can see in 1 King 17:24.
因此,這是上帝在人身上成就的一種非凡的融合:
And so it’s a remarkable confluence of the divine in human.
人的口中說出了上帝的話語。
The words of man’s mouth become the words of God’s mouth.
最終,先知說的這些話就成為了我們所說的“言語默示”,
And the result is what we call “verbal inspiration,”
這裡的“言語”是指“具體的話語”。
where verbal refers to individual words.
聖經中不是只有上帝賜下的真理,
It’s not just that the Bible contains truths that were given by God,
聖經中有的,是上帝賜下的具體的話語。
but the individual specific words.
是的,主耶穌在馬太福音5章18節和路加福音16章17節中說過,
Yes, the Lord Jesus said, the smallest stroke of the pen in the Old Testament
就連舊約聖經中的一點一畫,都載有上帝永恆的真理。
has eternal, divine truth in it, Matthew 5:18 and Luke 16:17.
這一點其實是非常驚人的。
In fact, it’s remarkable.
主耶穌對舊約聖經所具的權柄極其有信心。
The Lord Jesus was so confident in the text of the Holy Scriptures
大家還記得嗎?
that he once made an argument
他在一次論辯時,曾以詩篇110篇第1節中的“我”字為論據。
upon the single word “my” in Psalm 110:1, remember?
大衛說基督是”‘我’主”, 主耶穌就把這一點作為他整個論點的依據。
David called Christ “my Lord,” and the Lord Jesus built an entire argument upon that.
如果我們回到希伯來語原文中,我們會看到,
And when you go back to the original Hebrew text,
“我”這個字在希伯來語中就是一個字母“yod”,
you can see that the word “my” in the Hebrew is a single letter, the letter “yod,”
如果我們把”yod”這個字母稍微修改一下、或加長一點,
which, if slightly altered or lengthened,
這個詞的意思會發生根本的變化。
would change the meaning entirely.
它的意思就不再是“我的”,而是“他的”或“你的”。
Instead of reading “my,” it would read something like “his” or “your.”
主耶穌以舊約聖經中的一個字母為論據,
The Lord Jesus based a theological argument
提出了一整個神學論點。
upon one letter in the Old Testament.
使徒保羅也在加拉太書3章16節中
The Apostle Paul based an argument
因為舊約聖經中的一個詞用了複數形式、而非單數形式,
upon the fact that a word in the Old Testament was plural instead of singular,
提出了一整個論點。
Galatians 3:16.
羅傑·尼可爾指出,
Roger Nicole observed,
“每當必要時,新約聖經作者和主耶穌本人
“The New Testament writers and the Lord Jesus himself did not hesitate on occasion
會毫不猶豫地使用舊約中的一個字、甚至一個字的語法形式,
to base their whole argumentation upon one single word of the Old Testament Scripture…
來做他們整個論點的基礎。”
or even on the grammatical form of one word.”
這是一個強有力的證據,
And this is strong testimony that
證明上帝的先知和使徒在聖經中所寫的話,的確是出自上帝。
God indeed gave the words that his prophets and apostles wrote in Scripture.
雖然上帝的言語啟示極其精準,
Now the precision of verbal inspiration
但這並不代表上帝控制了先知整個人,
does not imply that God took over the prophet’s body
也不否認先知有自己獨立的心智和個性。
and negated his individual mind and personality.
相反,這是一種更精妙深入的融合,
There’s a more subtle and pervasive concurrence
聖經的默示中既融合了上帝的絕對主權,又有人的完全責任。
involving absolute divine sovereignty and full human responsibility in the inspiration of the Bible.
我們從聖經中就可以看出這一點。
We see the evidence of that.
保羅的寫作風格不同於彼得,對不對?
Paul didn’t write like Peter, did he?
彼得和以賽亞的寫作風格也不一樣,
Peter didn’t write like Isaiah.
而以賽亞和摩西的寫作風格又不一樣。
Isaiah didn’t write like Moses.
路易·高森(1790-1863)在他寫的
Louis Gaussen, who lived from 1790 to 1863, and wrote the treatise
《默示論 – 聖經:它的起源與默示》中說,
Theopneustia, The Bible: its divine origin and Inspiration, said that though we may say,
雖然我們可能會說,“聖經作者不過是聖靈的筆、或手、或秘書”……
“The sacred writers were no more than merely the pens, hands, and secretaries of the Holy Ghost…
但是,聖經作者幾乎每次都能在不同程度上生動地展現,
they were, in almost every case, and in very different degrees, living patterns,
他們是有智慧的幫助者、是受教的秘書,
intelligent hands, secretaries docile,
而且他們自己也在成聖的道路上深受他們所寫內容的影響。
affected by what they wrote and sanctified.”
所以,親愛的弟兄姐妹們,
And so what we have here,
我們在這裡看到的,不是上帝在控制人的身體,
dear brothers and sisters, is not God just seizing control
而是上帝的絕對主權與人的奇妙融合,
of a human body, but what we have is a mysterious concurrence
這種融合使人既能夠準確無誤地寫出上帝要他們寫的話語,
of God’s absolute sovereignty so that they wrote exactly what He intended for them to write
又能夠全程參與、肩負他們應當承擔的一切責任。
and full human involvement and responsibility.
因此,我們可以說聖經有一位主作者、多位副作者。
So that there’s a primary Author and there are many secondary authors.
這也是為什麼,
This is one reason why
改革宗信仰堅持持守“聖經的默示”這一寶貴真理,
the doctrine of inspiration is a precious truth that is guarded
至少是原因之一。
by the Reformed faith.
因為上帝和人可以同時參與到同一件事情中,
Because it really doesn’t make any sense if we don’t believe
由上帝掌管絕對主權,有人全然參與、並承擔當負的一切責任;
that God can be totally in control and human beings can be fully active and responsible
若否認這一點,這一切就變得不合情理、荒誕無稽。
at the same time and in the same event.
現在,我們來進一步更細緻地思想
Let’s move on now to consider in somewhat more detail
“默示的範圍、含義、及其應用”中的細節。
“The extent, meaning and implications of inspiration.”
為此我們需要著重查考兩處經文。
And to do that, we’re gonna focus on two texts,
大家可以打開你們的聖經,翻到提摩太后書3章16節,
so I’d encourage you to open your Bibles to 2 Timothy 3:16,
把手放在這裡,或者放個什麼書簽。
大家還需要翻到彼得後書1章19至21節。
You might also want to flip over to 2 Peter 1:19-21.
很顯然,新約聖經的這兩處經文,
These, of course, are two texts in the New Testament
能夠幫助我們最清晰地查考“上帝默示”這個神秘的工作。
that give us our closest look at this mysterious work of inspiration.
我們如果想明白“默示”的含義,這兩節經文是關鍵。
They’re key texts for our understanding of what “inspiration” means.
我們先來讀一下這兩節經文。
Let’s just read them to begin with.
保羅在提摩太后書3章16節中寫道,“聖經都是神所默示的,
Paul wrote in 2 Timothy 3:16, “All scripture is given by inspiration of God,
於教訓、督責、使人歸正、教導人學義都是有益的。”
and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness.”
然後我們讀一下彼得後書1章19節至21節。
Now, let’s read 2 Peter 1:19-21.
彼得寫道,“我們並有先知更確的預言,如同燈照在暗處。
Peter writes, “We have also a more sure word of prophecy,
你們在這預言上留意,
whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light
直等到天發亮、晨星在你們心裡出現的時候,才是好的。
that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:
第一要緊的,該知道經上所有的預言沒有可隨私意解說的。
knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.
因為預言從來沒有出於人意的,
For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man:
乃是人被聖靈感動,說出神的話來。”
but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”
兩位使徒在這裡首先教導我們的,是默示的範圍。
So first of all, the apostles teaches here the extent of inspiration.
保羅寫道,“一切聖經”。
Paul wrote, “All scripture.”
他的意思是,整本聖經都是上帝默示的。
This should be understood as saying that the entire Bible is inspired.
如果你對句法比較有興趣,你可以將這句經文的句法
If you’re interested in comparing the syntax,
與提摩太前書4章4節的句法做一個對比。
you can compare the syntax of this verse with 1 Timothy 4:4. Similarly,
同樣,彼得說“預言從來沒有出於人意的”,乃是從聖靈來的。
Peter said that “no prophecy of the scripture” arises merely from man’s own interpretation or will,
因此我們可以說,上帝的默示是“完全的默示”。
but it comes from the Holy Spirit. And therefore we may speak of “plenary inspiration.”
“完全”表明,整本聖經、聖經的全部內容都是上帝的默示。
Plenary, meaning the full Scriptures, the whole Bible, is inspired of God.
這一點當然與周必克博士
And of course, this fits with what you heard earlier
在“先知和使徒的話就是上帝的話語”一課中所講的內容一致,
as Dr. Beeke spoke to you of the word of the prophets and the apostles is the Word of God.
聖經一遍又一遍地教導我們:
Over and over and over again,
聖經作者 – 使徒與先知所寫的這一切都是上帝的話語。
the Bible affirms that all the writings of the apostles and prophets are the Word of God.
如果我們查考保羅的書信,
If you scan Paul’s epistles, you see that
我們可以看到,他直接引用了許多舊約經文,
he directly quoted from many, many, many different books of the Old Testament,
他間接提到的就更多了。
and he alluded to even more.
我們從提摩太后書3章16節的上下文可以看出,
And in context, as we look at the context of what Paul is writing here,
因為聖經神聖的話語出自上帝的“完全默示”,
plenary inspiration contrasts the sacred writings
所以它不同於人的教師所寫的內容。
with those of merely human teachers.
我們看到,
You’ll notice that
提摩太后書第3章全是關於”假教師帶領惡人步入歧途”的。
所以,聖經是供上帝子民飲用的純凈的水,
And so here is pure water for the people of God to drink.
絕對沒有受到世上那些以取悅人為目的的假象和謠傳的污染。
It’s in no way corrupted by the man-pleasing fictions and fables of this world.
威斯敏斯特信仰告白在一一列舉了聖經的66本書後,
The Westminster Confession of Faith, Section 1.2,
在第一章第二節中恰當地指出:
after naming the 66 books of the Bible, rightly states,
“這些書卷都是上帝所默示的,是信仰與生活的準則。”
“All which are given by inspiration of God to be the rule of faith and life.”
我們接下來要查考的第二點是默示的含義。
The second thing that we observe here is the meaning of inspiration.
在提摩太后書3章中,保羅用希腊語”theopneustos”來表達“所默示的”,
Paul’s expression “given by inspiration” could be literally translated “God-breathed”,
這個詞也可以直譯為“上帝所呼出的”。
“theopneustos” is the Greek word.
英語詞”inspiration” (“默示”)源自拉丁語聖經譯本,
The word “inspiration” itself, which was derived from the Latin Vulgate translation,
它原本的意思其實是“吸入”,
actually means “to breathe in,”
所以它並不能準確表達”theopneustos”的意思,
and it’s a somewhat unfortunate rendering,
因為保羅說的“theopneustos”不是指上帝對一本已經存在的聖經吹氣,
because Paul’s “theopneustos” does not contain the idea of God breathing into a Bible that’s already there,
更不是指上帝向聖經作者吹氣,
much less the idea of breathing into the authors of the Bible.
相反,它的意思是上帝“呼出”了聖經,
Instead, it says that God breathed the Scriptures.
也就是說,聖經是通過上帝的呼吸而產生的。
In other words, that they’re produced by His breath.
所以,嚴格來說,我們在英語中應該說聖經的”spiration” (“呼氣”),
So technically, then, we should speak of the Bible’s “spiration,”
而不是“吸氣” (“inspiration”)。
not inspiration.
但這樣說顯然會造成許多不便,所以我們還是採用傳統說法。
But of course, that’s very awkward, and so we stick with the traditional word.
“theopneustos”是一個形容詞,
The adjective “theopneustos”
它所描述的不是聖經在我們身上所起的作用,
describes not the Bible’s action upon us.
不是說聖經是一本給人帶來啟發的書,
It’s not saying that the Bible is an inspiring book.
“theopneustos”所描述的,
It’s describing God’s action
是上帝創作聖經的作為,即聖經是上帝默示的。
in producing the Bible, the Bible is inspired.
在研究了這個希腊詞在古代文學中的用法之後,
B.B. Warfield, after studying the uses of this Greek term
華腓德這樣總結道,
in ancient literature, concluded that
這個詞“之所以一直含有一種被動的含義,
it bears, “a uniformly passive significance,
就是源自‘上帝通過呼氣來創造’這件事”。
rooted in the idea of the creative breath of God.”
我們在帖撒羅尼伽前書4章9節中
And there’s a parallel in 1 Thessalonians 4:9,
找到一個相似的希腊語詞“theodidactos”,意為“上帝的教訓”。
where we find the Greek word “theodidactos,” which means “taught by God.”
所以,同樣,“theopneustos”的意思就是“上帝所呼出的”,
And so similarly, “theopneustos” means “breathed by God”
由上帝的呼吸產生的。
that is produced by God’s breath.
比如現在我正對著你們說話,
I’m talking to you right now.
我在說話的同時,也在向外呼出氣體。
As I speak, I’m breathing out.
我的呼吸讓我能夠說話。
My breath produces my words.
所以,當保羅說“聖經是上帝所默示的”時候,
And so when Paul says that the Bible is God-breathed,
他的意思是,聖經仿佛是從上帝自己的口中呼出來的,
he is saying that it is the very words of God, just as if it was breathed out
它就是上帝的話語,
of the mouth of the Lord Himself.
這是一幅奇妙無比的畫面。
It’s a marvelous image.
當然,這個詞中與“被呼出”相關的部分是“pneustos”,
And of course, the part of the word that has to do with “being breathed,” “pneustos,”
它出自“pneu”這個詞,意思是“呼吸”或“吹氣”,
comes from the word “pneo,” whcih means “to breathe” or “to blow,”
這個詞與“靈”(即“pneuma”)這個詞的關係密切。
which is closely related to “Spirit,” which is “pneuma,” and so that Paul is implying here
所以,保羅在這裡暗示,上帝是藉著聖靈來默示祂的話語的。
that God produced the word by the special agency of the Holy Spirit.
這顯然也是彼得在他的書信中明確教導我們的。
And that, of course, is what Peter explicitly teaches us in his epistle.
因為他說,先知是“被聖靈感動,說出…話來。”
Because he said that the prophets “spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”
“被感動”(”moved”)這個詞的字面意思,
Now that word “moved” literally means
是”從一個地方被帶到、或被搬運到另一個地方”。
to be born or carried from one place to another.
比如我這裡有一杯水,現在我把它拿起來,
So I have my glass of water here. I’m picking it up.
我把它帶到、或移到這裡,然後在我選定的地方把它放下來。
I am bearing it or carrying it over here, and now I’m gonna set it down
彼得描繪的大概就是這樣一幅畫面。
where I choose to set it. That’s the image.
他的意思不是說聖靈在以某種方式影響人,
It’s not just the image of the Holy Spirit somehow influencing men,
而是祂的手仿佛從天而降,將一個人拎起來,
but it is as if the Holy Spirit reached down, picked a man up,
準確無誤地將他帶到聖靈要他去的地方。
and took him to exactly where the Holy Spirit wanted him to be,
也就是說,聖靈使這個人準確無誤地寫出了祂自己要他寫的話。
in other words, caused him to write exactly what the Holy Spirit wanted him to write. And therefore,
因此,聖經的話不是出自人,而是出自上帝。
the words of the Holy Scriptures did not originate from men, but they originated from God.
因此,我們可以這樣說,
And so we may say
“默示”就是聖靈通過人來寫下聖經的工作。
that inspiration is the work of the Holy Spirit to produce the Bible through human authors.
所以,如同我們自己口中呼出的氣息產生了我們的話語一樣,
So that it is God’s Word, just as surely as the breath of our mouths,
聖經毫無疑問的就是上帝的話語,
produces our own words.
現在我們知道了,
Now we know that the
聖經所講的”默示”是從聖經的主要作者 – 聖靈
Bible speaks of inspiration in terms of the author of it,
和它”以超自然方式寫下聖經”這兩個角度來講的。
the Holy Spirit, and the supernatural product.
但是聖經極少提到聖靈究竟是如何進行默示的。
But it tells us very little about the process by which the Spirit did this.
聖靈究竟是如何在人靈魂中做工、並帶領他們寫出聖經的?
This is a mystery: how the Spirit worked in the person’s soul
這是一個奧秘。
to accomplish this.
同時,我們也需要記得,
We also need to note
“聖靈的默示”是一種獨特的恩賜,它不同於”聖靈的光照”。
that inspiration is a distinct gift from illumination.
每個基督徒都獲得了聖靈一定程度的光照,
All Christians enjoy the illumination of the Holy Spirit to some extent,
但是正如高森所說的,
but as Gaussen said,
我們決不能將“聖靈的默示”與“聖靈的高度光照”相混淆。
we must not confuse inspiration with a high degree of illumination.
換句話說,每當我們讀經、禱告、默想時,
In other words, as you’re reading the Bible, and praying, meditating,
上帝的靈都會光照我們的心,帶領我們更深地理解真理。
the Spirit of God is illuminating your mind. He’s leading you to a deeper understanding of the truth.
但這與默示是兩回事。
But that’s not what inspiration is.
默示不是一個人內心之中的敬虔與聖潔,
Inspiration is not so much a holiness within a person’s heart,
而是一種給人知識與能力、使人傳遞上帝無誤話語的恩賜。
it is the gift of knowledge and the ability to communicate the infallible Word of God.
聖靈的光照是我們救恩的一部分,但聖靈的默示是一種特殊啟示。
Illumination is part of our salvation, but inspiration is an act of special revelation.
第三,如果我們結合上下文來查考兩位使徒所寫的這兩節經文,
Thirdly, if we look at these statements from these two apostles in their context,
我們就能看到這個教義的一些應用。
we see some implications of inspiration,
但是這堂課,我們就只是簡單地提一下這些應用,
which I’m gonna touch upon very briefly because they’ll be developed in
因為我們會在後面的課上對此進行更詳細的探討。
the lecture to follow.
第一個應用,聖經有上帝的權柄。
First of all, one implication is that the Bible has divine authority.
我們看看保羅說完“聖經都是神所默示的”之後,又說了什麼。
You notice what Paul does right after he talks about all Scriptures given by the inspiration of God.
保羅在提摩太后書4章1節中說,
He says in chapter 4, Verse 1,
“我在神面前,併在將來審判活人死人的基督耶穌面前,
“I charge thee before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead
憑著他的顯現和他的國度囑咐你”,第2節,“務要傳道”。
at his appearing and his kingdom,” verse 2, “preach the Word.”
換句話說,如果聖經是上帝呼出的話語,
In other words, if this Word is breathed out by God,
那麼它就帶著這位大審判官的權柄。
it has the authority of the sovereign Judge.
第二個應用,聖經有上帝的真理性。
Second implication is that the Bible has divine veracity or truthfulness.
保羅在提摩太后書4章中說的“務要傳道”,
Paul wrote, “preach the word,” which in this Epistle,
指的就是”神的道” (提後2章9節)、可信的話”(提後2章11節)、
is “the word of God,” 2 Timothy 2:9; the “faithful” word, verse 11;
以及“真理的道”(提後2章15節)。
“the word of Truth,” verse 15.
正因為聖經是上帝的話語,所以它是真理的道。
And since this is God’s word, it’s a true word.
第三個應用,聖經具有上帝的充分性,
A third implication is that the Bible has a divine sufficiency
它足以引領我們的信仰、帶領我們順服上帝。
to inform our faith and direct our obedience.
保羅在提摩太后書3章17節中提醒提摩太,
Paul reminds Timothy in verse 17
聖經足以預備上帝的僕人,讓他們能夠完成上帝給他們的聖工。
that the Bible is enough to fully equip God’s ministers for all of their sacred work.
第四個應用,聖經具有上帝的清晰性。
A fourth implication is that the Bible has divine clarity.
我們註意看看保羅在提摩太后書3章15節中對提摩太說的,
Notice how back in verse 15, Paul said to Timothy
“並且知道你是從小明白聖經,
“that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures,
這聖經能使你因信基督耶穌有得救的智慧。”
which are able to make thee wise unto salvation.”
聖經這本書,哪怕是讓孩子們來學習,他們也能夠從中受益。
The Bible is something that you can teach to children and they can benefit from it.
聖經的意思非常清晰,連孩子也能讀懂。
It’s got a clarity to it. It can be understood.
彼得也說過類似的話,他說聖經不是一本內容艱深隱晦、
Similarly, Peter said that the Bible is not some dark book
仿佛只有專業學者才能讀懂的書;
that only highly trained scholars can understand.
相反,他在彼得後書1章19節中說,
But it’s like “a light that shineth in a dark place,”
聖經是“照在暗處”的一盞燈。
第五個應用,聖經具有從上帝而來的必須性。
A fifth implication is that the Bible has divine necessity.
聖經教導我們,比如提摩太后書第3章,
We see that, for example, in the context of 2 Timothy 3,
保羅告誡我們,邪惡將在末世泛濫成災;
because Paul is warning about a flood of wickedness that comes in the last days.
他也在第3章和第4章中說,
And he talks in Chapter 3, in chapter 4 about
人們會隨從自己的情欲,偏向虛假的教導。
how people will sinfully desire false teaching.
那麼,這個難題應該如何解決呢?
Well, what is the answer to that?
解決方法就是,我們需要上帝的話語。
The answer is we need the Word of God.
同樣,彼得也在彼得後書第2章中提到了假教師的危害。
Similarly, Peter talked about the dangers of false teachers in 2 Peter, chapter 2.
而親愛的弟兄姐妹,我們不得不承認,
And dear brothers and sisters, we have to admit that those same seeds of corruption
這種引人追隨虛假教導的敗壞種子,也同樣在我們的心中。
that causes this world to run after false teachings, those seeds are in us too.
所以,我們都需要上帝的話語。
So we need the Word of God.
第六個應用,聖經擁有從上帝而來的、在基督里的合一性。
A sixth implication is that the Bible has a divine unity in Christ.
雖然聖經有許多不同的作者、它的完成也歷時數千年,
It is a remarkable fact that though the Bible has been written
但它教導的信息卻有著高度的一致性,
by many different people over centuries of time,
這不得不讓人感到驚奇。
it has one unified message.
保羅在提摩太后書3章15節中總結說,
Paul summarized that in 2 Timothy 3:15,
“因信基督耶穌有得救的智慧。”
“salvation through faith, which is in Christ Jesus.”
而如果我們查考彼得後書,
As you scan Peter’s 2 epistle,
例如彼得後書1章8節、10節、還有幾處其他的經文,
you also see that he summarizes the message of the Bible
就會看到他也把聖經的信息總結為“認識我們的主耶穌基督”。
as “the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ,” 2 Peter 1:8, 10, other places as well.
最後,我們學到的第七個應用是,
And then seventhly, a final implication that arises in this context is that
聖經具有從上帝而來的有效性。
the Bible has a divine efficacy.
我們說的“有效性”是指“遵行上帝的旨意是極有效的”。
By efficacy, we mean it is powerfully effective to do God’s will.
保羅說,無論我們是用聖經來教導、督責、使人歸正,
Paul says that whether you are using the Bible to teach, or reprove sin, or correct sinners unto repentance,
還是教導人學義,它都是“有益的”。
or instruct God’s people in the way of righteousness, the Bible is “profitable.”
聖經是有益的,它在人的生命中大有功效。
It is profitable. It’s powerful in people’s lives.
所以,即便一位傳講聖經的傳道人
And therefore, the preacher of the Bible can be confident
看到周圍許多人,甚至他自己教會中的人,
that even if he sees many, many people in his community
都去追隨假教師、去尋求一些更受歡迎的教導,
running after false teachers, even people leaving his own church perhaps,
他也可以確信,只要他自己忠於上帝的話語,
to go and chase after some more popular teaching,
他所傳講的就是上帝大有功效、大有能力的話語,
that if he is faithful to God’s Word, he is preaching the effective and powerful Word
這話語可以拯救罪人,
that saves sinners
上帝會使用這話語將祂所揀選的人帶回祂自己身邊。
and that God will use to bring His elect home to Him.
因此,從提摩太后書3章16節和彼得後書1章19節至21節中,
And so we learn the following doctrine in summary, from 2 Timothy 3:16
我們可以總結出以下的教義。
and 2 Peter 1:19-21.
上帝的默示是完全的,它包含了先知所寫的所有內容。
The extent of inspiration is plenary. It includes everything that the prophets wrote.
“默示”的意思是指聖經的話語不是出自人,而是出自上帝,
The meaning of inspiration is that the words of the Bible did not arise from a man,
是上帝的靈藉著先知將上帝的話語“呼出”。
but from God as His Spirit breathed forth the word of God by means of the prophets.
這一教義所產生的應用,
And as for the implications,
是“聖經具有獨一無二的屬性,它不同於任何一本其他的書”。
the Bible has special properties that make it like no other book. And what we’re going to do
所以我們接下來要用這節課剩下的時間、以及下節課,
for the rest of our lecture time and also the coming lecture, we’re going to look at some of those properties,
來詳細查考聖經的所有七個屬性,
we’re gonna look at all seven of those properties in time in more detail,
回應人們針對這七個屬性提出的反對意見,
and address some objections against them,
並探討這些屬性在教會生活中有哪些重要應用。
and discuss their important applications in the life of the church.
但我先停一下,看看有沒有同學有問題。
But let me pause here and see if anybody has any questions.
同學,你說。
Yes.
學生:“如果我們在講道時講到這些內容,
Student: “When we preach about these things,
我們可不可以把這些經文用在整本聖經上?
is it safe enough to say these texts are referring to the whole Bible
還是它們只適用於舊約聖經?
or only referring to the Old Testament?
我們可不可把它們也用在新約聖經上?
Shall we use them to refer to the New Testament too,
還是我們需要引用其他經文,
or shall we use other texts
比如彼得提到保羅書信的經文,或是保羅提到福音書的經文?
like when Peter was referring to Paul’s writing, when Paul was referring to the gospel?
因為我們課上講的這兩節經文似乎主要適用的是舊約。”
I mean, because these texts are mainly referring to the Old Testament.”
斯莫利牧師:“嗯,這是一個很好的問題。
Pastor Smalley: “Right, right. Good question, good question.
是的,在讀這幾節經文時,
Yeah, as you read these text,
如果就經文本身來看,我們會發現一個需要解決的問題:
the text unto themselves leave it an open question:
就是保羅說的“全部聖經”到底是指什麼?
what does Paul consider to be all Scripture?
如果我們讀提摩太前書5章18節,我記得是這一節,
And that’s when you go to 1 Timothy 5:18, I believe it is,
保羅說,“經上記著說……”,或者“經上說… …”?
where Paul says ‘it is written’ or the Scripture says…
我還是找到這節經文吧,免得我說錯。
Actually, it’d be smarter for me just to turn there, so I don’t misquote it.
好,提摩太前書5章18節,
Yeah. Yeah. 1 Timothy 5:18,
“因為經上說:‘牛在場上踹谷的時候,不可籠住它的嘴。’
“For the scripture saith, thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn.
又說:‘工人得工價是應當的。’”
And, the laborer is worthy of his reward.”
我記得之前有節課上我們也講到了這一點,
And I think this was covered in a previous lecture, but Paul is saying,
就是當保羅說“經上說”時,他先引用的是一句舊約的話,
this is what scripture says, and the first thing he quotes is from the Old Testament.
但他接下來引用的是福音書中的一句話。
But the second thing he quotes is from the Gospels.
所以,如果我們讀提摩太后書3章16節,
And so, so we read 2 Timothy 3:16,
看到保羅說整本“聖經都是神所默示的”,
and we say, Paul considers all of Scripture to be breathed out by God.
我們會問,保羅說的“整本聖經”是指哪些內容?
Then we ask: what does Paul consider to be Scripture?
但是如果我們讀提摩太前書5章18節,我們就會看到,
Well, we go to this text and we see
保羅認為舊約和新約都是聖經的一部分,
Paul considers to be scripture both the Old Testament
即使那時的新約還沒有完成。
and also the writings of the New Testament that were even then being generated.
所以我們在證明這一點時,需要結合聖經中的多處經文,好嗎?
So you use the Scriptures together to show that. OK? All right.
彼得也是這樣說的。
And similarly with Peter,
你們知道,彼得在彼得後書3章16節中提到保羅的書信,
他說,一些惡人扭曲、強解保羅的書信,
and then says that some wicked people distort them
正如他們扭曲、“強解別的經書一樣”。
as they do the other scriptures.
所以,彼得認為保羅的書信就是聖經的一部分,好嗎?
So Peter is including Paul’s epistles in the Scriptures. OK?
好,還有別的問題嗎?
Yes, another question?
同學,請說。
Yes, sir.
學生:“默示對聖經翻譯有多大的影響呢?
Student: “How much the element of inspiration takes place when it comes to translating the Bible?
因為…… 現在有許多個版本的英文聖經,
Because… well, in English I see that there are many different kinds of translations,
每個版本都採用了不同的譯法,
many different kinds of translations, and all of them are translated
而不同譯者在翻譯過程中也選用了不同的詞彙。
in different ways in different words.
但是我相信上帝最初默示聖經的時候,賜給人的是聖經原文。
But I believe when the Bible’s inspired, they got this original text, where the word was…
聖經作者選擇了特定的詞彙
where the author used specific words
來表達特定的關於上帝、還有其他事物的含義。
to express certain idea about God and things like that.
現在我們手中有了新譯的聖經,
And now we have this newer translation,
但是它所選用的詞彙有可能是聖經作者本不會使用的,
which might not even use the same word that original author might have used.
那這是不是意味著,我們的聖經譯本的‘默示純度’較低?”
Then does this mean the Bible we have is less inspired or… how much does the…?
斯莫利牧師:“嗯,這是一個非常好的問題,
Pastor Smalley: “OK, all right. Good question.
我試著在不給我自己挖坑的情況下回答一下。
I’ll see if I can answer without getting myself in hot water.
是的,我們所說的‘默示’指的是一個已經結束的過程。
Yes, when we talk about inspiration, we’re talking about a process that is done right now.
上帝此時此刻沒有在繼續賜下默示。
God is not presently inspiring texts.
所以如果我坐下來…… 我希望你們在預備講章時也可以這樣做。
So if I sit down… and I hope that you do this when you’re when you’re preparing for a sermon.
如果你學過希腊語或希伯來語,
If you’ve been trained in Greek or Hebrew and
那麼在預備講道時,
you’ve got a text that you’re gonna to preach on,
你要讀聖經原文,也要好好研究這段經文的原文。
you look at it in the original language, and you work in the original language.
當然,你在講道時還是會用英語、中文、韓語、或馬拉維語,
But of course, you’re gonna be preaching in English, or Chinese, or Korean, or Chichewa,
反正你會用你的母語,
or whatever your own language is,
所以,雖然你研究的是聖經原文,比如一段希伯來語舊約經文,
and so you’re studying the original, let’s say it’s an Old Testament text, the Hebrew,
但你在頭腦中其實是在把它譯成你講道時所要用的語言。
but in your mind, you’re translating it into your own language.
我的意思不是說上帝沒有與你同在、或者祂沒有幫助你,
Now, I wouldn’t say that God isn’t there to help you,
特別是如果你向上帝祈求了祂的光照,也十分認真在預備講章,
especially if you’ve prayed for illumination, if you’ve studied well and all that sort of thing.
但是,這些都不是默示的繼續。
But that is not inspiration going on.
默示指的是上帝通過聖經原文作者寫出原文聖經的這一工作。
Inspiration is God’s work in the original authors through them to produce the original scriptures, okay?
所以,嚴格意義上來說,
So technically speaking,
只有希伯來語、亞蘭語、和希腊語聖經原文才是上帝默示的話語。
it is the Hebrew, and the Aramaic, and the Greek texts, which are the inspired Word of God.
但是,我的意思並不是要你們去對教會裡的人說,
Now, that does not mean that I would recommend going around
他們的英文聖經的‘默示純度’沒有原文那麼高,
telling people in your church that your English Bible is less inspired,
因為這樣的說法會讓人們覺得他們的聖經有缺陷。
because that’s gonna communicate to them that there’s something bad about their Bibles.
我們在後面的課上還會就”聖經翻譯”多講一些,
We’re gonna talk about translation a little bit more later on in these lectures,
但是,因為我們相信聖經的清晰性,
but we believe in the clarity of scripture,
這就代表我們相信人能讀懂聖經,因此也能將聖經翻譯成通用語。
which means we believe that the Bible can be understood and therefore translated into ordinary language.
所以我們暫且把這個問題放一下。
So hold on that.
但是,這應該給了你們 – 神學生們巨大的動力,
But as seminary students, this should be a strong motivation to you
激勵你們盡一切可能去學習聖經原文的這幾門語言,
that if at all possible, you should learn the original languages and strive to master them,
並努力掌握它們。
and strive to master them,
因為雖然學習希伯來語和希腊語有一定的難度,
because even though Hebrew, Greek, those can be very hard to learn,
但掌握了它們,你們就能夠去鑽研聖靈默示的原話了。
you are then able to grapple with the actual words that the Holy Spirit inspired.
這是一個多麼令人激動的憧憬啊!”
And that’s a thrilling thought.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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