系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第03講 誰來從事神學研究

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

好,我們會花十五分鐘來講一下接下來的這個部分。
All right, let’s move for 15 minutes then into the next section,
就是“誰來從事神學研究?以及何時、何地從事神學研究?”
which is “Who really does theology, and when and where?”
在攝影藝術中,
In the art of photography,
拍攝照片的一個關鍵因素就是視角。
one crucial factor in taking the picture is the point of view.
例如,一個人想要拍一個休眠火山,
For example, you can take a picture of a dormant volcano,
他可以站在地上用仰望的角度來拍攝,
looking up from the ground,
也可以在直升機上用俯視的角度來拍攝,
down from a helicopter,
還可以站在另一個山脊上、從平行的角度來拍攝,
across from a ridge,
或者從遠處的城市透過天際線的薄霧來拍攝,
away through the haze of a city skyline,
又或者從火山口內部、以從內到外的角度來拍攝。
or out from inside the crater itself.
又有一個人想要拍一朵玫瑰花,
You could take a picture of a rose,
他可以從人站立的角度、俯視著拍攝,
from the perspective of a human being standing above it,
也可以從一個孩子靠近玫瑰去聞它的角度拍攝,
a child close enough to sniff it,
還可以從一隻老鼠仰視玫瑰的角度來拍攝。
or a mouse looking up to it.
所有這些照片都是真實的,他們都準確地顯示了現實。
All such pictures are true, and they accurately represent reality,
只是它們各自是從迥然不同的角度來顯示現實。
but from distinctively different points of view.
那麼在神學中,當我們研究上帝與祂的受造物之間的關係時,
So in theology, as we do the study of God and His relationship to His creatures,
我們必須要意識到我們正在使用的視角,我們特定的視角,
we must be conscious of our point of view, our particular perspective.
我們不只是在收集與上帝及祂作為有關的數據,
We are not just collecting data about God and His ways,
而是以特定的視角來查考這些數據。
but we are viewing God from a particular perspective.
這樣說並非是為了使神學相對化、或輕視神學,
And that’s not to relativize or minimize theology,
因為神學總是基於上帝的真啟示之上的。
because theology is always based on God’s true revelation.
但是,正如我們之前所學到的,
But remember what we learned early this hour,
就是《更純粹神學概要》的作者們在定義神學時所說的,
the knowledge or wisdom of the divine matters,
上帝在世界上向人類啟示的有關神聖事物的知識或者智慧……
said the synopsis writers in defining theology,
並且上帝已經根據人的能力範圍調整了這些知識與智慧。
that God has revealed to people in this world and adapted to their capability.
因此,上帝賜給我們的神學並非是對祂無限榮耀的直接理解,
So the theology that God grants us is not a direct apprehension of this infinite glory,
我們並不是真的坐在天堂中來從事神學研究,
we’re not sitting in heaven literally as we do theology.
這就是為什麼我在埃爾斯豪特牧師妻子去世時,對他說了一些話。
That’s why I said to Reverent Elshout … when he lost his wife
他的妻子一生都在得救的確據上掙扎。
who struggled all her life with assurance of faith.
這對她而言是一場持續的爭戰與掙扎。
And if you have any knowledge of Christ, it was a constant struggle for her.
但是埃爾斯豪牧師自己卻無比美好地經歷了基督的榮美與榮耀。
And Reverent Elshout himself has had wonderful experiences of the beauty and glory of Christ.
當時他給我打電話,告訴我他久病的妻子去世了,
I said to him, when he called me to tell me she passed away and it was expected,
我對他說,弟兄,現在我們想一想,
I said brother now just think, in five minutes,
只要五分鐘,她對基督的認識就比你一生認識祂的總和還要多。
your wife has come to know much more about Christ than you’ve known all your lifetime.
因為她現在處於一個不同的視角,
Because she’s in a different perspective now,
她坐在榮耀之中,她的靈魂已經得了榮耀。
she’s sitting in glory, her soul’s gone to glory.
所以,當我們被迫以地上的視角來從事神學研究時,
So we’re forced, of course, with our earthly limitations,
我們始終帶著地上的局限與自己的局限。
our human limits to do theology from our earthly point of view.
但是,為了要思量我們的神學視角,
But in order to contemplate our theological point of view,
我們需要來思考是誰來從事神學研究,
we then need to consider who does it,
我們在何處從事神學研究,以及我們什麼時候從事神學研究。
where do we do it, and when.
好,那麼誰來從事神學研究呢?
So, who does it?
我們研究神學時,要記得的最基本真理,是我們是上帝所造的。
The most basic thing we remember is that we are creatures of God doing it.
我們不是上帝。“起初,上帝創造天地。”
We are not God. In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.
我們不是上帝,也不是處於與上帝平等的位置來研究神學,
We are not God. We don’t do theology as equals of God,
我們離上帝甚遠。
or even approaching His equal.
所以,我們需要記住兩件讓我們謙卑下來的事情。
So we need to remember two things, which both call us to humility.
首先,我們無法測透上帝,但是我們仍要從事神學研究。
The first is we do theology under God’s incomprehensibility.
上帝本身遠遠超越我們的理解能力,我們無法完全測透祂。
God Himself is far beyond our ability to fully comprehend.
我們能在某種程度上認識上帝,瞭解關於我們救恩的必要知識。
We can know Him to some degree, much as we need to know for our salvation.
路德稱上帝為“人可以認識的、不可知的那一位”。
Luther called Him “the knowable unknowable One”.
但是我們不能奢望自己能夠完全理解這位上帝的無限榮耀,
But we cannot expect to grasp the infinite glory of a Being
祂只用話語就創造了諸世界。
who spoke and the worlds come into existence.
範泰爾說,“人類無法理解上帝,這是我們上帝觀的實質。”
Cornelius Van Til said, “It is of the essence of our God concept that man cannot comprehend Him.”
這不是因為上帝是非理性的,而是因為祂是“絕對的理性”。
Not because God is irrational, but because He is “absolute rationality”,
範泰爾說,祂是絕對的理性,因而超越了我們的理性。
said Van Til, absolute rationality, and so transcends our rationality.
所以,從事神學研究的一個危險之處在於“知識叫人自高自大”,
So one danger of doing theology is that “knowledge puffeth up”,
就是保羅在哥林多前書8章1節所說的。
says Paul, 1 Corinthians 8:1.
所以真正的神學不是讓我們可以自誇說,
So true theology is not something we engage in to say,
看,我已經有這麼多頭腦里的知識,我真是太聰明瞭。
wow I’ve got all this head knowledge, I’m really smart.
真正的神學,應當帶領我們與保羅一起感嘆,
But true theology leads us to exclaim with Paul,
“深哉,神豐富的智慧和知識!他的判斷何其難測,
O the riches and the depth of the wisdom and knowledge of God,
他的蹤跡何其難尋!”這樣我們就會謙卑下來。
His ways are past finding out. And we get humbled.
因此,從事神學研究是有風險的,
So that’s the danger,
而這對神學院學生而言是特別真實的危險,
and that’s a very real danger for seminary students,
特別是我們在座的一些來自其他國家的學生們,
and particularly maybe some of you foreign students,
當你們帶著從美國獲得的道學碩士學位、回到各自的文化中,
going back into cultures of people know very little about theology,
而在那裡人們對神學知識知之甚少,
and you come back with a MDiv degree from America,
你們就是他們中知識最為淵博的人,人們會非常地敬佩你們。
and you are the most knowledgeable person around, they’re worship at your feet.
千萬不要這樣。
No no, no no.
我能給你們的最好的忠告就是,我希望當你們從這間神學院畢業,
The best thing I can say to you, is I hope that when you graduate from this institution,
(我真的希望,由衷地為你們禱告)回到自己的國家時,
I hope and pray, go back to your country,
你們能遠比你們剛來美國時更加謙卑。
that you’ll be far more humble than when you came.
你們中有的人知道,我常常會提醒第一年的學生,
Because what I often say to first year students anyway – so some of you have heard this –
你們來神學院,不是為了學習大量的頭腦知識,
is you come to seminary, not to get a lot of head knowledge,
而是要來看清自己所知道的原來非常有限。
you come to seminary, to find out how little you know.
而當你們離開神學院時,更深入地領悟到“自己知之甚少”,
And when you leave seminary, you know how little you know
甚至遠超剛開始讀神學時所認識到的。
more than you knew how little you knew when you came.
因此,你們不是帶著沾沾自喜的心態(自認為有許多神學知識)
So you don’t leave seminary
離開神學院,
thinking I know a lot of theology now,
而實際上是帶著“自己所知道的是多麼有限”的認識離開神學院。
you actually leave seminary realizing how little you know.
一個人的知識越是廣博,他就越明白自己所知道的只是滄海一粟。
And the more you know, the more you know how little you know,
終其一生都是如此。
all your lifetime.
這真是一件令人驚嘆的事情。
That’s an amazing thing.
其實每個領域都是如此,不是嗎?
But it’s true of every field of endeavor, isn’t it?
我和那些在自己的專業領域成就、地位很高的人交談時
What I have noticed when I’ve talked to people who are really high up
就註意到了這一點。
in their own expertise,
無論他們是什麼行業:銀行業、農業、教養兒女,等等。
I mean be it banking, be it farming, be it parenting, you know.
我曾經在一次大會中與一對夫婦交談過,
I just spoke with a couple at the last, a couple of conferences ago,
他們一共有十九個自然出生的孩子,
of 19 naturally born biological children,
這些孩子中沒有雙胞胎、也沒有領養的。
with no twins and no adopted kids.
我還記得這位母親比較瘦弱。
And this mother’s like skinny, I think.
我問她:“你是怎麼做到的?你生了十九個孩子!”
“How did you do this, you know, 19 children came out of you.”
這十九個孩子都已經長大成人,也都成家了。
I said, “okay now look,” and they’re all grown up now, and they’re all married,
我問,“你們是怎麼做到的?請教給我智慧!”
and I said, “how did you do it? Give me wisdom!”
他們看著我說,“全是上帝的恩典,我們也不知道是怎麼做到的。
And they looked at me and said, “it’s just the grace of God, we don’t know how we did it,
我們也沒有什麼智慧可以跟你分享。我們覺得自己挺無知的。”
we don’t have any wisdom for you, we’re really, we feel pretty ignorant.”
這很不可思議,我問他們:“你們難道沒有什麼可以分享的嗎?”
And you’re looking at them and like, “don’t you have something to say?”
他們說,“確實沒有。就是仰望主,儘力而為,持守聖經。”
“Not really,” they said, “just look to the Lord and do your best, and stick with the Scriptures.”
我說,“不會吧,你們教養孩子這麼多年,怎麼會沒有分享呢?”
You know, you go, “come on, all these years.” But you see, then they said,
他們說,“你知道嗎?我們也失敗了很多次。
“you know we failed so many times.
孩子們能有今天的樣子,全是上帝的恩典。”
It’s just the grace of God that the kids turned out the way they did.”
這就是謙卑。
Humility.
你們知道嗎,我認識的人中,唯一覺得自己明白怎麼養育孩子的人
You know, the only parents I know that really know how to raise kids
就是那些還沒有孩子的人。
are those who don’t have any kids yet.
他們自己一點經驗都沒有,
You know, they don’t have the experience,
卻好像特別瞭解自己的弟兄應該怎樣教養他的孩子。
and they know exactly how their brother’s supposed to raise his kids.
所以我們常常發現,那些略懂皮毛的人常以為自己知道得很多,
So what you find is this in life, people that know a little bit, think they know a lot,
而那些學富五車的人,卻明白自己其實知之甚少。
people that know a lot, know they know only a little bit.
讀神學的危險之處就在於,畢業的時候,
And the danger of seminary training is that when you graduate,
你們確實學到了一些神學知識,就可能會以為自己懂得很多。
you actually know a little bit now, so you can think you know a lot.
所以我需要提醒你們,你們要窮極一生來學習、探索,
So I’m warning you, the more you know, you study your whole lifetime,
你獲得的知識越多,你就越明白自己知識的有限。
you’ll know how little you know.
我所說的這些都是從“上帝不可測透”這一教義引出來的。
So all of that flows out of this doctrine of God’s incomprehensibility.
當我們從事神學研究的時候,我們要把腳上的鞋脫下來,
And we do theology with the shoes off our feet,
因為我們所站之地是聖地。
for the place where we stand is holy ground.
曾經有人問約翰·歐文,你是如何研究神學的?
John Owen was once asked, how he did theology, and this is what he said:
歐文這樣回答:要常常思想上帝威榮的偉大,
much in thoughtfulness of the excellency of the majesty of God and your own infinite,
以及我們和祂之間那不可想象的無限距離。歐文說的太好了!
inconceivable distance from him. Wow.
歐文接著說,“即使擁有最高、最傑出成就的,
And Owen goes on to say, “Persons of the most high and eminent attainment,
與上帝最親近、交通最緊密的人,
of the nearest and most familiar communion with God,
他在這一生中對上帝及上帝榮耀的認識也不過微乎其微。
do yet in this life know but a very little of him and his glory.
我們的想法、思考以及對上帝的描述都十分淺薄,
Our thoughts, our meditations, our expressions of him are low,
許多描述根本配不上祂的榮耀,
many of them unworthy of his glory,
也沒有一個可以夠得上祂的完美。”
none of them reaching up to his perfections.”
所以,我們總是虧缺上帝的榮耀。
So we always come short.
其次,我們在研究神學時,不僅要知道上帝不可測透,
Secondly, we do theology no only under God’s incomprehensibility,
還要臣服於上帝神聖的主權之下。
but we do theology under God’s sovereign lordship.
所以我們研究神學時需要禱告,“耶和華啊,我真是你的僕人。”
And so we need to pray as we do theology, O Lord, truly I am thine servant.
佈雷克說,“凡上帝旨意所定的,上帝的僕人也心嚮往之。
Wilhelmus à Brakel said, “All that God wills, the servant of God also wills,
因為上帝的旨意就是祂僕人的渴慕,也是他的喜樂。”
because the will of God is the object of his desire and delight.”
如果我們有這樣的心志,
I’ll tell you, if you got that spirit in you,
我們就擁有了從事神學研究所需的最根本的精神。
you’ve got the fundamental spirit you need for doing theology.
我再讀一遍。
I will read it again.
“凡上帝旨意所定的,上帝的僕人也心嚮往之。
“All that God wills, the servant of God also wills,
因為上帝的旨意就是祂僕人的渴慕,也是他的喜樂。”
because the will of God is this object of his desire and delight.”
這也會約束我們不在無益處的領域四處挖掘探究、
You see, that also restrains us from going about in unedifying fields of inquiry,
再提出一些標新立異的觀點。
and coming up with “cute little” new things.
我剛剛跟你們提到了查爾斯·賀智,
You know, I talked to you about Charles Hodge last hour,
以及他被迫不得已地寫了一部系統神學書,
and that he felt forced to write the systematic theology.
他覺得自己的書沒有圖倫丁的系統神學著作好。
And knowing that it wasn’t gonna be as good as Turretin.
他對此的態度是十分謙卑的,不是嗎?
His own spirit was humble about it, isn’t it?
然後他在序言中這樣說,
And then in his preface he goes something like this,
非常抱歉,我不得已寫了這本系統神學,
and you know, I had to write this theology, sorry, you know,
但我需要告知你們,如果你們想在這本書中讀到什麼新的內容,
but I wanna tell you too, if you are gonna look for something new in this systematic theology,
這裡面是沒有的。我並無大智,
there’s nothing, you know, I don’t have a great mind,
這本書也毫無新意,裡面全是原先的內容,
there’s nothing new here, it’s all old stuff.
我只是盡我所能、用簡潔的現代英語將這些內容整合在了一起。
But I’ve tried to do what I can to bring it together, kind of simply and modern English.
不論怎樣,這本書現在就在這裡了。
So for what it’s worth, here it is.
這就是他說話的語氣。
I mean, that’s the tone of what he is saying,
你們能夠聽出,他沒有浮誇的聲明,沒有標新立異,
no grandiose claims, you see, no clever innovations,
沒有用新的神學去挑戰正統神學的底線、
no new theology that’s gonna push the edge of the envelop
或者使教會混亂、將人們帶入混亂與紛爭之中。
and confuse the church and bring people into turmoil and debates.
他所寫的,就是置於當代環境、符合聖經規範、可靠的正道。
Just standard, solid, good stuff, coming from Scripture, bringing to bear under contemporary situation.
以及在過去的兩千年裡,聖靈是如何引導教會進入真理,
How the Holy Spirit has lead the church into truth in the last 2,000 years,
還對歷史神學加以了考慮和思想。
taken into account historical theology.
這才是我們應有的從事神學研究的態度。
That’s the way to do theology.
不是為了使教會變得動蕩,而是去造就教會。
Not to agitate the church, but to edify the church. Yeah.
學生:如果一位神學家提出一個前所未有的新觀點,
Student: Can we say that if a theologian brings a new idea that has never been said before,
或想到一個別人以前沒有想過的觀點,
a theologian thought of an idea that someone did not think before,
我們是否就認為這位神學家步入歧途了?
does this mean that he went astray?
周必克教授:這幾乎是一個有陷阱的問題。
Beeke: Well, that’s almost a trick question.
你知道,我可以用所羅門的話來回答你,“日光之下,並無新事。”
You know I could answer it with Solomon and say, there’s nothing new under the sun.
討論就到此結束了,對吧?
End of discussion, right?
但是這其實並沒有回答你的問題。
But that wouldn’t be fair to your question.
從古舊真理中挖掘出新的精細微妙之處是有可能的。
It is possible to develop new nuances from old truth.
我們就是從古老的事物中學習新東西,不是嗎?
We learn, don’t we, from things old to things new?
我們不是從完全嶄新的、孤立的事物中學習。
We don’t learn from things just totally brand new and isolation from everything.
所以你們會在教會歷史上看到,
So what you see in church history is that
聖靈確實會帶領神學家從聖經的古舊真理中
the Holy Spirit does lead theologians into areas where they’ve taken the old truth and from the Scriptures,
看到新的事物、學到新的知識,併在它之上繼續來構造。
have seen new things that have shed new light and build off of that.
只要是基於聖經的,這沒有任何問題。
And that’s fine, as long as it’s grounded in the Scriptures.
我真正反對的,
What I’m really agitating against is new things just to be new,
是僅僅為了標新立異而發展新神學。
and to be something different.
你們知道,有些神學家就是這樣的。
And you know how there are theologians like that.
這就是當時亞米念的問題。
I mean, that’s the problem with Arminius in his own day.
無論他去哪裡,他總是在觸及底線、挑起爭端,
He’s always, wherever he went, he was stiring up trouble going beyond the boundaries
而他其實非常清楚這些界線是什麼,
and he knew very well what those boundaries were,
但是他總想要觸及這些底線,
but he was always stretching himself beyond the boundaries
並且鼓吹不符合聖經的教義。當然這是改革宗的立場。
and agitating, and we would say of course, unbiblical ways.
因此,當我們在上帝的神聖主權之下從事神學研究的時候,
When we do theology under God’s sovereign lordship, therefore,
我們研究的對象就是我們的主。
the object of our study is nothing less than our Lord.
我們在祂的管理、權柄和同在之下來研究神學。
And we do it under His control, His authority, and His presence.
這其實是約翰·傅瑞姆所採用的說法,
Now that’s the way John Frame actually put it,
管理、權柄和同在。
control, authority, presence.
他的意思是,
And what he means by that is this,
主帶著祂滿有主權的能力,
the Lord exercises His absolute control
創造我們、與我們立約、管理我們。
in creating us, in defining His covenant with us, in ruling us.
因此我們必須帶著完全倚賴上帝的態度、在神學研究中親近主。
And therefore, we have an attitude of total dependence when we approach him in theology.
我們要這樣宣告:
We come to theology saying:
“我們得幫助,是在乎倚靠造天地之耶和華的名。”
“our help is in the name of the Lord, Who has made heaven and earth.”
其次,主在與祂僕人的交通中行使祂至高無上的權柄,
And secondly the Lord then, exercises His supreme authority by communicating with His servants
祂配得我們的信靠與順服,因這是祂神聖的權利。
according to His right to trust and obedience.
因此,我們要帶著順服的態度研究神學,
So we do theology with this attitude of submission,
“耶和華啊,請說,僕人敬聽。”
“speak Lord, for thy servant heareth.”
讓我們從上帝的話語中去領悟真理的深意。
Let me discern from Thy Word the depth of the truth here.
傅瑞姆說,第三,我們要操練自己,要意識到上帝無處不在。
And we do it thirdly, says Frame, exercising a sense of His pervasive presence.
研究神學的最好的方式,便是不斷地禱告、
The best way to do theology is up and down on my knees, off my knees, on my knees, praying,
與上帝摔跤、努力地斟酌,就像在準備講章一樣。
wrestling, striving, just like sermon preparation.
我們應該以虔誠的敬畏在上帝面前研究神學,
Doing theology in the presence of God with reverent fear,
與雅各同說,“耶和華真在這裡。”
saying with Jacob, “surely the Lord is in this place.”
其次,我們不僅是作為被上帝所創造的人來從事神學研究,
Secondly we do theology not only as fallen creatures, but we do so, as creatures of God rather,
我們同時也是作為上帝的形象來研究神學。
but we do so as images of God.
如果我們是一隻狗或者一棵樹,我們是無法研究神學的。
If we were dogs or trees, we could not do theology.
雖然一隻狗、一棵樹也能在天性中享受到上帝的良善,
Though we would by nature enjoy God’s goodness
也許還可以在某些方面展現出上帝的榮耀,
and maybe in some ways display His glory,
但是上帝所創造的人是獨特的。
but God has created man unique.
上帝是按照祂自己的形象來造男造女的。
Male and female, created in the image of God.
因此,我們是可以認識上帝並從事神學研究的,
And therefore we can know God and do theology,
至少可以在某種程度上認識祂。
at least know Him to some degree.
但從某種意義上來說,我們的神學不等同與上帝的神學,
But our theology is not God’s theology in a sense,
而是一種“影像神學”。
but image theology.
換言之,一張照片也許是對某個人的準確的呈現,
In other words, just as an image, maybe an accurate representation,
但是它無法捕捉到一個人的整個生命,
but can not capture the full life of a person,
因此,我們的靈魂能夠對上帝有一個真正的認識,
so our souls can have a true knowledge of God,
雖然我們不能透徹領會上帝的存在的無限榮耀。
even though we cannot grasp the full infinite glory of His being.
我知道這些解釋起來會比較麻煩,有很多困難。
Yeah, that’s gonna bring me into some deeper waters here, I see.
但已經到下課時間了,我們就先講到這裡。
I just realize my time is up, so I’m gonna cut it right here,
下周我們再接著往下講。
and we’ll pick up here next week and go from there.
我們現在講第二大點的B這一點,上帝的形象。
We’re looking then at 2B, the images of God.
上次我剛剛講到,人的神學與上帝的神學之間確實有相似之處。
And I had just begun to say, I believe, that there’s a true analogy
但是也只是相似而已。
between human theology and God’s mind. But it’s only an analogy.
中世紀神學家敦斯·蘇格徒這樣區分“神學本身”與“我們的神學”:
Duns Scotus, a medieval theologian, distinguished between “theology in itself”, “theologia in se”,
前者(拉丁語”theologia in se”)指上帝對祂自己和真理的理解,
that is in God’s understanding of Himself and of truth,
(“我們的神學”的拉丁語是“theologia nostra”)。
and “our theology”, “theologia nostra”, our theology.
弗朗西斯庫斯·尤尼烏斯(1545-1602)說,
Franciscus Junius, 1545 to 1602,
在古希腊語與古拉丁語中,“形象”這一詞都是“typos”,
said that a word for “image” in both ancient Greek and Latin is “typos”,
是“關於上帝的基本知識”,他稱之為“原型神學”,
called “God’s essential knowledge”, which he called “archetypal theology”,
就是形象的起點或者來源。
which is the beginning or source of the image.
而我們的神學來自這一形象,是一種“複本神學”。
And our theology, which comes from the image, which is “ectypal theology”.
尤尼烏斯說,我們的複本神學是“上帝的無限智慧的‘一個複本’,
So Junius said, that our ectypal theology “is a certain copy and,
更準確地說,是一個非常模糊的複本。”
rather, shadowy image of the unbounded wisdom which God possesses.”
“上帝所擁有的無限智慧的一個非常模糊的複本。”
A certain copy and shadowy image of the unbounded wisdom which God possesses.
他接著說,“它只與原型有某些相似之處,
He goes on to say, “It only has some analogy to it
就如一個人的畫像並不等於這個人本身一樣。”
and with it just as a painted image of a person is not the same kind as the person himself.”
所以你們明白了這些神學家所要表達的意思嗎?
So you understand what these men are getting at,
就是我們的神學與上帝的神學本身有相似之處,
is that our theology approaches God’s original theology within Himself,
但是我們一切的神學研究之路都是跌跌撞撞、踉踉蹌蹌的。
but all we do is we stammer, we stutter.
好比我們為一個人畫了一幅畫,卻無法表現這個人的全部。
We paint a picture, but we can’t get to the full grasp of the Person Himself
因為上帝在我們之上,祂超越我們。
because God is above us and beyond us,
所以我們所擁有的,是複本神學,而不是原型神學。
so we have ectypal knowledge rather than archetypal knowledge.
Now Cornelius Van Til in the 20th century builds off of Scotus and Junius and others,
在“我們有上帝形象”這一類比的領域做了許多研究。
and does a lot in this area with the analogy of “God in us”.
他說,“基督徒相信兩個層面的存在,
And he says this, “Christians believe in two levels of existence,
一個是上帝層面的、自給自足的存在,
the level of God’s existence as self-contained
一個是人的層面的、衍生出來的存在。”
and the level of man’s existence as derived. For this reason…”
你們都知道,範泰爾在威斯敏斯特神學院非常有名,
And you know, Van Til was famous at Westminster,
我沒有上過他的課,因為我去那裡的時候他剛剛離任。
I never had Van Til because he just quit.
我覺得特別遺憾,因為我聽說他教得很好。
I was so sorry because I heard so much good about his teaching.
我剛開始在那裡上課時,有許多學生都已經上過他的課了。
A lot of people that were going to Westminster when I joined there had had him.
我在校園裡見過他。
I saw him walking on campus.
他曾經是一位非常戲劇性的老師,
I mean he used to be such a dramatic teacher,
如果一個學生問題答錯了,他會拿起這個東西就朝他扔過去。
if you got the wrong answer, he’d take this thing and just wing it at you,
他的教學十分生動。他是一名非常優秀的老師。
and I mean his teaching was lively. He was just great.
但是我那個時候特別靦腆,他有好幾次都從我旁邊走過,
But I was so shy at that time, you know, he walked right by me several times,
我卻連介紹自己都不敢。
I never even dared to introduce myself to him.
言歸正傳,這是範泰爾最廣為人知的事情之一,
But anyway, so what Van Til is saying is,
就是他會在白板上寫,
this is one of his most famous things he would always put on the board,
一共有兩個層面的知識:造物主的知識,以及受造物的知識。
the two levels of knowledge, are the Creator, and the creation and the creature.
所以這裡是造物主,然後他會畫一條這樣的清晰的分割線,
So you’d have the Creator, and then he draw a sharp line like this,
下邊是受造物。
and creature and creation.
所以我們永遠也無法真正洞察這位原型。
And so we can never fully penetrate the archetypal.
我們一切的認識都來源於這位造物主,是衍生的,
All of our knowledge is derived from the Creator and it’s derived,
也就是這門課程(除了介紹的部分之外)的所有其他內容,
which is what the whole rest of this course is about, once we get all this introductory stuff
就是由上帝啟示(拉丁語是“revelatio”)而來的神學,
on theology itself through “revelatio”, revelation,
就是上帝顯露出祂自己。
which means God baring Himself.
就像我捲起衣袖,你就能看見我的手臂一樣,
God, like me rolling up my sleeves, you can see my arm,
上帝就是這樣,通過“啟示”來告訴我們祂是誰。
that’s what God is doing, He’s showing us who He is through “revelatio”.
所以我們所有的知識都是從上帝那裡衍生而來的。
So all of our knowledge is derived.
但是,因為我們身上印有上帝的形象,
But because we have the image of God stamped upon us,
(我們一會兒也會談到這一點)
and we’ll talk about that in a few minutes,
而當我們重生時,這個形象也會更加有生命力,
when we are regenerated, that image of course is much more vibrant,
我們靠著上帝的恩典,是可以從事神學研究的。
by the grace of God, we can do theology.
動物沒有上帝的形象,所以它們不能研究神學。
Animals, who don’t have the image of God, can not do theology.
它們也許可以體現一些神學,
They may reflect some theology,
但是一隻老鼠、一隻飛鳥是無法寫出神學著作的。
but you know, a mouse, a bird can’t write a book on theology.
它們是無法理解這些事情的。
So they don’t understand these things.
但範泰爾的意思是,
But what Van Til is saying,
雖然我們與上帝之間有天壤之別,
is we have an analogical, even though there’s a separation, a radical separation,
但是我們藉著上帝的啟示,能對上帝有一種類比性質的認識。
we have an analogical, by way of analogy, knowledge of God, through “revelatio”.
他接著說,“基於此原因,基督徒也必須相信有兩個層面的認識。
So he goes on to say, “For this reason, Christians must also believe in two levels of knowledge.
一個是上帝層面的認識,一個是人類層面的認識。
The level of God’s knowledge, which is absolutely comprehensive and self-contained.
前者絕對全面、且自給自足,而後者是片面的、且是衍生的。
And the level of man’s knowledge, which is not comprehensive but is derivative.
因此我們可以這樣說,作為基督徒,
So that we say that as Christians,
我們相信人的認識與上帝的認識是有相似之處的。”
we believe that man’s knowledge is analogical of God’s knowledge.”
等我們講到啟示那一部分的時候,
Now later on in the course, when we get to “revelatio”, when we get to revelation,
我會給你們講解,
then I’ll show you
上帝的原型知識與我們的複本知識之間的橋梁,
how the bridge between God’s archetypal knowledge and our ectypal knowledge
從根本上來說,就是耶穌基督,
is ultimately Jesus Christ himself,
他道成肉身,向我們顯明瞭上帝的形象。
who became man, who shows us God’s image.
“人看見了我,就是看見了父,腓力。”
“He’s seen me has seen the Father, Philip.”
馬太福音11章27節告訴我們,耶穌基督是上帝顯明的形象,
The image of God, the express image of God,
是與三一上帝相關的所有知識的中保。
and the mediator of all knowledge of the Triune God, Matthew 11:27.
我們講啟示那一部分的時候再討論這個問題。
But we’ll get to that later when we get to revelation.
現在我希望你們明白的是,
Right now, I just want you to understand that
我們是作為上帝的形象在研究神學。
when we do theology, we do so as images of God.
那麼,我們也需要記得,
And then too, we need to remember
我們是作為生來就悖逆上帝的罪人在從事神學研究。
that when we do theology, by nature, by nature now, we are sinners against God.
換句話說,沒有人能從中立的立場來研究神學。
In other words, no one ever does theology from a point of neutrality.
我們生來就是墮落的,這墮落始於人對上帝話語的不順服。
By nature, we are fallen, and that fall began with our rebellion against God’s Word.
因此,約翰福音3章19節告訴我們,
And so John 3:19 says that
我們對真神學的首要反應就是抵擋,
our first and fundamental response to true theology is resistance,
“光來到世間,世人因自己的行為是惡的,
“this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world,
不愛光倒愛黑暗,定他們的罪就是在此。”
and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil”.
這就是為什麼,當我們對沒有得救的人提到神學或教義時,
That’s why when you come to people with theology or doctrine, and they’re not saved,
通常會得到這種本能的抗拒,
you often see this natural resistance,
“行了,別跟我講教義,別跟我講神學。”
“Well don’t go giving me doctrine now, don’t teach me theology”,
他們的反應表現得好像這些是有害的,
as if these were negative things,
而不是認識上帝、世界、我們是誰、和我們的歸宿的源頭。
rather than sources of knowledge about God and the world and who we are and where we are going.
他們將神學視為有害的,而非是有益處的東西。
Instead of something very positive, they see it as something negative.
這是人本能的抵擋。
It’s a natural resistance.
但是,即便是人類對上帝話語的悖逆,
But even human rebellion against God’s Word
也不能阻止罪人研究神學。
does not prevent sinners from doing theology.
因為每個人都與上帝有關係。
Because everyone stands in relationship to God.
神學,是對上帝的研究。
Theology, study of God.
但我們按罪性所研究的神學是虛假的神學。
But by nature, we are doing false theology.
加爾文說人心是製造偶像的工廠,我們在不斷敬拜假神。
Calvin says, our hearts are factories of idols, we are worshiping false gods.
加爾文接著說,“因此,人不按上帝對祂自己的啟示來認識祂,”
And Calvin goes on to say, “they do not therefore apprehend God as he offers himself,”
(這裡指不信主的人)
speaking of the unbeliever,
“卻按照他們自己在假想中塑造的上帝的樣式來想象祂。”
“but imagine him as they have fashioned him in their own presumption.”
這句話真是一語中的。
It’s like so true.
如果你們曾經給別人傳過福音(無論傳了多久),
And if you’ve ever tried to evangelize people at any length in your life,
你一定會遇到這樣的事。
you just bump into this all the time.
在我的“飛機傳福音”經歷中,我最常聽見人們說的一句話,
One of the most common expressions in my airplane evangelism adventures,
就是當他們在談論上帝時,他們會說,
is that people would say things like this when talking about God,
“為什麼上帝要這樣做?”
“well why does God do this?”
或者“為什麼上帝不這樣做?”
Or “why doesn’t God do that?”
“我要是上帝,……”
“I mean, if I were God…”
每次一聽到“我要是上帝”這句話,
As soon as they get to that expression, “if I were God”,
我就跟上帝禱告,“主啊,請賜給我忍耐。”
I am like, patience Lord, give me patience.
我們不是上帝!我們與上帝有天壤之別!
You know, you are not God, you are so far from God, I am so far from God.
上帝就是上帝,只有祂是上帝。
God is God, let Him be God.
但是人出於罪性,並不這樣認為,
But by nature, people don’t feel that way,
他們覺得上帝與自己是同一水平的。
they treat God as if He is at their level.
正如詩篇50篇用強有力的話語所表達的,
As Psalm 50 so powerfully says,
上帝說,如果你們這樣思想,我要把你們撕碎。
And God says, I will tear you in pieces if you think that way.
“你想我恰和你一樣”,我要毀滅你。
Thou thoughtest I was altogether such a one as thyself, I will destroy you.
上帝對我們這樣的想法十分憤怒,
God is angry at this very thought,
就是我們(衍生的受造物)居然把自己置於與上帝同等的位置,
that we, derivative creatures, would put ourselves on His level,
祂可是創造宇宙的造物主,是創造所有一切受造物的耶和華。
the Creator of the universe, the God from Whom all things were created.
所以重點是,即使作為墮落、叛逆、配得去地獄的罪人,
So the point is, we’re always doing theology,
我們也一直在研究神學,不過是虛假的神學。
even as fallen rebel hell worthy sinners, but it’s false theology.
我們需要為自己對上帝話語的抵擋認罪悔改。
And we need to repent of it, repent of our resistance against the Word of God.
保羅在羅馬書7章中說,即使是信徒,在我們試圖研究神學時,
And even as believers, as we seek to do theology,
我們身上仍舊殘留著叛逆的罪性,
even then, you see, we got this remanence of rebellion in us,
我們舊人的罪性仍在攪擾著我們。
we got this old nature still plaguing us, Paul says in Romans 7.
這就是為什麼,主耶穌在教導門徒神學時曾這樣描述他們,
And that’s why Jesus said of his own disciples as he was teaching them theology,
還記得嗎?有一次他心裡嘆息,說,
remember that the point where he just groans within himself and he says,
“先知所說的一切話,你們的心信得太遲鈍了!”
“oh you slow of heart to believe all that the prophets had spoken.”
你們知道嗎?你們都是神學家。
And so as theologians… you know I have a habit of going around,
除了新生以外大家基本都知道,我有一個習慣,
new students don’t know that, but most of you know that,
就是某天我可能會這樣跟你打招呼,
you know I might greet you some day and say,
“神學家,你還好嗎?”
how’s the theologian doing?
你們中很多人會不好意思,說,“我不是什麼神學家。”
And you know a lot of you get shy, “well I’m no theologian.”
但是我在這堂課中想告訴你們的是,你就是一位神學家。
But what I’m trying to say to you in this class is that you’re a theologian,
無論你願不願意接受,你就是。
whether you like it or not, you are.
關鍵是,我們希望你們能在這方面有所成長。
The point is, we want you to grow in that.
你若要在神學上成長,你就不斷地需要基督,
And when you grow in being a theologian, you see, you need Christ continually
而你也會意識到你不斷地需要基督,需要他來打開你的心。
and you are aware that you need Christ continually to open your minds.
路加福音24章也是在講述同一個故事。
Same story, Luke 24,
兩個人去以馬忤斯,可能是兩個男人,也可能是一男一女。
men of Emmaus, or man and woman.
我的教會中有一個姐妹,
I always have a lady in my church
非常不喜歡我說去以馬忤斯的這兩個旅行者是男人,
who hates it when I say men of Emmaus, travelers to Emmaus,
因為她說,她認為他們是一對夫妻,聖經並沒有說是兩個男人。
because she says, I want to think of them as husband and wife, never anywhere says it’s two men.
她是對的,我查了聖經(本以為聖經一定說了是兩個男人),
And she’s right, I look at it, I thought for sure it said it was two men somewhere,
確實沒有說是兩個男人。
but it doesn’t.
所以,基督徒需要基督不斷打開他們的心竅,使他們明白聖經。
So Christians need Christ to continually open their minds to understand the Scriptures.
因此,但願這意味著,我們在與自己的軟弱和不足做鬥爭時,
So that means, hopefully, that as we struggle with our own infirmities and our own weaknesses,
我們仍然能夠作為信徒、作為上帝重生的兒女研究神學。
we can do theology as believers, as regenerated children of God.
而這將帶來巨大的變化。
And that makes a huge difference.
基督在約翰福音6章45節說,
Christ said in John 6:45,
“在先知書上寫著說:‘他們都要蒙神的教訓。’”
“It is written in the prophets, and they shall all be taught of God,”
這裡指的是以賽亞書54章13節,
Referring to Isaiah 54:13,
“凡聽見父之教訓又學習的,就到我這裡來。”
“every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.”
所以我們最初的悔改信主與我們的持續成長,
So our initial conversion and our continuing growth
都源於這位住在我們裡面的大神學家 – 聖靈上帝。
spring from the divine Theologian – the Holy Spirit, who indwells us.
當然,這並不是在否定研讀聖經的重要性,
And that doesn’t, of course, negate our studying the Bible,
因為這位大神學家要從祂自己寫的書中向我們啟示神學,
because the divine Theologian reveals theology to us from the very book He’s authored,
這本書就是聖經,而聖靈就是聖經的第一作者。
which is the Holy Scriptures, and He’s the primary Author.
所以基督說,“我對你們所說的話就是靈,就是生命”,
So Christ said, “the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life”,
也就是說,上帝的話語是聖靈教導我們真神學的管道。
which is God’s Word is the means by which the Holy Spirit teaches us true theology.
聖靈住在上帝兒女的裡面,
Now this inward presence, then, of the Holy Spirit,
為他們的神學研究開闢了一個蘊藏著各種潛能的全新世界。
in God’s children opens up a whole new world of possibilities in theological study.
這就是保羅在哥林多後書3章17至18節中所說的,
That’s what Paul says, 2 Corinthians 3:17-18.
我們原是瞎眼的,但現在因著恩典我們得以看見。
You were blind, but now by grace you can see.
這就是耶穌在約翰福音16章13節中所說的,
That’s what Jesus says in John 16:13,
“只等真理的聖靈來了,他要引導你們明白一切的真理”,
“When he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth”,
就是明白一切的神學。
into all theology.
這也是約翰在約翰一書2章20節中所說的,
That’s what John says in 1 John 2:20,
“你們從那聖者受了恩膏,並且知道這一切的事。”
“But ye have an unction,” that is an “anointing”, “from the Holy One, so that you may know all things”.
所以,信徒就應該帶著信心禱告和研究,
So when we are believers, you see, we should be praying and studying with confidence,
因為我們知道,當我們依靠聖靈,
knowing that the Lord, as we seek His mind
誠心地帶著禱告、在主的話語中尋求祂的心意時,
in His Word prayerfully, conscientiously, leaning on the Spirit,
祂會逐步引導我們遠離我們自己本性中的愚昧,
will progressively lead us from our own natural foolishness
帶領我們對祂的智慧有更多的瞭解。
into a grasping, an increasing grasp of His wisdom.
所以我想要表達的、希望你們能記住的,就是這個核心思想:
So what I’m getting to here is this key thought that I want you to remember,
即對上帝的兒女而言,
that the process of doing theology for a child of God
從事神學研究的過程與成聖的過程是一致的。
coincides with the process of sanctification within us.
所以,正如我們的神學是影像神學一樣,
So just as our theology is image theology,
(因為我們有上帝的形象)
cause we’re image bearers of God,
我們在神學上的發展也隨著我們在上帝形象中的成長而成長。
so we grow in theology by growing in the image of God.
這就是為什麼一個人可以有很多頭腦知識、或者來讀神學院,
So that’s why you can know a lot of head knowledge and you can go to seminary,
但是當他三、四年後從神學院畢業的時候,
and you can leave seminary three or four years later,
卻比剛進學校時離上帝更遠。
and actually be more estrange from God than when you entered.
他在神學院學到很多頭腦知識,在神學上卻沒有任何成長。
Have more head knowledge, but you haven’t really grown in theology.
我們要通過“新造的人”才能在神學上有所成長。
You grow in theology through the new man,
歌羅西書3章10節說,
Colossians 3:10,
“這新人在知識上漸漸更新,正如造他主的形象。”
“which is renewed in knowledge after the image of Him who created him.” Colossians 3:10.
詩篇25章14節說,
Psalm 25:14,
“耶和華與敬畏他的人親密,他必將自己的約指示他們。”
“the secret of the Lord is with them that fear Him, and He will show them His covenant.”
所以,我們在課堂上學到的神學知識,
So the theology you learn in class and the internal working of the Spirit in your soul
和聖靈在靈魂中內在的動工(藉著讀經講道、學習與日常生活),
through preaching, through reading the Word, through studying, through the events of everyday life,
所有的這一切,在上帝心中都是一個整體,
all of this in the mind of God is one piece,
是為了讓我們變得完全、讓我們成為真正的神學家,
to make you a seamless piece, to make you a true theologian,
像瑪利亞一樣坐在基督的腳前。
sitting at His feet, like Mary.
因此,當我們更多地行走在光中,祂就給我們更多的光照。
So the more we walk in light, the more God grants illumination.
在光中行走,指的不是在某種神秘的光中行走,
And walking in light is also not just walking in some kind of mystical light,
而是每日在對上帝命令的實實在在的順服中行走。
but it’s walking in the daily concrete obedience toward His commandments.
約翰福音14章21節:“有了我的命令又遵守的,這人就是愛我的。
John 14:21, “He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me:
愛我的必蒙我父愛他,我也要愛他,並且要向他顯現。”
and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him”.
所以,我們在成聖的路上走得越遠,我們每日的順服就會越多。
So the more we grow in sanctification, the more we grow in daily obedience.
耶穌說,我們越願意順服上帝旨意,祂就越多地向我們顯明自己。
The more we grow in wanting to do God’s will, the more, Jesus is saying, I will manifest myself to you.
不可否認,有時一個人會在某些特別美好的經歷中體會到基督。
Now sometimes that can be in wonderful experiences, we don’t discount that.
而我們的生命中如果有與上帝交通的特別經歷,
And to have special experiences in your life of communing with God
這可以大大地激勵我們的神學研究。這是很美好的。
can be a big boost to your theology. Wonderful.
但我們並非每天都有這樣的特殊經歷,對吧?不會每天都有。
But you don’t have big special experiences of God everyday, do you? No one does.
因此,我們的成長,來自每日的順服、每日與上帝同行、
So it’s the daily obedience, the daily walk,
每日在上帝的話語中探求、每日的屬靈操練、每日尋求上帝的面,
the daily searching in the Word of God, the daily use of the spiritual disciplines, the daily seeking His face,
或者如大衛所說的,每日在上帝“命令的道上直奔”。
the daily walking, or really as David says it, running in the way of His commandments.
一點一滴地,我們不知不覺地就會成長。
Bit by bit by bit, we imperceptibly grow.
對我們自己而言是不知不覺的,但是上帝是知道的。
Imperceptibly to ourselves, but God knows, okay?
我剛剛在家匆匆吃了個午飯,我女兒正好帶著外孫女過來了。
Now, you know, I was just home for a real quick lunch, and my daughter stopped by with my grandchild.
但是我又必須要來這裡上課了,你們懂的,我真是戀戀不捨的。
And I had to come and teach this class, like you know, I was torn,
我真想跟寶寶在一起多待一段時間,這樣的時間真美好。
I just wanted to be with the baby for a little while, it was wonderful.
我已經一個星期沒有看到外孫女了,我看著她,說,哇!
And I looked at the baby and I said, wow! You know, I haven’t seen the baby for a whole week,
她長大了!我的女兒很驚訝,一個星期就長大了?
I said, I can see she’s grown. My daughter goes, grown? In one week?
我說,是啊,我能看出來。
I said, yeah I can see it.
我的女兒看不出來,因為她每天都和寶寶在一起。
My daughter couldn’t see it, because she’s with the baby every day.
而你們每天也都和自己在一起,所以常常看不見自己的成長。
And see, you’re with yourself every day, and so you often can’t see your growing.
但是聖靈的內在工作的美好之處在於,
But the beautiful thing about the internal working of the Holy Spirit
當你從事神學研究的時候,當你為之禱告的時候,
as you study theology, as you pray about it,
當你力求將它活出來的時候,當你的生活是一個整體、
as you seek to live it, when your life is one piece,
你十分渴慕要更加認識上帝、因這就是你生命的動力時,
and you want so badly to know God better, and that’s the drive of your life.
上帝一定會使你成為一名日益精進的神學家。
God will make you into a better and better theologian.
這不一定表示你會寫出重大的神學著作,也許會,也許不會。
Now that doesn’t mean you are gonna write profound books on theology, maybe you will, maybe you won’t.
但是這並不是生命中最重要的事情,對不對?
But that’s not the most important thing in life, is it?
生命中最重要的事情,
The most important thing in life is growing
是作為重生的信徒,在與上帝的神學關係中逐漸成長。
in this theological relationship with God as regenerated believers.
我們現在講課程大綱上的下一點。
Now as pastors and teachers sent by God,
到目前為止,我所說的一切適用於每一個信徒。
which is the next point on the outline, of course,
但是作為上帝差遣的牧師與教師,
we then, everything I’ve said up to now is true of every believer,
我們有一種特別的渴慕、一個特別的承諾。
but we then have a special desire, a special commitment,
我甚至想說,我們有一種特別的呼召,要竭力地更加認識上帝。
may I say a special calling to strive to grow in the knowledge of God.
正如保羅在歌羅西書1章10節中說,我們有學習神學的特別呼召。
As Paul says in Colossians 1:10, which means we have a special calling to study theology.
因為我們是基督差遣來建立教會的。
For we are sent by Christ to build up the church,
以弗所書4章11至13節說,“在真道上同歸於一,認識神的兒子。”
Ephesians 4:11 through 13, “in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God.”
如果你是宣教場上的一名教師,這句話適用於你;
That’s true if you are gonna be a teacher on the mission field,
如果你是教會的一名牧師,這句話適用於你;
that’s true if you are gonna be a pastor in a church,
如果你是一名主日學老師,這句話也適用於你。
it’s true if you are gonna be a teacher in a Sunday school.
如果一個人是一名忠心的教師或者牧師,
You’ll feel, if you’re a faithful teacher or a faithful pastor,
他就會體會到這份“要善於教導”的需要。
you’ll feel this need to be apt to teach.
正如提摩太前書3章2節說,長老、監督必須要“善於教導”。
As 1 Timothy 3:2 speaks of elders and bishops, you must be apt to teach.
這就是說,我們需要禱告,主,請幫助我,
And that means, Lord please help me
讓我整個的生活方式都讓我與你變得越來越親密,
that my whole way of life may be in a growing relationship with thee,
以便我可以教導別人,使他們明白這美妙的神學,
so that I may teach others of this wonderful theology of
即講述上帝與祂所造的世上的受造物之間的關係的神學。
God and His relationship with His creatures in this world.
提多書1章9節說,教會裡的每一位長老,
And so Titus 1:9 says that every elder of the church
都應該“堅守所教真實的道理,就能將純正的教訓勸化人,
should be “holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine
又能把爭辯的人駁倒了。”
both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers”.
還有瑪拉基書2章6至7節,
And Milachi 2:6 and 7 says,
在談及舊約中的祭司時說,
speaking now of the priests of the Old covenant,
他是“萬軍之耶和華的使者”,此人應有“真實的律法在他口中”,
he is “the messenger of the Lord of hosts,” of whom it should be said, “The law of truth was in his mouth,”
他的“嘴裡當存知識”。
and his “lips should keep knowledge”.
我想對你們中 – 特別是蒙上帝呼召要去牧養教會的人,
And so I just wanna say this to you, those of you who, especially, who feel a call to pastoral ministry,
還有要做教導事工的人 – 說,
but also to those of you who feel a call to a teaching ministry,
我們口中所說的話,是出自我們的心裡,
our lips, flowing from our hearts,
“心裡所充滿的,口裡就說出來”,對吧?
“out of the abundance of the hearts the mouth speaks,” right?
我們的嘴唇應該充滿知識。
Our lips should be filled with knowledge.
我對這一點是這樣理解的:
And the way I take that is that
當我們與別人交談時,我們要做平凡人,我們不要偽裝,
when we speak with other people, of course we’ve got to be human, we’ve got to be ourselves,
我們也需要花幾分鐘與他們聊一聊生活中的瑣碎小事;
we’ve got to talk to them about the small things of life for a minute or two or three,
但是無論我們與人交談多久,
but when we converse with people any length of time,
我們應該始終致力於與他們有一場真正的對話,去傳遞真知識、
we should always be aiming for real conversations, and passing real knowledge on,
給出建議、提出實在的問題,並引發真正的思考。
and advice and asking real questions, and generating real thinking.
因為我們從上帝所賜的這份特殊恩惠中(如讀神學)領受的,
Because really, what we receive from God in this special privileges that we have,
我們希望能將這些真理傳遞給其他人,
like going to seminary, we want to pass on to other people the same truth
讓他們也能學會去思想與上帝有關的事情,
so that they learn to be thinkers of the things of God,
在某種程度上也學習做神學家。
and learn to be theologians at some level.
我覺得很多牧師都沒有意識到這一點。
And that’s why, and I think a lot of pastors don’t realize this,
即使在我們與別人交談時間不長的情況下,
even in small encounters with people, you try to say a word to them,
我們也要試著說一些能讓他們有些印象、產生一些思考的事情。
to leave some impression behind, to just leave them think about something, you know.
比如主日早晨,我走進教會的時候,看到了一些孩子。
So Sunday morning, I’m walking into church, right? And there’s some children there.
我需要做一個選擇,我可以走到他們旁邊,
I’ve got a choice, I can just walk by them and say,
跟他們打招呼:孩子們你們好!
hi boys and girls,
我也可以走過他們,完全忽略他們的存在。
or I can walk by them and ignore them altogether
有的牧師選擇了後者,表現得好像孩子們並不重要。
like some ministers do, acting as if kids don’t count.
我也可以在進長執會會議室前,先走到他們那裡去,
Or I can go to them just before I walk into my consistory or session room
停下來跟他們握手,看著某個孩子的眼睛,說,
and I can just, as I go, just shake their hands and say, stop and look at one of them in the eyes and say,
“你今天一定要好好聽,我有東西要教你,
“you gotta listen really well today, I’ve got something to teach you,
我要給你講一個故事,是關於上帝的話語的。你會好好聽嗎?”
I’ve got a story to tell you about God’s Word. You’re gonna listen?”
他們會看著你,說,“會的”。其他幾個也會說“會的”。
They’ll look at you, “yes, yes.” And the others are “yes, yes.”
我這樣跟他們對話,是在做什麼呢?
Well, what am I doing there?
實際上我並沒有傳遞任何知識,
I’m not really passing on any knowledge,
但是我為我將要傳遞給他們的知識在預備他們。
but I’m preparing them for the knowledge I’m gonna pass on,
我是在告訴他們:你們也是敬拜人群里的一分子。
so I wanna include you in the worship.
我可以對他們說些什麼呢?
What am I to say to them?
我可以跟其中一個小男孩握手,比如說是一個七歲的男孩,
I might shake one of the boy’s hand, maybe it’s a seven year old boy, I say,
我可以問他,“你這個星期有沒有向上帝禱告啊?”
“did you pray this week to God? “
他可能回答,“有,我禱告了。”
“Oh yes, I did actually.”
“這非常好!你要堅持,繼續禱告。
“That’s good, that’s good, you keep praying.
你知道嗎,你要向上帝禱告,你要一輩子都服侍祂。
And you know what, you ask God you will serve God your whole lifetime,
全世界沒有比服侍上帝更好的事情了。祝你有愉快的一天!”
there’s nothing better than serve God, you have a good day now, okay?”
然後你就可以去你的會議室了。
And you walk into your room.
我們對孩子這樣,對我們去醫院探訪的老人也要這樣。
You do it with a child, you do it with an old person that you visit in the hospital.
我們跟別人談話時,要看著他們的眼睛。
And you look people in the eye as you do this.
問他們,弟兄,在與上帝同行時,你真正的屬靈境況如何?
And you say, brother, how are you really doing spiritually when you walk with God?
實際上作為牧者,我們有別人沒有的權柄,可以這樣做。
You see, as a pastor, you actually have a little extra authority to do that,
但是我們要帶著愛心,而他們也能夠感覺到我們的愛,
But you do it with love, and they feel your love,
因為我們關心他們的靈魂。
because you care about their soul.
所以我要表達的是,我們作為牧師,我們有這個特別的呼召,
And so what I am saying to you is this, as a pastor, this is your particular calling
要用有關上帝的知識、用純正的神學去充滿會眾的心。
to help fill people with the knowledge of God, with good theology.
我們不僅可以利用正式的教學機會,也可以利用非正式的場合,
So you take not just your formal teaching opportunities, you take even informal occasions,
這裡說一句話,那裡說一句話。
stick a word in here, a little statement there.
比如有個人找到你,對你說,牧師,我這個星期過得特別糟糕。
Someone comes up to you and says, pastor I had hard week, you know.
你應該做什麼?你應該立刻說,“怎麼了?發生了什麼事情?”
And what do you do? Immediately you say, “well why? what happened?”
你表示出你有興趣瞭解,引導他們說出來。他們會告訴你的。
You show interest, you draw them out. And they will tell you.
比如他可能說,“我的手臂有問題,我的肩膀有問題”。
You know, I had a problem with my arm, you know, like my shoulder.
你可以回答,“真的嗎,怎麼回事啊?”
“Really? What is it?”
你跟他們談,最後說,“我們去隔壁的房間一起做一個禱告吧。
You talk to them and say, “Okay, let’s just step aside in this next room and let’s have a prayer together.
主啊,求你醫治他的肩膀,也求你使用這個試煉使他更加成聖,
Lord, please, please let this shoulder problem be sanctified, heal it, but let it be sanctified,
讓這位朋友可以因此而更多地認識你。”
that this friend may grow in the knowledge of God.”
所以,一切又都回到了“我們要更多地認識上帝”這一點。
See, everything comes back that we may know God better.
我們需要不斷地、在各樣的境況中提醒我們的會眾,
See you’re constantly reminding your people in every situation,
上帝的旨意是為了祂的榮耀、是為了你的益處,
God means it for His glory, He means it for your good,
讓你能夠因此而不斷成長,
grow thereby, grow thereby, grow thereby,
在主耶穌基督的恩典和知識中成長。
grow in the grace and knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ.
我特別欣賞保羅教導提摩太的,
You know, I love what Paul did with Timothy,
他對提摩太說,你跟我一起長途跋涉過,你瞭解我的思維方式,
he said to Timothy, Timothy, you’ve traveled with me, you know my manner of thinking,
你知道我曾經有過的試探,你聽過我的教導與我的講道,
you know the temptations I’ve gone through, you’ve heard me teach and you’ve heard me preach,
提摩太后書2章2節,和提摩太后書3章10節。
保羅說,提摩太,“這些事你要殷勤去做,
“Meditate,” Timothy, “upon these things;
並要在此專心,使眾人看出你的長進來。
give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all.
你要謹慎自己和自己的教訓,要在這些事上恆心,
Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; and continue in them:
因為這樣行,又能救自己,又能救聽你的人。”
for in doing this thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee.”
提摩太前書4章15至16節。
你們知道嗎,這間神學院以此為楷模,這是我們努力要做到的。
You know, that is the model for this seminary, that’s what we’re trying.
我知道我們作為教師,在這一點上為你們所做的還有諸多不足,
I know we have many shortcomings as faculty to do for you,
但是你們也應該為彼此這樣做,
but what you should be doing for each other,
而有一天你牧會時,你也可以為你的會眾這樣做。
and what you, then one day go out and do for the people.
或已經在牧會的,現在就要為上帝交托給你的會眾做這些事情。
Or if you are a minister already, of course you’re doing it now, for the people entrusted to you.
你全面地默想這些事情,你把自己獻給神學。
You meditate wholly upon these things, you give yourself to theology.
你把自己獻給這些事情。
You give yourself to these things.
當一個人的心處於對的狀態時,
And you know, when it’s right inside,
當他真的在與上帝同行,而不是在信仰上倒退時,
when you are really walking with God and not backsliding,
他的心會完全被神學所吸引,但這是一種非常健康的吸引。
it just consumes you, but it’s a healthy consumption.
他可能連洗澡的時間,
I mean you can hardly take a shower
都在想上帝的主權與人的責任之間的關係。
without thinking about the relationship between God’s sovereignty and man’s responsibility, you know.
當我們每天都沉浸在關於上帝的事情中,
You’re just constantly thinking about the things of God
我們就會不斷地思想它們。
because you’re immersed in them day by day.
這就是我們的呼召,這就是我們的生活。
This is your calling, this is your life,
我們有責任將之傳遞給其他的人。
this is your responsibilities that passes on to other people.
因此,我們需要將神學視為我們一生的呼召。
So see theology as your whole life calling.
在我們所做的一切事中,無論是牧會、教導、講道還是輔導,
Really, in everything you’re doing, pastoring, teaching, preaching, counseling,
我們都在傳遞著神學。
you’re bringing theology.
這就是這些系統神學課程如此重要的原因。
And so that’s why, these theology courses, systematic theology courses, are so important.
因為系統神學所做的,
Because systematic theology is trying
正是試圖將整本聖經對每個主題的教導整合在一起。
to bring all these things together, what the Bible says about every subject.
我們在系統神學中所學的,
And I can’t tell you how many times
能在真實生活中極大地派上用場。
you’ll use what you’ve learned in systematic theology in real life situations.
但願有一天,年輕人會在你的教會中聚集,
Young people will gather together in your church someday, I hope,
你們可能一起唱贊美詩,然後可能請他們寫一下要問的問題。
and you’ll have a little sing-along, and you’ll have them write out questions.
你也許會收到許多問題,比如30個。
And you got a fistful of questions, 30 questions,
而你有一個小時的時間來回答這所有的問題。
and you got to answer them in 60 minutes.
你該怎麼辦呢,怎麼做到這一點呢?
How do you do that?
你必須得有一些神學知識,才能回答他們的問題。
You got to have some theological background to do that,
但是,其實你整個生活的目的就是做這件事。
but your whole life is designed to do that.
所以,你不應該認為這些問題會對你造成了威脅,
So you shouldn’t see those questions as threatening,
反而應該覺得這些問題非常地吸引你。
you should see them as inviting.
如果其中有幾個問題是你不知道的,你可以告訴他們,
And if there’s one or two you don’t know, you’d say,
我需要查考一下這些問題,稍後再回覆你。這也沒有關係的。
I’ll look them up and get back to you later. That’s fine.
但當你從神學院畢業時,當你收到某間教會的呼召時,
But by the time you come out of Seminary, by the time you get a call,
上帝已經預備了你,你一定要殷勤地在各樣情況中使用這個恩賜。
God will have gifted you with this and you have to use it in every situation you come.
我可以說,這對我們而言,就成為了一種生活方式。
So that it becomes, may I say it this way, a way of life for you.
我在年輕時,常聽人這樣說,“不要以為牧師就一定會進天堂”。
You know, I’ve always heard this statement when I was young, you know, you can’t die as a minister.
我明白,就是一個人不會因為被按立成為牧師就能進入天堂。
And I understand what you mean, you know, your ordination can’t bring you to heaven.
我明白這一點。
I understand all that.
我也承認,一個人剛牧會時,
But when you are a minister of the Gospel, for any number of years. I mean, I grant it,
可能要三五年才能真正完全地進入牧會狀態、適應這一工作。
it takes three, four, five years to really get in the full mode and get used to it, be comfortable with it.
但是無論你會牧會多少年、要做福音的傳道人多少年,
But there will come a time, pretty early on in the ministry,
總會有一個時候(通常是在教會服侍之初),
that’s what I never heard when I was young,
你會發現,你無法將你自己與你的服侍分別開來。
and I don’t know why, I still don’t know why,
不知道為什麼,這是我年輕時沒有聽別人說過的。
you can’t separate yourself from the ministry.
牧會與別的工作不同。
It’s not like another job.
若是別的工作,雇主要求的工作時間就是早上八點到下午五點。
Eight to five when you are signing,
下班後你回到家,就可以說我完成今天的工作了。
you come back home and say I’m done with my work.
但是請允許我這樣說,你睡覺時是一個牧師,
Pardon the expression, but you sleep as minister,
你說話時是一個牧師,你連走路時也是一個牧師。
you talk as a minister, you walk as a minister.
這並不是說你要一直格外地“敬虔”(指一種貶義的“敬虔”)。
It doesn’t mean you got to be extra pious all the time in the negative sense of the word “piety”.
但這就是你的身份。你有對人靈魂的負擔。
But this is who you are. You are burdened with souls.
這些人一直都需要你。這就是你的生活方式。
They are leaning upon you all the time. It’s a way of life.
你在教導、在講道、在思考、在傳授知識,
You are teaching, you are preaching, you are thinking, you are passing on knowledge,
你也在找機會傳遞造就人的信息,
and you are looking for opportunities.
當機會來臨的時候,你一定要把握住。好嗎?
And when they come, you want to use them. Okay?

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