系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第11講 我們如何從事神學研究之學術方法

92 views

此系列只有簡體字幕並只能在本台線上收看
本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

現在我們一起來查考研究神學的學術方法。
Now we want to look at how we do theology by academic models.
將心靈知識與頭腦知識對立起來不僅是一個嚴重的錯誤,
It’s a great mistake to set the knowledge of the head against the knowledge of heart.
也是對仔細、嚴謹的神學研究的不尊重。
That is really to demean careful and rigorous study of theology.
華腓德說,“人們有時會說,
B. B. Warfield said, “Sometimes we hear it said
比起讀書十小時,
that ten minutes on your knees will give you
禱告十分鐘更能讓你真實、深刻、有效地認識上帝。
a truer, deeper, more operative knowledge of God than ten hours over your books.
我們對此的正確回應應該是:
‘What!’ is the appropriate response,
‘什麼?禱告十分鐘比讀書十小時更好?
‘than ten hours over your books, on your knees?’
可是為什麼當我們讀書的時候,我們要離開上帝?
Why should you turn from God when you turn to your books,
或者為什麼當我們轉向上帝的時候,我們就一定要離開書本?’”
or feel that you must turn from your books in order to turn to God?”
你們明白華腓德的意思嗎?
You understand what Warfield is saying?
他所說的與我之前談的是一個意思,
He’s doing the same thing I was talking about before,
就是這些事情其實是一個整體。
that this is all of one piece.
當我們以屬靈的眼光來讀書時,我們同時也在禱告,
When we are working with our books spiritually, we are praying,
我們邊讀書,邊禱告。我們甚至可以說這也是一種屬靈體驗。
we are working with our books, vice versa, it’s a spiritual experience if you will.
所以,如果我們將心靈知識與頭腦知識對立起來,
So this idea of separating the head knowledge and heart knowledge
我們所做的就實在不是一件智慧的事情。
as two, you know, opposites is not a good idea at all.
我遇見過一些人,甚至是教會的帶領者,他們就持有這樣的觀點。
I had people, even church leaders, who had that kind of attitude.
我還記得,在我的成長中,
When I grew up, I still remember
有一個人對我說,雖然我們必須要接受教育,
one man telling me education is a rotten thing
但是教育其實是一件非常糟糕的事情,它會將人們帶入歧途。
that we just have to do, but it leads people astray.
虛假的教導確實會將人帶入歧途,
Well, false education can lead people astray,
但是真教導會在屬靈上對我們有所助益。
but true education should help our spirituality. So
因此,頭腦知識與心靈知識是一起的。
head knowledge and heart knowledge belong together,
事實上,心靈知識應該在頭腦知識的土壤里成長起來。
in fact, heart knowledge grows in the soil of head knowledge, when things are right.
如果我們在做學術研究時依靠的是自己,
So academic study, though it can go in the wrong way
我們所採用的就是錯誤的方式。
when you do it independency upon yourself.
但是另一方面,就如普通生活中的任何一種工作一樣,
On the other hand, academic study, like every labour of ordinary life,
學術研究能夠並且應該,
can and should be used
成為在上帝恩慈的祝福之下的、對上帝的愛的操練。
as an exercise of love for God under His gracious blessing,
尤其是神學家、教會神職人員和教師,更是應該如此。
and particularly for theologians, for church officers, for teachers.
保羅也是一再這樣的強調,
Over and over again Paul,
特別是在他寫給提摩太和提多的牧者信函中,
especially in that pastoral epistles to Timothy and Titus,
他總是不停地這樣鼓勵他們,
he’s always giving recommendations,
如果你們要做上帝教會的帶領者,
you’ve got to learn, you’ve got to meditate,
你們就一定要學習,一定要默想,一定要善於教導。
you’ve got to be apt to teach, if you are going to be a leader in the house of God.
他在提摩太后書1章13至14節說,
He says, 2 Timothy 1:13-14,
要守著“從前所交托”給你的“善道”,
“hold fast the form of sound words”
要持守那些托付給你的真理。
and then guard those good things committed unto you.
然後他又囑咐提摩太,要“竭力在上帝面前得蒙喜悅,
And he tells Timothy to be studying to show himself approved to God,
做無愧的工人,按著正意分解真理的道”。
a workman that needed not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.
所以很明顯,對於保羅而言,研究神學不只是一種屬靈操練,
So it’s obvious that for Paul, doing theology is not just a spiritual exercise,
它同時也是一種學術操練,而這二者是合而為一的。
it’s an academic one, and the two are combined as one piece.
但是現在這堂課中,我需要人為地把這兩者分成兩個部分,
Now artificially, I am dividing the two in this lecture,
好讓你們一次專註於這兩者中的一個。
so you are looking at different pieces of both of them.
但是我希望你們能夠明白,這兩者是一起的。
But I want you to understand, that the whole lecture belongs together.
就是這第一部分的二十幾點和第二部分的十幾點,它們是一起的。
The 10 or 11 points of the last half and the 20 points or whatever I have for this half.
把這兩者結合在一起的過程,
So to bring these things together
是以相信、接受福音為開始的一個有機過程,
as an organic process that begins with a believing acceptance of the gospel
它尋求的是對信仰的更深刻的理解,
and seeking deeper understanding by faith,
而這樣的理解又能進一步影響信仰,以此循環下去。
and understanding further which informs faith, and so on.
為了能把這些綜合在一起,我將和你們一起來探討三個主要方面。
To bring this all together, I am going to look at three main areas.
神學家的三項任務,就是聚集真理、探討研究,以及神學寫作。
The theologian’s task to gather, to research and to write.
聚集真理、探討研究,和神學寫作。
Gather, research and write.
我們將對這三項任務進行簡略快速的介紹,
And I’ve got several points under all three sections,
每一項任務之下都會講到幾點。
we’ll go through them quickly.
你們若是有問題,可以在講完每一項的時候提出來。
And you can ask questions at the end of different points.
聚集真理的寶庫。
Gather a treasury of truth.
主耶穌在馬太福音13章52節中說得很好,
Jesus said it so well, Matthew 13:52,“Every scribe which is instructed unto
“凡文士受教作天國的門徒,就像一個家主,
the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder,”
從他庫里拿出新舊的東西來。”
that’s a master of a household,”which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.”
所以,如果我們要成為神學家,
So you need to gather things, if you are gonna be a theologian,
我們就需要聚集真理,將它們融合在一起。
that are new and old, and bring them together.
那麼我們如何應用這一點呢?
So what does that mean practically? Number one,
第一,我們要帶著默想,系統完整地反覆閱讀聖經。
read the Bible completely, meditatively and repeatedly.
畢竟,神學的第一手資料是聖經。
The primary source of theology, after all, is the Bible.
因此,神學家這一項工作應以讀經開始,也以讀經結束。
So your task as a theologian, begins and ends with reading the Scriptures.
雖然我不會律法主義般地告訴你們、或要求你們
Now, I am not gonna tell you or demand of you legalistically exactly how to do that,
必須每一年、或每兩年都要讀一遍聖經。
I am not gonna say you need to do it at least once a year, or once every other year.
但是你們需要定期地讀經。
But you need to do it on a regular basis.
我也不會要求你們一定要按多快的速度來讀經。
And I am not gonna tell you how fast to do it, whether you should do it more rapidly,
可能你讀經很快,一天讀十章,三個月就能讀完一整本聖經,
read two, three, four, six, ten chapters a day, and read through the whole Scripture
一年可以讀四遍,這樣很好。
in three months and do four Bible readings a year, that would be really good way.
但是也許慢慢讀經也是很好的。
But maybe a good way would be to just read it very very slowly.
可能一整年也無法讀完一遍,
Maybe not make it through the Bible in the whole year, but just
但是我們整個讀經和查考的過程中都在默想。
meditatively looking at study notes, meditating all the way through.
但是無論如何,研讀聖經是無可取代的。
But whatever you do, there is no substitute for knowing the Bible.
我剛纔聽學校一位教授分享說,
I was just speaking with one of our professors who
他為了保持身體健康,常在健身房鍛煉。
exercises in a gym to help keep himself a bit fit.
他告訴我說,他鍛煉的時候,他在跑步機上跑步的時候,
And he is telling me that as he exercises, as he’s running the treadmill,
他不會任憑自己胡思亂想,而是養成了一個操練自己大腦的習慣,
one of his habits is, instead of just let his mind wonder, he disciplines his mind,
就是從創世紀第1章一直想到啟示錄第22章。
one of his habits is to just go from Genesis 1 to Revelation 22.
他跑步時就開始回憶:創世紀第一章,創造;
And as he is running, he’s thinking Genesis 1, creation,
創世紀第二章,上帝造人;創世紀第三章,人的墮落。
Genesis 2, you know, creation of man, Genesis 3, fall of man.
如果他實在記不起聖經中某一章的內容了,他就會很自責。
And if there’s a chapter that doesn’t come to his mind what it is,
但是他回家後會去查看他忘記的那章的內容。
he berates himself and he goes home and he looks it up.
他可能會對自己說,
Come on, I didn’t know
“我居然不記得以西結書39章的內容,太不像話了!”
what is in Ezekiel 39, what’s wrong with me?
因此,他對上帝的話語如此的熟悉,
You know, so he’s, just so familiar with the Word of God,
他可以說出整本聖經中每一章的大致內容。
he can go through the whole Bible and tell you basically what’s in every chapter.
第二點,研讀聖經的各捲經文。
Number two, studying individual books of the Bible, studying individual books of the Bible.
一位清教徒這樣說,上帝將聖經規劃為聖靈的圖書館。
God has designed the Bible, said one Puritan, to be the library of the Holy Ghost.
它是一本彙集了眾多書卷的合集。
It’s a collection of individual books,
對一位神學家,特別是要講道的神學家而言,
and what really helps a theologian, particularly if you are also
完整地將聖經中某一捲書講一篇,特別有益處。
a preacher, is to preach through a Bible book.
這是一件令人特別滿足的事情。
And that is so satisfying.
在過去的幾年裡,我把整捲啟示錄通講了一遍。
I feel like my theology has been greatly enriched
通過通講啟示錄,我覺得我的神學得到了極大的豐富。
in the last few years by preaching through the book of Revelation,
可惜在我牧會的前三十年裡,我一直都在迴避講這捲書。
which I have avoided doing for 30 some years, unfortunately.
我以前也教過末世論,但是通過通講啟示錄,
But preaching through it, I mean I have taught eschatology before,
我比之前更加地理解末世論。
but I think I understand eschatology better now by preaching through Revelation than before.
所以,通講聖經的書卷、私下裡研讀我們自選的聖經書卷,
So preaching through Bible books, studying on your own individual Bible books privately
這些對我們都有極大的幫助。
can do so much help.
第三點,我們應該要熟知大公教會信經與其他信仰告白。
Number three, familiarize yourself with classic summaries of the faith.
如果我們熟知改革宗的信經、教理問答和信仰告白,
Know, know reformed confessional creeds, catechisms, confessions,
我們將從中受益匪淺。
that can do you so much good.
你們知道嗎,我們在靈修讀完聖經時,
You know one of the best things you can do as a theologian for your daily devotions
一個極好的選擇就是讀小詹姆士·丹尼森的一套四捲的叢書,
after you read your Scripture, is read the four volumes from James Dennison,
裡面記載了十七、十八世紀所有不同的改革宗信仰告白。
all the different reformed confessions in that 16th, 17th century era.
我們可以讀到它們的介紹、它們的形成歷史,它們所記載的神學,
Read the introductions, how they came about, read the theology in them,
讓純正的、符合聖經的認信改革宗神學浸染我們所思所想。
just let your mind be saturated with good reformed confessional biblical theology.
第四,記錄我們自己的“備忘錄”,這裡的“備忘錄”我加了引號.
Number four, write your own “commonplace books”, I put that in quotation marks.
在近代早期的歐洲,人們將他們在讀書時所做的筆記
You know, in early modern Europe, people compiled their notes
按照各種主題彙編成一本本的“備忘錄”,
on various subjects into what they called,
拉丁語讀作“loci communi”,它們都是按主題編排的。
books of “commonplaces,” in Latin, Loci communi, arranged with pages devoted to particular topics.
上周主日,有一位姐妹坐在我前面一排,
And last Sunday there was a lady sitting in the row, just in the pew in front of me,
她就有本類似於”備忘錄“的本子。
and she had a book of that nature.
她的那個本子很厚,本子的封皮還是皮子的。
And it was a very fat book, and it was leather covered. And she opened it up,
她打開本子,在空白頁上不斷地記著筆記。
and all the pages were blank and she was just taking notes, taking notes.
在那一場講道中,她大概記了七、八頁的筆記。
Oh she took maybe seven or eight pages of notes, just of one message.
然後在傍晚,在晚禮拜開始之前,
And then I noticed in the evening before church started, she was sitting in her pew
我註意到她坐在早上的位子上,翻看她上午記的筆記。
and she was going back and she was reading the notes of the morning.
我當時想,哇,這位姐妹正在暢飲真理。
And I thought, wow, this lady is drinking in the truth.
她大部分時間都是在不停地記筆記,
And she just looked with such an interest at the speaker,
偶爾也抬起頭,認真投入地聽道。
but most of the time she was just writing, taking notes.
我講這些,不是為了提倡大家復興現代早期的這種做法,
Well, the point here, is not to resurrect an early modern literary practice, but
而是提醒我們自己,我們作為神學家,
to have some method as a theologian
需要有某種記錄筆記、整理筆記的系統。
of taking notes, some system of organizing them.
在當今這個時代,顯然我們會使用電腦來記錄和整理筆記。
Today obviously be on a computer in some way.
但是當你的電腦不在身邊的時候,你需要隨手記筆記,
But if your computer is not with you all the time, you know,
記錄你所聽到的各種內容、各種神學真理,
scratch out notes, different things you hear,
和別人用到的各種引用的話。
different theological truth, different quotables.
你的一定要隨身帶一張紙,或者帶著你的手機,
A piece of paper, always have a piece of paper with you, or have your cell phone with you,
這樣你就可以把筆記記在手機上,之後再轉錄到別的地方。
you can type it up and transfer it over.
然後,將這些隨機的想法、筆記和構思按照主題來分類。
And divide it in subjects, just random thoughts, notes, ideas.
比如說關於贖罪這個主題,你記錄了三十多條內容,
Later maybe you’ve got 30 different things that came to you about the atonement,
之後你正好需要講一篇關於贖罪的道,
later you are gonna preach a sermon on the atonement,
你可以去翻看筆記,也許可以找到一些有用的內容。
you go back and see your own notes, maybe you’ll find three things you can use.
也許它們都不適用,但是那也沒有關係。
Maybe nothing, that’s okay.
這對我們的思想是一個很好的操練,
But it’s a good exercise for the mind
當我們收集這些零碎的真理時,這表明我們珍惜它們。
and it shows you’re treasuring all little bits of scraps of truth as you glean them.
這對我們的研究也是有幫助的。
It could also help you research.
喬納森·愛德華滋就有許多本被他成為”雜記“的筆記本,
Jonathan Edwards had notebooks full of what he called “Miscellanies”
他還自己製作了一本”空白聖經“。
and he also made a “blank Bible”.
他在聖經中每兩頁之間都插入了空白的一張紙,
What he did was he took the Bible and he put a page in between each page,
以便他記筆記。
interleaved blank pages for taking notes.
當然,在今天這樣的時代,我們可以在電腦上進行這樣的操作。
Now today, of course you could do that on your computer as well.
從長遠來看,這可以為你節省大量的時間,
But this will save you in the long run enormous time in the future,
你還可以存儲豐富的知識寶藏,隨後可以輕鬆地在筆記中查找它們.
but it will also store up treasures of knowledge that you can access in your notes.
順便提一句,我們記筆記的時候,也要附帶記一些例證。
And do this also with illustrations by the way.
在我剛開始牧會的那個時候,
And if I had to do it all over again, you know, I mean when I became a minister,
還沒有電腦。
there was no such things as computers.
如果我可以從頭來過,
But if had to do it all over again,
我會把這些例證記下來,也會把我自己各種各樣的想法記下來。
I would do my illustrations and my miscellaneous thoughts,
我要把這些記下來的東西分成兩個文件夾。
I would do it all under two files.
其中一個是經文文件夾,記錄一些與特定經文直接相關的觀點,
I would do a textual file, maybe some particular thought
比如與創世紀6章5節有關的觀點。
about Genesis 6:5.
我們可以從創世紀第1章一直記錄到啟示錄第22章。
And we have something running from Genesis 1 to Revelation 22,
然後另外一個文件夾是主題文件夾。
and then a subject file.
我也會把我的這些例證按照主題分類,
And I will put my illustrations under subjects as well,
就像我把那些各類的想法按主題分類一樣。
just like my miscellaneous thoughts.
因為在我們寫作的時候,我們確實需要能夠找到這些內容。
Because that’s really what you want accessible to you as you write.
第五點,我們需要認識到人人皆處於個人時代背景之中。
Five, stay aware of yourself in your personal context.
要記住,沒有一個人是完全中立、客觀的神學家。
Remember you are not a totally objective theologian.
我們不是生活在真空之中。
You don’t exist in a vacuum.
我知道當今的流行說法,就是一位神學家必須要完全客觀。
And I know that it’s the rage today that a theologian has to be totally objective.
我認識一位神學家,他寫了一本關於詹姆斯·亞米念的書,
I know one theologian who’s so proud of the fact, well, I won’t say that
當他寫完這本書的時候,沒有人能分辨出他到底是不是亞米念派,
in negative form of pride, but he’s pleased that he wrote a book on James Arminius
因為在書中他顯得非常客觀。為此他很高興。
and no one knows if he’s Arminian or not by the time he gets done, he’s so objective.
我個人不太欣賞這樣的做法。
Well, I don’t admire that too much.
我不是這種類型的神學家。
I am not that kind of theologian.
在書中不將真正的亞米念展示出來,這是我無法想象的事情,
I can’t imagine not showing the real Arminius
而真正的亞米念在很多時候是一個負面的形象。
and the real Arminius is substantially negative.
這一點一定要顯明出來。
And that has to come out.
我們需要留意我們所處的大環境,留意我們所在教會的背景,
So, but you are aware of your context, you are aware of your church background, you are aware of
留意我們為人處事的方式,留意我們的研究對我們的影響。
how you relate to other people, you are aware of how your studies are affecting you now,
我們在不同的地方講道與寫作時,都要考慮到這些因素。
and you need to take these things into account when you speak at different places and write. And
不是要有政治性,而是要留意這些情況,
not to be political, but to be aware of situations,
留意分清楚什麼是核心的,什麼是非核心的。
be aware of separating the essentials and the non-essentials.
要留意在與人交通時我們所處的不同角度,
Be aware of the different levels that you are at in terms of fellowship
以及它對我們的影響。
and how that impacts you.
好吧?在我們教會,我們只唱詩篇。
Okay? In our church, we sing Psalms only.
如果我去探訪我們宗派的另一間教會,
If I was to go to another one of our churches
而他們唱的是各種各樣的贊美詩,
and they were singing all kinds of hymns,
我會產生擔憂,因為這是我們宗派的教會。
I’ll be quite alarmed, cause I am in this denomination.
但是,如果我去探訪另一個宗派的教會,我去服侍他們,
But if I go to another denomination and I am serving them,
而他們唱的是一些教導純正的經典贊美詩,
and they are singing some good classic hymns, I don’t say, okay,
我不會強烈反對,我不會說,我不能和他們一起唱。
I am not gonna sing along with them, you know, strictly oppose to this.
我明白他們有他們的傳統,
As a biblical truth, I realize their tradition,
也明白他們在唱贊美詩的決定背後,有著自己的歷史.
I realize how they came to their hymn singing position
並且,在我心中,這並不是一個核心教義。
and it’s not, in my mind at least, an essential that’s being violated.
他們唱的仍然是符合聖經的內容。
It’s still scriptural material.
雖然我自己不會這樣選擇,
It’s not how I would do it, but okay,
但是這是另一個宗派,他們的背景是不同的。
that’s in a different denomination, a different setting.
同樣,如果我去一間浸信會教會講道,我站上講道台,
Same thing when I preach in a Baptist church, I don’t get up on the pulpit and
我不能在講道前先聲明,“我要減輕我良心的負擔,
you know, say, well, before I preach, I relieve my conscience here
我要告訴你們我為什麼相信嬰兒洗是正確的。”
and tell you why I believe in infant baptism.
不能這樣,這太荒謬了。
I mean, come on, this is ridiculous.
因此,我們必須要始終留意我們所處的環境。
So you are always aware of the context in which you are in.
而在寫作的時候,這會更加難辦一點。
And that gets more tricky, of course, when you write.
比如為了避免不必要地冒犯他人,
What are you going to say, what are you not going to say,
我們能說什麼,我們不能說什麼,諸如此類的事情。
for the sake of not offending people unnecessarily, and that type of thing.
第六點,我們要與來自其他文化的、善於思考的基督徒交流。
Number six, you interact with thoughtful Christians of other cultures.
這會在我們的神學發展路上有所幫助。
And it helps you grow as a theologian.
新約帶來的一個巨大的變化就是猶太人與外邦人的融合、
One of the cataclysmic changes introduced by the new covenant was the
“文明的”希腊人與“野蠻的”部落族人的融合、
melding together of Jews and Gentiles,
自由人與奴隸的融合,以及,
“civilized” Greeks and “barbarian” tribes, free and slaves,
男人與女人在基督里一同做上帝的子民,加拉太書3章28節。
male and female as one people in union with Christ, Galatians 3:28.
但是,保羅在加拉太書3章中所提及的這些社會群體,
But every one of these social groups Paul mentions
它們都有著自己的文化背景。
in Galatians 3 has its own culture.
雖然真理並非僅僅是一種社會結構,
And so while truth is not merely a social construct,
但我們的社會背景確實會對我們如何構建對真理的認識產生影響。
our social group does affect how we construct our views of truth.
我很自然的就會按照中產階級白人男性的思路去思考,
I am naturally going to think along the lines of a middle-class Caucasian male,
我就是這樣的。
that’s just who I am.
但我需要明白,世界上還有許多其他不同的文化,
And I need to be aware that there are many many other cultures
人們的想法是不一樣的,各個文化的運作方式也常常是不一樣的.
and people think differently, and cultures often operate differently.
我們若在這些方面不留心,甚至在神學上的無知,
And ignorance of that, even theologically can be traumatic
會讓我們與其他社會群體之間的接觸變得極不愉快。
when you relate to other people groups.
我永遠也忘不了這件事。
I will never forget when I,
我在還比較年輕的時候,對白人以外的任何社會群體都不太瞭解,
I didn’t know Koreans very well, I didn’t know any group
我也不太瞭解韓國人。
outside Caucasians very well as a young man.
有一次,一個韓國人給我寫信,
And I got an opportunity to… A Korean wrote me and said
說有一家韓國的出版社想要出版一本我寫的書。
there is a Korean publisher that wants to publish a certain book that you wrote.
是我早期的一本書。
One of my early books.
他在信里還付上了出版社的地址。
And he had the address of the publisher down there, and so
我給他回信說,太好了,非常感謝你。
oh great, thank you very much, I wrote.
之後我就給那家韓國出版社寫信,
And then I wrote to the Korean publisher,
我說,如果你們願意出版我的書,這太好了。
I said, yeah, that would be great, you know.
那個時候我也不太明白合同的流程。
I didn’t know how contracts worked or anything, but
他們給我寄了一份合同,我就簽了字。
they sent me a contract and I signed it.
這間事情就結束了。
Done deal.
可是,在這件事情結束的幾周以後,
And then a couple of weeks later after it’s all done,
我收到了一封信,是最開始寫信給我的那個韓國人。
I get this letter from the guy who originally asked me. And he says
他問我,為什麼你沒有給我回信呢?
how come I haven’t heard from you?
我說,我有回信啊,我感謝了你。
I said, well, no, I thanked you.
他說,對,但是你最後的決定是什麼呢?
Yeah, he said, but what did you decide?
我說,我已經處理完了。
I said, well yeah, I did it.
他又給我回信說,你處理完了什麼?
And he goes, he writes back and he says, you did what?
我說,我去聯繫了那家出版社。
I said, well, I contacted the publisher.
他說,你居然自己聯繫了出版社,你應該把你的決定先告訴我。
He goes, you contacted the publisher? You are supposed to go back through me.
我說,哦,我不太明白,為什麼我應該先告訴你呢?
I said, oh, I didn’t know that, why was I supposed to go back through you?
他說,萬一你不願意他們出版你的書,你這樣直接聯繫他們,
Well, he said, in case you would say no,
會讓他們感到十分的羞恥,他們會有一種被冒犯的感覺,
you would have shamed the publisher, and he would have been offended.
還好你願意他們出版你的書。
That’s a good thing you said yes.
原來最開始,之所以是這個韓國人聯繫我,
But you see, the reason he went through me in the first place
是為了要避免那家出版社被羞辱。
was to avoid that possibility of being shamed.
如果我的答案是拒絕,我先告訴他,
So that if I had said no, I’d go back through him
他再告訴那家出版社,這樣出版社就不會被羞辱。
and he would tell the publisher and there would be no shame.
這些對我而言,十分難以理解。
Well, this is all very confusing to me.
但是在韓國文化中,這卻是最合理的做法。
But it makes perfect sense in a Korean culture.
我這隻是隨便舉個例子,而這些事情其實能出現在各個方面。
Now there’s all kinds of areas, I am just giving you one that comes to the top of my mind.
西方人對亞洲人的這種圍繞羞恥與負罪感的思維方式
The whole Asian mindset of operating more by shame and by guilt
是非常陌生的。
is just very foreign to our western thinking.
因此,當我們查看贖罪這一教義時,我們需要理解明白這些事情.
So we got to understand these things when you deal with the doctrine of atonement.
羞恥,罪疚。
Shame, guilt.
你們知道嗎?作為一個中產階級的白人男性,
You know, maybe as a middle-class western Caucasian male,
可能在贖罪這一教義上,我對恥辱的理解還不夠深入。
maybe in my doctrine of atonement, I am not dealing enough with shame.
因為在我的生活中,我更重視罪疚的問題,而不是恥辱的問題。
Cause I hasn’t figured it as highly in my life as guilt has.
這不僅僅是神學上的原因,不僅僅是與聖經有關的原因,
Some part also of my culture, not just theologically and biblically,
也是文化上的原因。
but also culturally.
所以,我們作為神學家去與基督徒所處的各種文化互動,
So that’s why it’s good, when we are theologians
這是很好的一件事。
to interact with Christian cultures.
在過去的25年中,我一共去了四十多個不同的國家,
I have been enriched, I can’t tell you how much in my life,
也看到了所有這些國家中的基督教文化是怎樣運作的,
I am a different person than I was 25 years ago through going to 40 different,
所有的這些經歷都極大地豐富了我的生命。
or whatever 40 plus countries and seeing how all these Christian cultures work.
我還有許多東西要學,很多事情仍然讓我很困惑、不明白。
And I still got a lot to learn, it’s still very confusing to me.
有一些文化確實比較難懂。
You know, I mean some cultures are just really difficult to understand.
我的意思並不是在判斷它好與不好,
It doesn’t make them better, it doesn’t make them worse,
只是說它與我們所處的文化非常的不一樣。
I am just saying they are different from what you are at.
而每一個人都在他們自己的文化中運作。
And everybody operates in their own culture.
每個人都有他們自己的特點,有他們自己所註重的地方。
You know, everybody has their own little accents, their own little emphasizes.
上周主日一位姐妹都我說,
A lady last week Sunday said to me, I told my husband,
我跟我的丈夫說,你有某種口音,
he’s got some accent, I think either
你要麼是從荷蘭來的,要麼是從密歇根上半島來的。
he came from the Netherlands originally, or he comes from the upper peninsula of Michigan.
這是我第一次聽到”密歇根上半島口音“這個說法。
I go, that’s the first time I’ve heard that one.
曾經有許多人,要麼說我是蘇格蘭口音,
I have heard a lot that my accent is Scottish or Irish,
要麼說我是愛爾蘭口音,我也不知道他們究竟是從哪裡聽出來的.
I don’t know where in the world that comes from. But
但是我們需要看到,人們在留心聆聽,
people, you see, are listening
他們能夠看到我們與他們的不同之處。
and they see you as being different than them.
因此,那些神學家們,特別是那些出版過書的神學家們,
And so in theology, those theologians, especially those publish theologians, you’ll notice
我們能夠從他們的寫作中看出他們與不同傳統與文化的連接,
in their writings that they connect with different traditions and different cultures,
他們在查看不同人群的神學時也在同時談論著不同的人。
and speak about different people groups as they deal with their theology.
不是要篡改真理,
Not to change the truth, but to recognize, you see,
而是要留意與填補不必要的文化鴻溝,來一起討論神學。
to bridge over unnecessary cultural gaps and discuss theology together.
所以我們一定要願意互相學習。
Be open to learning from one another.
這也是保羅在羅馬書中的用意,對不對?
And that’s Paul’s purpose too in Romans, isn’t it?
也是他在使徒行傳中的用意。
And in Acts.
羅馬書15章6至7節,雖然我們有著這一切的不同之處,
Romans 15:6-7, It is God’s purpose in Christ that for all our differences,
但上帝在基督里的心意是,“你們一心一口榮耀上帝”,
“ye may with one mind and with one mouth glorify God,” and therefore,
因而“彼此接納,如同基督接納你們一樣,使榮耀歸於上帝”。
“receive ye one another, as Christ also received us to the glory of God.”
因此,我們不斷地聚集真理、聚集真理、聚集真理,
So you gather, you gather, you gather, you gather,
我們的一生都在聚集各樣的材料、想法和構思。
all your life, you are gathering material, thoughts, ideas.
我們要明白不同的文化,我們要明白我們自己,
You understand cultures, you understand yourself,
這些都是在影響著我們神學的東西。
as all work behind your theology,
第二點,我們要做研究。
and then secondly, you do your research, your research.
關於做研究,我們要講幾點。
Now when you research, here are some ideas.
第一點,我們要集中探討某一特定的聖經教導。
Number one, focus on one strand of biblical teaching at a time.
我們研究神學,一定要有重心。
To do theology, you’ve got to focus.
這一點很關鍵。
That’s critical.
我們要成為一位好的傳道人,也要有重心。
And to be a good preacher, you’ve got to focus.
實際上,當一位好的神學家在神學上日益成長的時候,
Actually a good theologian, the better you are in theology,
他在講道方面也應該隨之成長。
the better preacher you ought to be.
因為他慢慢學會要專註於特定的真理。
Cause you learn to focus on particular truth.
一位優秀的傳道人,總是能夠從不同真理中提煉出新的東西,
And one of the exciting things about being a good preacher is that
這是十分令人激動的事情。
you are always bringing out new things about different truths
而如果這位傳道人是一位好的神學家,他就能更輕鬆地做這件事.
and you can do that much easier if you are a good theologian.
有的時候,
So out of the large tapestry of biblical truth,
我們確實需要簡要地將整幅聖經真理的圖畫描繪出來。
yes, at times, you are gonna paint the picture of the whole set of biblical truth very briefly.
但是我們在每一次講道中,
But then in every message, you want to focus,
我們需要從聖經真理這一巨大的壁毯中,抽出一條金線,
you want to pull out one golden thread, you want to concentrate
將講道集中於那一個想法上,專註於那一特定的構思。
that sermon on that thought, or that particular idea.
第二點,收集與之相關的聖經素材。
Number two, collect biblical materials relevant to that strand.
如果我們想要有一個較高水準的神學研究,
Particularly if you are gonna do theology
我們尤其需要做到這一點。
at a fairly high level.
系統神學的目標,是說明整本聖經在某個特定主題上的教導是什麼.
The goal of systematic theology is to state what the whole Bible says on a particular topic.
所以,我們需要收集與這一主題相關的聖經素材。
So you are going to collect biblical materials relevant,
比如,我們要收集與”因信稱義“相關的聖經素材。
say, to justification by faith alone.
那麼我們就需要研究聖經文本,研究希伯來語文本,希腊語文本,
So you are going to study the text, the Hebrew text, the Greek terms
研究”稱義“和”公義“這兩個術語。
for “justify” and “righteousness”.
我們也會看到,並非所有含有這些術語的經文都具有同等的相關性,
Not all texts that include these terms will be equally relevant,
我們也應該就此做一些研究。
you study that as well.
但是我們不會單單去查考羅馬書4章6節,
But you won’t just look at Romans 4:6,
我們也會查考詩篇130篇3至4節,誰能站立於上帝的面前,
you’ll also look at Psalm 130:3 and 4, you know, who will stand before God,
“但在你有赦免之恩,要叫人敬畏你。”
“but there is forgiveness with thee, that thou mayest be feared.”
這句經文是什麼意思?
What does that mean?
它在“因信稱義”這一教義上又與羅馬書4章6節有怎樣的關係.
How does that relate to Romans 4:6 in terms of justification by faith.
第三點,我們要從語言、文學與神學的角度來詮釋特定經文。
Three, you exegete particular text linguistically, literally, and theologically.
上帝使用的是人類語言來表述他的聖言,
God communicates His Word in human language,
以便祂用人類先知的話語將“耶和華的話”傳講給我們,
so that “the words of the Lord” come to us as the words of a human prophet,
耶利米書36章4節。
Jeremiah 36:4.
當然,這些聖言起初是用希伯來語(有幾處是亞蘭語)
Of course, they were originally written in the ancient Hebrew.
和通用希腊語寫成的。
A few places, Aramaic and koine Greek.
因此,我們在翻譯聖經的時候,
And therefore, we must interpret them
也必須按照我們翻譯任何其他書面文稿那樣來翻譯,
as we would interpret the meaning of other written documents,
特別是這些在特定時代用特定語言所寫出來的文稿。
particularly those written in those languages at that time.
因此,我們自然要採用一種直譯的方法,
So you use naturally a literal interpretation,
除非那類文稿需要一種不同的翻譯方法,
unless this genre of the literature,
比如說啟示錄,還有但以理書中的幾章。
I’d say Revelation or certain chapters of Daniel call for a different kind of interpretation.
史普羅說,“直譯聖經就意味著把它作為文獻來翻譯。
R. C. Sproul, “To interpret the Bible literally means to interpret it as literature.
也就是說,一段經文的自然意思
That is, the natural meaning of a passage is to be interpreted
應該按照正常語法、語言、句法和語境的規則來翻譯“。
according to the normal rules of grammar, speech, syntax and context.”
因此,神學家們若熟悉古代語言,將受益匪淺。
So theologians benefit greatly from linguistic skills in the ancient languages.
賀智講述了普林斯頓神學院的一位神學教授所說的,
Charles Hodge recounts how one of his theological professors at Princeton would remark,
“預備死亡的最佳方式就是全面掌握希腊語法”。
“one of the best preparations for death was a thorough knowledge of the Greek grammar.”
我們應該充分地利用古代語言詞典、語法與字典,
You know, you make a good use of lexicons, grammars, dictionaries,
但是不要把它們看作一種立場中立的對事實性彙編;
and you don’t view them just as natural collections of facts,
因為要知道,每一位在這些書籍中有所貢獻的人,
but you understand that every contributor to such books has his own presuppositions,
都有他的預設,因為“他的工作不能脫離他自己的傳統與背景”.
he “operates within his own tradition, context of his own.”
所以,我們使用這些書籍的目的
So you just use these books to try to get
就是要更好地理解這些語言的上下文和語義。
a better grasp of the the context and the meaning.
但我們不能不做任何分析,
But you don’t stop analyzing,
我們不能僅按字面意思就完全接受一本字典對某個詞的解釋,
you don’t take everything a dictionary says at face value
更不能把它視為絕對的真理或全部的真理。
and say this is the absolute truth and the whole truth about this word.
第四點,我們要以經解經。
Four, you interpret Scripture with Scripture.
這就是所謂的改教家的聖經類推原則。
The so-called principle of the reformers’ the Analogy of Scripture.
即將那些讀起來比較模糊或者難以理解的經文
Comparing texts that are hard to understand
與更加清楚明白的經文作對比。
with the plainer texts.
我們一般採用的方法是首先查考教導性的經文,
So the general way of going about that is you first look at the didactic text,
就是直接教導某教義的經文。
the direct text about teaching.
比如,在“稱義”這一教義上,
Say, “justification”,
我們要去查考羅馬書第3章和第4章,
you look at Romans 3, Romans 4,
我們要詳細研究這兩章的經文。
you study those texts in detail.
然後我們又要查考敘述性的經文,或者例證。
Then you look at the narrative texts, or illustrations of the doctrine,
所以在這個例子中,我們就需要查考創世紀第22章,
so you’ll look at Genesis 22,
就是亞伯拉罕本要獻上以撒,但最後獻上了一隻掛在樹上的公羊,
Abraham taking up Isaac and the ram being caught and offered instead,
而這公羊就是稱義的象徵。
as a symbol of justification.
你可能會問,這個故事怎麼能例證羅馬書第3章和第4章呢?
And you would say, how does that story illustrate Romans 3, 4.
然後你需要查考聖經中一些比較難懂的部分。
And then you would look at some of the difficult sections.
比如當你讀雅各書時,你可能會問,
You’ll look at James and say,
雅各說“人稱義是因著行為,不是單因著信”,這是什麼意思?
what does James mean that we are not justified by faith but justified by our works?
雅各所說的怎麼與保羅所說的相符合的呢?
How does that fit in with Paul? Okay?
這些都是在一個神學家的潛意識里進行的,
So as a theologian, this is going on subconsciously,
我們很有可能不會有意識地直接在這些類別里進行思考。
you don’t probably think directly in these categories,
但是當我們來研究一個教義時,我們需要以這樣的方式來思考。
but when you approach a doctrine, this is the way you think.
即我們首先查考那些直接說明某一教義的主要經文,
You say, first, what are the main texts that illustrate this doctrine,
然後是例證這一教義的敘述性故事,然後是那些具有挑戰性的經文,
what are the stories that illustrate that, and what are the difficult challenging texts,
以及這些經文是如何與其他部分相符合的。
how does that fit in?
我們的目標是,將經文與經文對比,將所有一切都整合為一個整體.
And the goal is, comparing Scripture with Scripture, that you bring it all together into one whole,
當然,我們需要看到自己理解聖經神學、歷史神學等等的需要。
of course, understanding the need for understanding biblical theology, historical theology and all of that.
好,下一點是我們要詢問與含義、意圖、邏輯與應用相關的問題.
All right, next we ask questions about the text, the meaning, and the logic.
在這一點上,主耶穌是我們最好的榜樣。
Jesus is our best example here, when he’s twelve years old,
你們還記得他在十二歲時做了什麼?
what was he doing, he was sitting among the teachers in the temple,
他坐在聖殿的教師中間,“一邊聽一邊問”。
“both hearing them, and asking them questions”.
我們如果不問問題,就無法成為一個好的神學家。
You can’t be a good theologian without asking questions.
這究竟是什麼意思?
What does it really mean?
作者是誰?
Who wrote this?
他寫給誰的?
To whom did he write it?
在此之前他說過什麼?
What did he say before?
他的主要觀點是什麼?
What’s the main point?
哪些細節可以支持這一主要觀點?
What details support the main point?
他敘述故事或者論證的過程是怎樣的?
What is the flow of the story or the argument?
作者為什麼要在這裡使用這一特定的詞?
Why is this particular word here?
這個詞與另一個翻譯相近的詞語有何關聯?
How does it relate to another word that can be translated the same way?
我隨便舉個例子,比如我們要查考屬靈上的缺乏這一教義,
Okay, if you are dealing with spiritual need, or the experience of your own poverty, you are gonna look at
或者我們自己在經歷屬靈上的貧瘠,
I am just pulling an example at the top of my head,
我們就需要去查考馬太福音5章3節,對不對?
you are gonna look at Matthew 5:3, aren’t you?
“心靈貧乏的人有福了,因為天國是他們的。”(新譯本)
“Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of God.”
我們要閱讀原文,查考“貧乏”這個詞,
You are gonna study the original words, you are gonna look up the word “poor”,
然後我們就會發現有意思的事情。
you discover, whoa, isn’t that interesting?
希腊語中有兩個詞都可以被譯為“貧乏”,
There’s two words in Greek that can be translated “poor”,
一個詞的意思是”剛好夠用”,
one means a propper’s portion,
比如一個人每日辛勞作工,一天工作結束的時候才能拿到工錢,
somebody who works from day to day, and everyday. At the end of the day, he gets paid
然後他拿著錢去買食物,以此來養活自己。
and he gets enough food, he go out and buy his meal so he can sustain himself.
因此,他得靠著每日的工作來掙得他維持生計所需的東西。
So his daily work gives him what he needs to make ends meet everyday.
這是一個窮人。
A poor man.
但是第二個詞所指的,是一個一貧如洗的人,
But the other word means someone totally destitute, a beggar who has no work at all,
一個沒有任何工作、沿街乞討的乞丐,只盼望誰能給他一分一釐。
he’s unemployed, he’s holding out his can, hoping you’ll drop in a penny or two.
在“心靈貧乏的人有福了”這句話中,
Isn’t it interesting that Jesus used that word,
主耶穌所採用的正是第二個表示“貧乏”的詞,這是不是很有意思?
that word for “blessed are the poor in spirit”?
他指的是那些身無分文的人,
Those who are totally destitute,
那些家徒四壁、沒有任何東西能獻給上帝的人,
those who have nothing to offer God in themselves,
那些根本無法維持生計的人。
can’t make ends meet at all.
這些內容會影響我們以什麼內容來開始我們的講道,
Well, that’s gonna determine how you preach that first point,
會影響我們研究“人的全然敗壞、人的屬靈缺乏”這一教義,
it’s gonna determine, when you do theology about man’s depravity and man’s needs,
它們同時也會影響我們表述這一教義的方式。
it’s gonna determine how you express it.
因此,我們可以利用詞彙的原文詞義來查考聖經的。
So you can use that kind of original meaning of the words.
我們可以問一些這樣的問題:這個詞的含義是什麼?
And you ask questions like this: what does that word mean?
聖靈在這裡還可以使用哪些其他的詞彙?
Are there other words that the Holy Spirit could have used here,
祂為什麼沒有用這些詞呢?
why didn’t He use those words? And what response,
而這段經文、這個教義又期待那些原始聽眾給出怎樣的回應呢?
what response does this text, or this doctrine, or this teaching call for in the original hearers of Scripture?
它們又要求我們給出怎樣的回應?
And what responses it’s calling for us today?
而我們又如何能夠,
And how do you cross the bridge
在不犧牲經文或教義的內容、含義或者不扭曲它們的情況下,
to make it relevant to people today without sacrificing content,
跨越任何可能的障礙和鴻溝,使之與當今人們的生活相關?
or meaning, or twisting things?
神學的每一個分支都會提出這些問題,但系統神學尤其是如此。
These are all questions that are asked in every branch of theology, but particularly systematics.
第六點,我們要在聖約背景與預表背景下準確定位經文。
Number six, you locate the texts in their covenantal and typological contexts.
我們要利用聖經神學,將經文放置於更大的聖經框架中來查考。
So you use biblical theology to place a text in its larger biblical framework.
比如,當我們讀大衛寫的詩篇時,
So if you are reading a psalm of David, for example,
要思考上帝與亞伯拉罕、以色列和大衛所立的聖約
you consider how its meaning is shaped
對詩篇所表達的含義有何影響。
by God’s covenants with Abraham, Israel, and David.
當我們研究以利亞時期的大旱時,
If you are studying the drought in Elijah’s day,
我們要意識到旱災是上帝在聖約中對悖逆的以色列人的一種咒詛,
you recognize that drought was one of God’s covenant curses upon disobedient Israel,
利未記26章19至20節。
Leviticus 26:19-20.
當我們研究曠野中舉起銅蛇一事時,民數記21章,
If you are studying the bronze serpent in the wilderness, Numbers 21,
要記得基督在約翰福音第3章中說過,這是對他救贖之工的預表。
you remember that Christ taught that it was a type of his saving work in John 3.
要知道,預表能夠讓我們認識到,上帝是如何根據貫穿聖經的主題
You see, typology discerns how God sovereignly shape persons, events,
來滿有主權地安排人物、事件與體系,
and institutions according to great themes that span the Bible
來預表他獨生愛子的神人二性、工作與國度的。
to imperfectly foreshadow the person, the work, and the kingdom of His Son.
然後是第七點,我們要查閱信仰告白。
Then seven, you consult confessional statements.
我們要去查閱改革宗的信仰告白,
You look in the reformed confessions
要看看它們中是否肯定了某一特定教義,
and say, was this doctrine asserted there,
如果是,它們是以怎樣的方式肯定的。
if so, how?
要查看這一特定教義是否是歷世歷代教會都持守的。
This is the mind of the churches of all ages,
這一點非常重要。
this is important.
所以在我們的神學研究中,我們常常需要參考《海德堡教理問答》,
So when you do theology, you often bring in the Heidelberg Catechism
或《威斯敏斯特大教理問答》,或《第二瑞士信條》。
or the Westminster Larger Confession, or the Second Helvetic Confession.
信仰告白不是聖經詮釋的敵人,而是最好的朋友,
Confessions are not enemies of biblical interpretation, but best friends
因為我們想要努力傳承的,正是使徒們所教導的真理。
as we pass on the apostolic dispositive truth to others.
第八點,我們要從過往的偉大著作中學習。
And number eight, another very important one, you learn from the great books of the past.
我們要用歷史神學來影響我們的系統神學。
You employ historical theology to inform your systematic theology.
我們不能自大傲慢,不能只讀了聖經就說,“我只需要聖經,
You don’t do it arrogantly, just read the Bible and say, well, okay,
聖經和我就足夠了,這就足以讓我來研究系統神學了。”
all I need is the Bible, Bible and me, I am gonna do systematics.
我們不能這樣。正如比爾牧師在今天早上的敬拜中所說的,
No, as Bill says so well this morning in chapel,
“我們身處的不過只是歷史的某一個時刻,
you are standing at a certain point in history,
我們有長達2000年的教會歷史。我們必須要對之加以考慮。”
you got 2,000 years of church history that we have to take account for.
因此,我們要傾聽其他人的意見。
And so we listen to what other writers have said,
我們首先是讀聖經,然後我們要傾聽他人,聆聽他們的教導,
we begin with the Bible, we listen to others, we sit at the feet
比如亞他那修、奧古斯丁、安瑟倫、路德、加爾文、
of Athanasius, and Augustine, and Anselm, and Luther, and Calvin,
柏金斯、歐文、佈雷克、愛德華茲、巴文克、等等。
and Perkins, and Owen, and Brakel, and Edwards, and Bavinck, and all the others.
為此,一位系統神學家若能夠懂一些拉丁語,這是很有必要的。
And to that end, it’s good to have at least some grasp, as a theologian, systematic theologian,
我們也可以利用理查德·穆勒的拉丁語、希腊語神學詞彙詞典,
have some grasp of Latin, and you can use helps like Richard Muller’s
這本詞典極其寶貴。
Dictionary of Latin and Greek Theological Terms, which is invaluable here.
無論如何,我們必須要研究、要明白過去的神學家們說了些什麼。
But you’ve got to learn and know what the writers of the past have said.
這不僅能在我們研究系統神學時對我們有所助益,
Now this doesn’t only help you in doing systematic theology.
也會在我們牧會的各種情況中對我們有極大的幫助。
It helps you immensely in every situation, also as a pastor.
我都記不清有多少次,
I can’t tell you how many times,
當我發現教會長執會的討論正在往某個方向偏離時,我就說,
how many times in discussion with elders and deacons, and they are about to go
“等等,你們知道嗎,加爾文是這樣說的……”
in a certain direction, and I say, but now wait a minute, you know Calvin said…,
之後這個討論的方向就迴轉過來了。
and things get turned around.
因為必須要有人,特別是教會的帶領者、教會的牧師,
Because someone needs to know, and especially the leader, the pastor,
瞭解我們過去的先父們在某一教義上的教導和觀點。
needs to know what our forefathers have said in the past about this.
因為長老們和執事們都很忙碌,他們雖然在這方面有一定的學問,
Cause often, elders and deacons, I mean they are busy people, they are somewhat read,
但是牧師們對這方面的瞭解還是比他們更深入一些。
but they are not as well read as you are, and so it’s part of leadership,
因此,我們帶領教會的責任之一、我們研究神學的責任之一,
it’s part of doing theology that we remind the church of all ages
就是要提醒各世各代的教會,聖靈在歷史中是如何帶領教會的。
how the Holy Spirit has lead the church in history.
好,現在我們進入第三部分,即系統神學的寫作。
And then you come to the third section, which is writing systematic theology.
好,這裡我要很快地講幾點。
All right, I’ll give you several quick points here.
首先,我們要用清晰簡潔的當代語言明確我們所發展的教義。
First, you crystallize your doctrine that you’ve developed,
我們已經聚集了真理的寶庫,研究了某一特定教義,
you’ve gathered, you’ve researched, you crystallize the doctrine
現在,我們要用清晰簡潔的當代語言明確這一教義。
to clear, concise, contemporary statements.
我們通常採用的方式是羅列大綱。
Often the way to do that is to make an outline.
正如此刻我就是依照大綱在給你們講課。
Just like I am lecturing to you right now from an outline,
這裡有幾大要點,列出了課程的主要內容。
and you have certain bullet points, list the main thing.
這些要點要盡可能簡潔,
You make those bullet points as short as you can.
但是也要盡可能清晰。不能為了簡潔而犧牲清晰,
And yet as clearly as you make them as long as you need to
要盡最大努力地闡述你想要教導的真理。
in order to make the truth you are trying to get across clear.
聖經就是這樣的,不是嗎?
The Bible teaches us, doesn’t it?
我們可以從主耶穌的親身示範中看到概述的重要性。
Through its own example in Jesus himself, that short summaries are important.
所以我們有時候需要做一個簡短的概述。
So sometimes you might wanna do a short summary.
最近有人請我寫一遍關於地獄的文章,
Someone recently asked me to do an article on hell,
於是我就寫了一篇大概一頁半的簡短的概述,
and I did a short summary of one and half pages,
講聖經中所提到的與地獄有關的教導。
an article on hell, what the Bible has to say about hell.
那麼,我也可以將這篇文章擴展為一本三百多頁的書,
Now I could also expand that into a book of 300 pages, and I would hope that
而我的這一頁半的概述幾乎就可以被用作這本書的大綱。
my short summary of one and half pages could almost serve as an outline for a bigger book.
我們要記住,無論我們為闡述真理而寫的文章或書籍
But you take truth, you see, and whenever you do a short, medium-sized,
是短的、中長的還是長篇的,我們都一定始終要先有大綱。
long, you have an outline that proceeds from A to Z.
這樣,讀者僅通過讀你的大綱,
So that people have a grasp of what that truth is that
就能夠大致明白你想要闡述的真理內容是什麼。
you are trying to convey through just reading your outline alone.
十誡雖然簡短,但是它們卻概述了整個律法,不是嗎?
Ten Commandments, they are short, but they summarize the whole law, don’t they?
八福雖然也很簡短,但是它們卻概括了基督徒的整個生活。
The Beatitudes, they are short, but they summarize the whole Christian life.
主禱文雖然簡短,但是每一項祈求都概述了我們禱告的某個方面。
The Lord’s Prayer, it’s short, but every petition summaries a whole area of praying.
因此,我們研究神學的時候,
So through our participation in biblical theology,
要聯繫聖經神學、聯繫歷史上的基督教,
in historical Christianity,
也要對希伯來語、希腊語、拉丁語有些許瞭解,
knowing some Hebrew, some Greek, some Latin,
這樣,我們就可以藉著無需進一步解釋的、淺顯易懂的語言,
we use plain speech that needs no further explanation for contemporary people
來盡可能多地使當代人瞭解神學。
to understand as much as possible when we do theology.
簡短精煉,當代語言,淺顯易懂。
Short, concise, contemporary, plain.
我們在寫作的時候,要記得我們讀者所處的水平。
Bury in mind the level of the people to whom we write.
我特別喜歡這樣的挑戰,很有意思。
Oh I love that challenge, it just fascinates me,
我給4至6歲的孩子們寫過一些東西,
so I have written for as young as 4-6 years old
也仍然偶爾會給學術期刊寫一些東西。
and I am still writing for academic journals from time to time. Now
在過去十年裡,我寫作的對象
the last ten years of my life, I am settling in more at the
越來越多地集中於那些受過良好教育的平信徒,
educated lay person’s level,
因為我發現他們讀的書比其他人都多。
cause I find those people read more books than anyone else does
這樣我所寫的東西就會影響更多人,而這也會對教會產生好的影響.
and I am reaching more people and it’s influencing the church for good. So
所以我所寫的東西的百分之八十、九十
都是給受過良好教育的平信徒讀的。
seems to have been going that group.
我不再像年輕時那樣
I am no longer quite as fascinated as I was when I was younger
熱衷於在不同的知名學術期刊上發表文章了。
with doing academic journals, that make articles in different reputable journals.
我想要更有用處,我想要做能更長久、能影響更多人的事情。
I am trying to be more useful, I am trying to do things that last longer and impact more people.
但我想表達的就是,我們需要明白讀者是誰,寫作要有針對性。
But the point is this, you see, you target your audience.
我的讀者是孩子們嗎?
Am I writing this for boys and girls?
我的讀者是教會的平信徒嗎?
Am I writing for lay people?
我們所呈現的所有東西,都必須要針對那一特別的讀者群體。
And everything in that presentation, therefore, must be geared to that target audience.
第二點,我們要查找聖經中的敘事與比喻以作說明。
Number two, you find illustrations in biblical narrative and metaphor.
聖經常常會使用敘述、比喻或修辭等方法
The Bible often clothes the spiritual doctrine of its didactic portions in human flesh
來使人明白屬靈教義中所教導的內容。
through narrative, through parable, through figures of speech.
清教徒在神學研究中也特別強調這一點。
The Puritans really stress this in theology,
如果我們能夠在聖經中找到很好的例子
if you’ve got a wonderful biblical example that
來闡述我們的某個神學論點,為什麼不用它呢?
illustrates the theological point you are making, why not use it?
大家都聽過約瑟的故事,大衛的故事,也聽過希西家的故事。
Everybody knows the story of Joseph, of David, of Hezekiah.
我們要使用這些故事,這些是聖經里的故事。
Use it, it will be biblical.
這是一個極大的有利條件。
That’s a great advantage. But secondly
第二,這些故事可以讓我們的讀者群體產生共鳴。
your whole readership will be able to identify with it.
這並不是說,我們不可以用自己日常生活中所發生的故事,
Now that doesn’t mean that you don’t use daily stories that happened in your own life,
也不是說我們不可以用教會歷史中的事件。
that you don’t use things from church history.
我們當然可以用那些故事,我們要讓我們的闡述新鮮、有趣。
Of course, you make it fresh, you make it interesting.
那些可以啟發人的思想、激發人的情感
Stories, analogies that illuminate minds and stir up affections
和引導人們的行為的故事、比喻都是非常有幫助的。
and direct actions, these things are all helpful, it puts fizz in a coke
當我們有吸引人的故事時,它們會使人激動。
when you have interesting stories that grip people.
第三,我們要融合聖經以外的素材的見解。
Three, you incorporate insights from extra biblical sources.
為什麼不用天文學呢?
Why not use astronomy?
大衛就採用了天文學。
David did.
“我觀看你指頭所造的天,並你所陳設的月亮星宿,
“When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars,
便說:’人算什麼,你竟顧念他?世人算什麼,你竟眷顧他?’”
which thou hast ordained, what is man, that thou art mindful of him?”
這樣的描述鏗鏘有力。
Powerful.
歷史可以從各方面展現守約的上帝的信實護理。
History may illustrate the covenant faithfulness of God’s providence in all kinds of ways.
文學、哲學,甚至是非基督徒所寫的作品,都能有驚人的見解,
Literary and philosophical works, even those written by unbelievers
保羅在使徒行傳17章28節中就引用了不信之人所說的話。
can offer striking insights, that’s what Paul quoted in Acts 17:28.
但是,我們需要謹記,我們不能過度沉浸於聖經以外的材料,
However, just remember, in your extra biblical sources, that you don’t over indulge in them
我們也不要忘記要使用聖經里的證據和例子。
and forget to use the biblical illustrations and examples.
我們或是採用這個作家的論述,或是採用那個作家的說法,
And there is some freedom of liberty here between one writer
在這方面我們有一定的自由。但是無論如何,我們一定要謹記,
and another, but remember that extra biblical sources
聖經以外的材料並非上帝所默示,它們的教導有時候並不是真理。
are not inspired and sometimes can teach wrong truth.
因此我們要記住,罪惡使得不信者的心昏暗,
So remember, sin darkens the minds of unbelievers,
而人因著自己充滿偶像崇拜的知識體系,
and man’s intellectual systems of idolatry
可能會將心中殘存的真理與褻瀆上帝的錯誤混淆在一起。
can mingle remnants of truth with blasphemous error.
所以,如果真要使用聖經以外的材料,請務必小心。
So just be careful once you do use.
第四,我們要用大綱歸納主題。
Four, you organize your topics then into an outline.
正因為“上帝不是叫人混亂,乃是叫人安靜”,
“God is not the author of confusion, but of peace,”
因此,我們的神學寫作也應是如此,
so you “let all things be done decently
“凡事都要規規矩矩地按著次序行”。
and in order”, also in your writing.
現在我要講一講寫提綱的最佳方法。
Now the best way to do an outline,
你們別的課也可能會涉及到這一點,
and you will get this in other classes,
但是我現在只是簡短地給你們講一講。
but let me just give this to you briefly here.
強調一下。
Reinforce.
首先你有一個總主題,對不對?
You have your overall theme, don’t you?
就是你想要證明的內容。
What you are trying to prove,
然後是介紹的部分,然後,比如說你一共有三個要點,
then you have an introduction, and then let’s say you have three main points,
你就用羅馬數字I, II, III來標註它們。
you give them the Roman numerals, point I, point II, point III.
要註意,這幾點在你的寫作中要有基本相同的重要性,
You make sure that they have relatively equal values,
如果需要稍稍側重於其中某一點,也是可以的。
one can be a little bit more important than the other.
然後是下一個具有同等重要性級別的內容,
And then this next level of importance,
我們用字母A, B, A, B來細分、標識。
you do sub points A, B, A, B.
你在論文中不是一定要這樣來標註A, B。
You don’t need to put the A, B like this, you know, in a paper.
但是我們通常的做法是,用粗體從左邊距開始來寫出要點。
But usually what you do is you put the main points in bold type, usually from the left margin.
之後,我們用斜體來表示下一個級別的內容。
The next level you put in italic type.
然後是第三個級別,可能你在這一級別中有三個要點。
And the third level, if you have third level points,
通常我不會再往下細分了。
I won’t go beyond that usually,
我們一般會從左邊距開始、用正常的字體單獨來表示這三個要點。
you put in just regular type, but on the left margin standing by itself as well.
這就是大概的格式。
So that’s the format.
在大寫字母A這一級別之下的級別,
And so then under A, you would have, if you went to a third level,
我們一般會用數字1,2,3之類的來標識。
you would do just regular numbers 1, 2, 3, that type of thing.
所以我們就要自己寫出這樣一個大綱。
So you develop an outline like that for yourself.
如今有了電腦,就更方便了。因為一有想法,
And today, with a computer, it’s so handy,
我們隨時都可以把它們記錄下來。
because then when you have thoughts, you can just put them in.
我傾向於在讀資料的時候,就慢慢把大綱寫出來。
So what I tend to do is I tend to read through the literature as I develop the outline
有時候隨著進一步讀資料,我也會對大綱進行改動。
and sometimes my outline changes as I read through literature,
比如在A大點下的第1小點後面寫“巴文克,99至102頁”.
and I put down, you know under A, 1, Bavinck pages 99-102,
然後我把三個參考資料都記下來。
and I put all these references down.
最後,大綱就像是一個彙集了參考書目、引用文獻等等的集合。
So when I get done, it looks like I just have a conglomeration of references and texts and so on.
然後,我即可以從前往後寫,也可以從後往前寫。
And then I could start at the back at the beginning.
我可以寫論文、寫文章、寫書,我可以切換自如。
I could write my paper, write my article, write my book, I just go from one to the other.
當我的大綱寫到這一步時,
It doesn’t mean that when I get done here,
我可能會看到一些資料,放在前面更合適。
I might not have found something that really belongs back up here,
如果是這樣,我就需要對我的大綱進行一定的修改。
I need to revise that.
而我們當下所擁有的電腦就具有這樣的優勢,
But that’s the advantage today when you have computers
讓我們可以十分輕鬆地往大綱裡加入新的內容。
and you can throw things in.
我們今天早上敬拜的時候,聽到了慈運理的故事,
You know, Zwingli, we heard this morning,
就是他在寫作的時候,只寫一遍,就將書稿送去出版了。
just wrote it once and send it off to press.
要知道,在那個時代,當我們寫了書稿以後,
What Bill didn’t tell us, which is true as well, I am not saying he should have told us that,
如果我們想回過頭在某頁上做一些修改,
but is, you know, when you wrote things one time in those days,
這是一份極大的工程,
and you had to go back and change something on page two,
因為這基本上就等於要重寫書稿的大部分內容。
that was a huge experience cause you had to really rewrite a whole lot of sections.
而當時的人實在太忙碌了,根本顧不上做這樣的事情。
And they were just too busy to do that.
所以他們就直接使用第一遍寫成的書稿。
So they just thought, well, my first go.
我對錄像的態度其實也和他們一樣。
You know, I treat videography the same way.
昨天早上,他們把我帶進攝影室,要給我錄製十一段視頻。
I mean, yesterday morning, they brought me into the room and they wanted me to do eleven videos.
有時候,那些錄像的工作人員特別使我害怕,
Well, man, if I had to respeak everything I said six or seven times,
因為他們會讓我一遍又一遍地重錄,
and some of these videographers are terrible guys,
有時候同一段內容要說上六、七遍,
they make you do the same thing over and over
直到他們認為視頻完美無瑕才停止。
and over and over again until you get perfect.
但是當我們把一個內容說上六、七遍之後,
By the time you do it six or seven times, you are so cold,
我們早已經失去了熱情,我們無法說得和第一遍一樣好。
you are so… you don’t do it as well as you did the first time.
在這一點上我特別欣賞達瑞爾(PRTS媒體視頻製作總監),
And so I like that about Darryl, I just told Darryl,
我對他說,我第一遍一般說得最好,就讓我說一遍吧。
I said, usually I am better at the first time, just let me go.
所以我35分鐘就錄完了所有11個視頻。
So I did all eleven videos in 35 minutes.
但是,視頻對用詞精準的要求不像書籍的要求那麼高。
But you see, a video is not as important to get every word right as it is in a book.
所以在慈運理的時代,人們要更加寬容一些。
So in Zwingli’s day, people were more tolerant.
人們會說,“他們真的太忙了,
Oh yeah, these are busy men,
雖然這句話不是特別準確,但是也沒關係了。”
they didn’t say that quite right, okay.
在我們當今的時代,我們都有電腦,我們寫作的時候一定要精準。
In our day, you’ve got computers, you better get it right when you write.
好吧?這是不一樣的。
Okay? That’s the difference.
我們是處於歷史的不同階段。
We live in historically different time.
這是第四點。
That’s number four.
第五,我們要用系統完整並具學術性的方式將寫作內容呈現出來.
Number five, develop a full, systematic, academic presentation.
好,假設我們已經寫好了大綱,我們開始寫作了。
Now you’ve got your outline, you are doing the writing.
在寫作過程中,我們要重新組織我們的大綱,
And as you write, you are reorganizing your outline,
我們要不斷完善我們的研究。
and your research is crystallizing, even as you write,
我們要和奧古斯丁、加爾文一同說,
and you say with Augustine, you say with Calvin,
“我認為自己是一邊寫作、一邊從中學習的人。”
I count myself as one who learns while I write.
當我們自己在寫作過程中有所學習時,
That’s the most exciting writing where you yourself are learning in the process
這是無比激動人心的事。我們自己會比其他所有人學到的東西更多.
and you learn more than anyone else does.
當我們在神學院寫論文時,這也是使我們激動的事情。
That’s the excitement of writing papers for a seminary level.
我們每寫一篇論文,我們就從中有所收穫,對不對?
Every single paper you write, you are learning something, aren’t you?
我們應該要覺得這是激動人心的事情。
And you should find that exciting.
如果對你而言,在寫作過程中有所收穫、或在教導過程中有所收穫,
If you don’t find that exciting, that you are learning while you are writing,
並不是一件激動人心的事,
or while you are teaching,
那麼我會懷疑你是否適合做一位福音的傳道人。
I question if you should be a minister of the gospel.
因為一位福音的傳道人一定要因真理而興奮萬分,
Because you got to be excited about the truth
一定要因找到新的真理而激動不已,
and finding new truth
一定要像尋找隱藏的寶藏一樣追求真理。
and digging for it like hidden treasure.
否則,你就算做了傳道人,也會在五年之內放棄,
Otherwise you’re gonna fold within five years of becoming a minister
因為你對真理、對學習、對成長毫無興趣。
if you are not excited about truth and learning and growing.
還有就是資料的引用,
So, and when you cite sources,
我們在引用時,一方面當然要確保自己的研究是合宜的,
make sure you, of course do your proper research
而另一方面,我們在引用時也要遵循所有的學術標準格式。
and follow all the academic standards for style.
我最近在讀大家寫的論文時,發現教室里還有一些同學,
There’s still some people in this room who’ve been here a year or more and I notice
在神學院已經學了至少一年了,註釋時還是沒有遵循正確的格式。
on a few papers recently, you still are not following the exact right style of footnoting.
這是無可辯解的。
That’s inexcusable.
你們第一學期時,已經在學術參考書中看到標註註腳的準確格式。
After one semester, you are shown exactly how to do it in the academic reference books.
但還是有人把逗號、冒號放在錯誤的地方,這是沒有任何藉口的.
There is no excuse for having a comma in the wrong place, or a colon in the wrong place.
到底應該怎麼做,學術參考書上寫得清清楚楚、明明白白。
It’s clear exactly how you need to do it.
這是最基本的內容。
It’s as simple as ABC.
所以,請你們一定要遵循正確的格式。
So follow the right style.
如果有人向《清教徒改革宗期刊》投稿,發給我一篇學術論文,
As soon as someone sends me an academic paper for the Puritan Reformed Journal,
我卻發現這篇文章連註腳的格式都不規範,這時我會說,
if I see the footnotes aren’t proper, then I say,
“算了,修改這樣一篇文章要花很多的時間。
forget it, there’s so much work to change all that,
這個人連註腳都寫不規範,估計他的寫作也是馬虎草率的。”
this guy doesn’t even know how to do footnotes, probably sloppy in his work as well.
你最不願意看到的,
You see, that’s the last thing in the world you want
就是別人僅僅因為你註釋的格式不正確,而輕看你的寫作的價值.
is to have someone devalue your work because you are not using the proper footnote apparatus.
連初一的學生都能把這點做好。
Come on, a seventh grader can learn that.
我們也要把它做好。寫論文時註意拼寫,
So get things right. Spell right,
要用拼寫檢查來檢查一遍,還要註意句子的準確性。
run it through spell check, get your sentences right.
如果英語不是你的母語,
If English is your second language,
你可以去找金·波斯特馬(PRTS英語輔導),
you go to Kim Postma, and you ask her to,
請她幫助你,請她檢查一下你的論文,
help me, help me go through this paper
看是否可以找到更好、更流暢的方式來表達。
and say it in better and smoother English.
如果她給你提出了一些修改意見,
And you learn, you look at every single correction
你就仔細思想她所做的每一個修改,並從中學習。
she makes and you learn from it.
這樣你的英語寫作才會日益進步。
And you learn how to write better.
一位好的神學家會在寫作上不斷地學習、進步。
You see that’s, a good theologian is always learning how to write better.
也會認真對待別人給他修改過、編輯過的東西。
And takes very seriously anything that’s edited.
我的編輯們是我最好的朋友,但卻也是我最可怕的敵人。
My editors are both my best friends and my worst enemies.
我很愛他們,因為他們使我在寫作的路上不斷成長,
I mean, I love them because they make me a better writer and sometimes I hate them
但是有時候我又不喜歡他們所做的,比如我會問他們,
because, well, “hate” is a strong word, but I mean dislike what they are doing so I say,
“為什麼你們要把這三個用得非常妙的形容詞拿掉?”
why did you take out those three wonderful adjectives?
答案就是,就算拿掉這幾個形容詞,
Well, I am saying the same thing
我要表達的意思也沒什麼改變。
without any adjectives.
我才發現,原來他們是對的。
Oh yeah, I guess you are right.
你們知道嗎,他們使我謙卑。
You know, they humble me.
好,所以我們要將我們所寫的內容
Alright, so you develop a full,
用系統完整並具學術性的方式呈現出來。
systematic, academic presentation.
我們要明確、整理可使用的資料,
You crystallize all your resources,
要遵循學術寫作的格式,要簡短地介紹自己的觀點,
follow academic styles, and you briefly introduce your idea,
然後通常要提出某種定義或者主張,要解釋這一定義或主張的含義,
then you offer usually some kind of definition or claim, then you explain its meaning,
然後還要為它提出論據來對其進行說明,最後要提煉出一些應用。
then you present arguments for it, you illustrate it, and you draw out some implications.
這個過程可能聽起來比較簡單,但是我再重覆一遍。
That sounds quite simple, but let me repeat it.
當我們在寫神學方面的文章和書籍時,面對每一個重要主題,
When you write theology, standard approach for every major heading you do,
我們通常的做法就是:首先第一步,簡要地介紹一下自己的觀點。
is you briefly introduce the idea, that’s number one.
第二步,提出一個明確的定義或者提出一個針對某真理的基本主張.
Then you offer usually either a concise definition or some basic claim about that truth, number two.
然後第三步,解釋這一定義或者主張的含義,即你想表達的是什麼.
Then you explain its meaning, what you mean by that definition or that claim, that’s number three.
第四步,為該定義或者主張提出論據,
Then you present arguments for it,
可能還需要對人們反對該觀點的意見作出回應,
and maybe answer arguments against it, what the Puritans called
清教徒們稱之為“反對意見”。
“objections”, that’s number four.
第五步,進一步地闡述該觀點。
Then you illustrate it further, number five.
有時候第四步和第五步可以交換位置。
Number five and four could be turned around at times.
最後,我們一定要有第六步,就是從該觀點中提煉出應用。
And then you always, number six, you always draw implications, applications.
系統神學寫作的第六點,我們要探究不同教義之間的關係。
Number six, you explore also the relationships between doctrines.
比如我們要寫一本關於“得救確據”的書。
So for example, if you are doing a book on assurance of faith.
我們需要談到得救確據與信心之間的關係,
You are gonna talk also about the relationship of assurance to faith,
與聖徒的堅忍之間的關係,與成聖之間的關係,
you are gonna talk about the relationship of assurance to perseverance,
還要說說,信徒和上帝之間的關係會如何影響他們的得救確據,
you are gonna talk about the relationship of assurance to sanctification,
諸如此類的內容。
how it fluctuates according to how you’re walking with God and so on.
神學是一種體系,系統神學是一種思想體系,
So theology is a system, you see, systematic theology is a system of thought
其中的每個教義都與其他教義有著有機的聯繫,
where each doctrine is organically linked to others,
而我們在寫作中要體現出這一點。
and you need to bring that out.
第七點,我們要對當今神學與倫理學所關註的問題作出回應。
Number nine, or seven, rather. You need to address current theological and ethical concerns.
你相信聖經的充分性嗎?
You believe in the sufficiency of Scripture?
如果相信,它應該在你所寫的東西里體現出來。
Alright, let’s see it in your writings.
把它闡述出來。
Develop it.
第八點,我們要回應異議和反駁謬誤。
Number eight, you answer objections and refute errors. Answer objections and refute errors.
如果我們是系統神學家,
You can’t be a systematician
我們肯定會需要研究一些護教神學與辯惑神學。
without doing some apologetic and polemic theology.
我們不會以之為起點,
You don’t start with that,
但是在建立了某教義以後,我們需要研究護教神學與辯惑神學。
but after you’ve built up the doctrine, you do that.
第九點,我們要在經歷與實踐中應用教義。
Number nine, you then apply doctrine to experience and practice.
這是我們尤其能收穫經驗的地方,
This is where you get your experiential element in particular,
這也是神學與實踐接軌的地方。
but also where theology becomes very practical.
比如說,對今天的信徒而言,
What does it mean for you as a believer today
“耶穌基督時時刻刻在天父上帝的右邊為信徒代求”意味著什麼?
that Jesus Christ is interceding for you every moment at the right hand of the Father?
我們是否能說出六個實際的理由,
Give me six practical reasons
解釋為什麼對我們而言,相信這一教義是十分重要的。
why this is very important for you to believe this doctrine.
第十點,我們要簡化神學,為了能在教會裡與家庭里使用它。
Number ten, simplify theology for use in the church and in the home.
當我們成為一名系統神學家時,
One of the things you want to do if you become a systematic theologian,
我們需要在不同的級別上來做研究。
is you want to work at different levels.
比如,我們要在系統神學中研究“基督的代求”這一教義,
So let’s say you do a systematic theology of the doctrine of intercession of Christ,
最有效的一種研究方式就是以教會平信徒的水平,
one of the best things you could do is the next Sunday,
在下一個主日的講道中傳講這一教義。
preach, preach on that doctrine at the level of the people.
我們還可以在一、兩周後,去小學的敬拜堂
And maybe talk to children about it in chapel
用十分簡單的方式給孩子們講解這一教義。
a week or two later at a very simple level,
我們會發現,這樣的講解可以幫助我們自己加深對這個教義的理解
and you’ll find that that will augment your own understanding
也幫助我們更好地教導別人。
and your own teaching.
所以,我們不要只是停留在學術寫作上。
So you don’t write only for academics,
赫爾曼·豪克摩說,
but try to do everything you do,
“無論你做了什麼,都要努力在你的生活中至少使用它兩次。”
Herman Hoeksema said, and I follow that policy, ever since I read his statement,
這句話對我而言,是改變我生活的一句話。
it was a life-changing statement for me.
自從讀了這句話,我就一直遵循著這一原則。
Try to do everything you do to use it at least twice in your life. Okay?
我前不久剛在一次大會上
I just preached for the first time in my life
講了帖撒羅尼迦前書4章13至15節(更正:16至18節),
at a conference, they assigned me the text
這是我第一次講這幾節經文。
of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-5 (correction: vv. 16-18).
“你們當用這些話彼此勸慰”,“主必親自從天降臨”,等等。
Comfort one another with these words, Christ is coming again, and so on.
昨天我才知道,教會安排我在新年除夕講道,
Okay, I just noticed yesterday, I am scheduled to preach the New Year’s Eve sermon,
這篇道實在是太適合在新年除夕來講了!
wouldn’t that make a great New Year’s Eve sermon in my own church?
我可以在我自己的教會再講一次,大家還沒有聽過這篇講道呢。
So I got to preach it again, my own church hasn’t heard it.
這樣這篇講道就被使用了兩次。
So I use it twice.
我在大會講這篇講道的時候,我把講章一字一句地全都寫了出來。
But for the conference, I wrote it out word for word in full,
那麼,我也許可以在《清教徒改革宗期刊》上使用這篇講道,
so maybe I’ll use it also for Puritan Reformed Journal article,
或者當我把這篇講道講上幾次以後,
or maybe I’ll put it as a sermon
我便可以把它收錄到《福音號角》講道集裡面。
after I preach it a couple of times in the Gospel Trumpet sermon booklet.
無論我們寫什麼,都要在不同的層次來使用它,
Use whatever you do at different levels,
有時候用一個長一點的版本,有時候用一個短一點的版本。
sometimes have a longer version, a shorter version.
如果我需要寫一篇八千字的文章,
If I am gonna do an article and I can only do 8,000 words,
而我意識到這篇文章需要更多的字數,
and I realize, man, this needs much more.
我可能會先寫四萬字,
I might do 40,000 words
然後我把它縮短成一篇八千字的文章,把它寄給出版社。
and then I will reduce it down to 8,000 and I will send it in.
等他們把這篇文章發表以後,我就可以給他們寫信,
After they publish it, I will write them and say, can I do an expanded version of this?
詢問他們我是否可以把這篇文章的擴展版作為一本書來出版?
I already have it done, you see? Can I do an expanded version of this and publish it as a book?
他們可能會說,好,我們同意你這樣做。
They say, okay, you have my permission.
實際上我那本關於“立嗣”的書就是這樣寫出來的。
That’s how my adoption book came to be.
當時出版社給我的限制是八千字,
I was only given 8,000 words,
結果我寫了六萬六千字,最後我不得不刪減掉其中85%的內容。
and I came out with 66,000 words, I had to cut out 85 percent of it.
不過後來我把這六萬六千字作為一本書出版了。
But later I just used it as a book.
所以我們要這樣寫作,就是始終都在思考,
So this is the way you can write,
我們可以用哪些不同的方式來使用我們所寫的東西。
you are always thinking of different ways of using things.
記住,通常情況下,不要只為了一個目的而寫作。
Don’t just do it for one purpose, most of the time.
十一點,我們要廣泛地講道、教導與發表神學寫作。
Number eleven, preach, teach, and publish widely.
現在有許多的發表渠道,當然,一旦我們有了一定的知名度,
There are so many avenues open today, and once you get a bit of name recognition,
發表東西可能會更加容易一些。
it’s easier to publish, of course.
我們所處的世界充滿了謬誤,那些傳講真理之人的腳蹤何等美麗.
But our world is filled with errors, how beautiful are the feet of them that teach the truth.
因此,盡可能地寫書,如果寫不了書,那就發表一些文章,
So write books, and if you can’t write books, submit articles,
如果你也發表不了文章,就撰寫一些小冊子。
if you can’t do that, compose booklets.
如果你不擅長寫作,那就好好地在講道中研究神學,這也可以。
If you are not a writer, just do theology through preaching, that’s okay too.
但是要多思考,怎樣讓自己通過系統神學變得更有用處。
But think about possibilities of being useful through systematic theology.
最後是第十二點,我們需要把對我們有益的批評視為上帝的恩賜。
And number twelve, receive helpful criticism as God’s gift.
一旦我們所寫的神學文章或書籍被出版了、被公之於眾了,
Once your theology is written, it’s made public,
我們就會遭到人們的批評。
you will be critiqued.
人們會寫書評,他們會在書評中說出各種各樣十分誇張的話。
People will do book reviews, and they will say the craziest things sometimes in book reviews.
但是有時候,人們的書評確實寫得特別好。
But sometimes they’ll say things that are really good, really good.
我們可能會覺得,這個評論真是一針見血,但是確實很有幫助。
And you say, ah ouch that hurts. Okay, second edition,
但願第一版能夠賣完,等第二版的時候我要把它修改一下。
hopefully first edition will sell out, I will revise that, and that’s helpful.
所以,當有人批評我們的時候,我們不要覺得深受打擊,
So don’t be overwhelmed when people criticize you,
我們要願意向亞波羅、百基拉和亞居拉學習,
be willing to sit at the feet of Apollos and Aquila and Priscilla,
因為他們會指出別人需要改正的地方,並教給他們更好的方法。
as they corrected others and taught them a better way.
因此,不要因為別人的批評而一蹶不振,而是要接受批評,
So don’t let it crush you, but receive it
因為它是慈愛的天父賜給我們的充滿愛的訓練。
as a loving training from you Father in heaven.
我寫的第一本書是關於“屬靈倒退”的,這本書被譯為了荷蘭語。
My very first book was a book on backsliding, and it was translated into Dutch,
有幾個荷蘭人用荷蘭語給我寫了幾封極其尖刻、嚴厲的信。
and a couple of Dutch people wrote me these scathing,
而因為信中用了許多術語,所以我只能讀懂信的一部分,
scathing letters in Dutch, which I could partially read,
後來我只得找人把它們翻譯成英文,這樣我才讀到了信的全部內容.
had to get them translated to read them fully, cause there’s technical stuff,
在讀了信之後,我意識到他們的批評是對的。
and I realize they were right.
所以,在這本書寫成三十年後,也就是幾年前,我又重寫了這本書,
So a couple of years ago, 30 years later, I rewrote the book
我相信現在這本書變成了一本更好的書。
and I think it’s a better book now.
因此,我們不能因為有人批判我們,就徹底被擊垮,好嗎?
So don’t be overwhelmed when somebody criticizes you about something. Okay?
好,我們到目前為止講完了這門課的前半部分。
Right now, we have just completed the first half of the course.
這門課的第二部分是講啟示的。下周我們就開始講第二部分。
The second half is on revelation. We will begin that next week.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

Tags: , , ,