系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第09講 我們為何要從事神學研究(下)(斯莫利牧師)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

好,歡迎大家回到系統神學概論課程。
Well, welcome back to the Prolegomena class.
在這一堂課中,我們要講大綱中的第六大點:
In this lecture segment, we are going to be covering heading six in the outline,
“我們為什麼從事神學研究?”
why do we do theology.
第一部分“反對神學的常見理由”,在上一堂課中就已經講完了。
And a previous segment of the sub point A, common objections to theology has already been covered,
現在我們要講第二部分。從事神學研究的原因:上帝已經啟示。
now we are going to cover sub point B, the reason for theology, that God has spoken.
在開始講課之前,我要先讀兩節經文,再做一個禱告。
And to open up our lecture, I am going to read
經文是詩篇147篇19節至20節。
from Psalm 147:19 to 20, and then I’ll pray.
詩篇147篇19節:他將他的道指示雅各,
Psalm 147:19, “He sheweth his word unto Jacob,
將他的律例、典章指示以色列。
his statutes and his judgments unto Israel.
別國他都沒有這樣待過,至於他的典章,他們向來沒有知道。
He hath not dealt so with any nation: and as for his judgments, they have not known them.
你們要贊美耶和華!
Praise ye the LORD.”
我們來禱告。
Let’s pray.
“主啊,我們感謝你,因為你賜下了你的話語,
Lord, we thank You for the remarkable fact that You have given Your Word,
這實在是奇異恩典,我們是誰,我們又是怎樣的人?
and who are we, and what is our people that You have given Your Word to us
這個世界上還有這麼多的人沒有接受你的話語,
when there are yet many peoples in this world
你卻將你的話語賜給了我們。
who have not received it.
我們為這個恩典而感謝你。
We thank You for this blessing,
現在我們要來思想‘我們為什麼研究神學’這一課題,
and as we consider this topic of why we do theology, we pray
我們求你,能讓我們的心因你的話語而充滿對你的無盡感恩,
that You will fill our hearts with great gratitude for the gift of Your Word,
我們也求你,能使我們積極熱情地來研究神學,
and that You will fill us also with zealous motivation for the work of theology
讓我們所做的一切都是為了你的榮耀和頌贊。
that we might do it for Your honor and glory.
禱告奉主耶穌的名,阿門。”
In Jesus’ name, Amen.
希伯來書1章1至2節中所說的,
The reason for theology can be set forth in summary form
可以作為我們研究神學的原因的總結,
in Hebrews chapter 1:1-2, where we read this,
即“上帝既在古時藉著眾先知多次多方地曉諭列祖,
“God, who at sundry times and in diverse manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,
就在這末世藉著他兒子曉諭我們;
hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son,
又早已立他為承受萬有的,也曾藉著他創造諸世界。”
whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds.”
這就是為什麼我們能夠研究神學、並且必須要研究神學的原因:
This is the great reason why we can do theology and why we must do it:
上帝已經啟示,而我們擁有祂所啟示的聖言。
God has spoken, and we have His Word.
我們將在本課程的後半部分詳細探討啟示這一教義,
We will consider the doctrine of revelation in detail later in this class,
但此刻讓我們思想一下這一點,這一簡單卻又令人驚嘆的事實:
but let us consider this point, the simple yet stupendous fact:
就是保羅在羅馬書15章4節中所說的,
God has revealed Himself to us in words that are suitable
上帝在聖經中啟示了祂自己,為了讓我們得到教訓與安慰。
for our learning and for our comfort, as Paul says in Romans 15:4.
我們首先要思想的,是這一事實,
First of all, let’s consider the facts
即“上帝已經啟示,故我們一定要聽祂”。
that God has spoken and so we must hear Him.
申命記整捲書都迴響著這樣一個要求,
The book of Deuteronomy resonates with the call,
“以色列啊,你要聽!”,希伯來語是“shema yisrael”。
“Hear, O Israel”, shema yisrael.
這句命令不僅僅是要我們用耳朵聽;還要我們用心去思想。
This is more than a command to use one’s ears; it requires thought.
摩西在申命記5章1節中說,上帝既然已經曉瑜,
Since God has spoken, we must “hear” God’s Word
我們就必須要“聽”上帝的話,以便“可以學習”。
“that ye may learn them”, Moses says in Deuteronomy 5:1.
一個人聽上帝的話,他需要自己思想上帝的話語,
Hearing God’s words requires personal reflection
也需要與別人一起就上帝的話語進行交流,申命記6章4至7節。
and communal conversation, Deuteronomy 6:4 through 7.
要能“聽見”上帝的話語,
To “hear” the Lord engages your heart
我們的心“當知道”祂話語的含義,申命記9章1至3節。
to “understand therefore” the implications of what God is saying, Deuteronomy 9:1 and 3.
“心裡不可說”任何與上帝話語相違背的話,
To “speak not thou in thy heart” any thoughts contrary to His words,
正如申命記9章4節所說,而是要“知道”、“念念不忘”,
as he says in verse 4, but to “understand,” to “remember, and forget not,”
申命記9章6至7節。
verses 6 and 7.
正因為獨一的上帝才是啟示的那一位,
And since it is God who speaks, the one and only God,
我們必須將上帝的話語融入到我們的整個思想中,
we must integrate God’s Word into our whole mind-set
直到上帝的話語成為我們的主宰。
until God’s words rule us.
要接受上帝的話語、並使之融入我們的整個生活中,
Receiving God’s Word into our whole life
我們就需要研究系統神學。
requires the work of systematic theology.
範泰爾說,“將聖經的內容整合為一個有系統的整體,
Cornelius Van Til said, “It is a God-given duty that we should take the content of Scripture
這是上帝給我們的任務。
and bring it together into a systematic whole.
顯而易見,我們需要知道上帝賜給我們的啟示的內容。
It is plain that we are required to know the revelation that God has given us.
但是如果我們只能從各個部分瞭解這一啟示,
Yet we would not adequately know that revelation
卻不將它們與彼此聯繫起來,
if we knew it only in its several parts
那麼我們就無法充分地理解上帝的啟示。”
without bringing these parts into relation to each other.
範泰爾接著說,“我們一定要系統化地思考。”
Our minds must think systematically.” Van Til says.
因此,上帝通過基督賜下的先知書要求我們,
Therefore, the prophetic Word of God, given to us through Jesus Christ,
要在上帝子民的教導與團契中,
requires that we we hear Him with open ears and active mind
以開放的耳朵、積極的心態,並一顆相信的心來聽祂。
and a believing heart, in the midst of the teaching and fellowship of God’s people.
這才是神學工作的本質:
This is the essence of the theological task.
傾註我們的所有來聆聽上帝的聲音。
To hear God’s voice with all that we are.
馬丁·路德說,“能聽到上帝是福分。
Martin Luther said, “To hear God is bliss.
因此,我們必須帶著敬畏之心顫抖著註意聆聽。”
Therefore we must pay attention with trembling.”
這便將我們帶入了今天要探討的第二點,
This brings us to consider the second point,
“上帝已經啟示,故我們一定要順服祂”。
God has spoken, so we must obey Him.
從聖經的角度來看,如果我們不遵循上帝的話語,
In the biblical perspective, we have not heard God rightly
我們就沒有正確地聆聽他的聲音。
unless we do what He says.
申命記5章1節說,“摩西將以色列眾人召了來,
Deuteronomy 5:1 says, “And Moses called all Israel,
對他們說:‘以色列人哪,我今日曉諭你們的律例、典章,
and said unto them, Hear, O Israel, the statutes and judgments which I speak in your ears this day,
你們要聽,可以學習,謹守遵行。’”
that ye may learn them, and keep them, and do them.”
申命記6章3節說,“以色列啊,你要聽,要謹守遵行”,
Deuteronomy 6:3 says, “Hear therefore, O Israel, and be careful to do them,”
這裡引用的是英語標準譯本版本(ESV)的聖經。
quoting the English Standard Version.
亞倫·夏文這樣評論道,“以色列人不僅需要聽聖約的命令,
Allan Harman comments, “Not only were the people of Israel to listen to the stipulations of the covenant,
他們還需要在生活中順服這些命令。”
but they were to order their lives in obedience to them.”
申命記將神學工作描述為一種紀念性的工作,
Deuteronomy describes the theological task as a work of remembrance,
它指的不是在我們心裡留下印象、留下記憶,
which refers not to bare mental impressions upon the memory,
而是我們要永遠忠心地相信上帝的話語,並按照它來生活;
but to perpetually and faithfully embracing God’s Word to direct one’s life according to His covenant,
而不是忘記主與祂的聖約。
as opposed to forgetting the Lord and His covenant.
我們若有屬靈上的紀念,就會有順服的行動。
Spiritual remembrance produces obedient action.
申命記16章12節說,“你也要記念……
Deuteronomy 16:12 says, “And thou shalt remember
你要謹守遵行這些律例”。
and thou shalt observe and do these statutes.”
相反,若我們忘記上帝和祂的約,我們就會悖逆上帝。
Conversely, forgetting God results in disobedience to His covenant.
申命記8章11節說,”你要謹慎,免得忘記耶和華你的神,
Deuteronomy 8:11, “Beware that thou forget not the Lord thy God,
不守他的誡命,典章,律例,就是我今日所吩咐你的。“
in not keeping his commandments, and his judgments, and his statutes, which I command thee this day”.
伊格那丟在公元100年左右說道,“因此,我們要用心鑽研,
Ignatius said about AD 100, “Study, therefore,
在主與使徒所教導的教義中站立得穩,讓我們無論做什麼,
to be established in the doctrines of the Lord and the apostles, that so all things, whatsoever ye do,
在一切事上都可以在身體與靈魂上、在信心與愛心上,
may prosper both in the flesh and spirit; in faith and love;
以及在聖子、聖父、與聖靈中得造就。”
in the Son, and in the Father, and in the Spirit.”
第三點,“上帝已經啟示,故我們一定要使別人認識祂”。
Thirdly, God has spoken, so we must teach others of Him.
上帝已經啟示的這一事實便要求我們要將祂的道向別人傳講。
The fact that God has spoken necessitates our teaching of his Word to other people.
申命記中設想的是兩種類型的教導:在家裡的教導
Now Deuteronomy envisions two different kinds of teaching: there’s domestic teaching in the home
和在教會裡的教導,古時的教會指的就是上帝子民的聚集。
and ecclesiastical teaching in the church, that is in the assemblies of God’s ancient people.
家庭教育與教會教導是彼此緊密聯繫的,
Teaching the family and teaching the church are closely related to each other,
因為主命令摩西要教訓以色列民,以便他們可以教訓他們的兒女。
for the Lord commanded Moses to teach the people so that they could teach their children.
申命記4章9至10節,第14節和第5章31節。
Deuteronomy 4:9–10, verse 14, and chapter 5:31.
神學工作的目標是要實現對一代又一代人的教育,
The theological task has multigenerational ambitions, aiming to inculcate the fear of the Lord
要教誨”你和你的子子孫孫“敬畏耶和華我們的主,申命記6章2節,
into “thou, and thy son, and thy son’s son”, Deuteronomy 6:2,
我們同時也可以在詩篇78章1至7節中讀到這樣的教導。
we can also see that in Psalm 78:1 through 7.
以色列人必須要聽主的話語,並把它們銘記於心,
Israel must hear the words of the Lord and keep them upon their hearts
以便能“殷勤教訓你的兒女”;
in order to “teach them diligently unto thy children,”
“你”和“你的兒女”之間
permeating every activity of life
持續進行著的關於上帝和上帝之道的對話,
with an ongoing conversation between “thou” and “thy son”
將會滲透到你們生活中的每一項活動之中,申命記6章7節。
about God and His Word, Deuteronomy 6:7.
好的神學能夠幫助我們準確、熟練地教導年輕人。
Good theology bears fruit in accurate and skillful teaching of young people,
例如使用教理問答或者一些其他的方式,
such as through catechisms and other tools by which people from every age group
讓各個年齡段的人都可以在主的教義中盡享純正的靈奶。
may drink in the doctrine of the Lord as their pure spiritual milk.
摩西作為以色列人民的教導者,有著特殊的職分。
Now Moses as the teacher of the whole people of Israel possessed a unique office.
他是舊約中那位地位顯著的偉大先知。
He was the great prophet of the old covenant.
我們在申命記中可以讀到,
God entrusted a continuing teaching office,
上帝將繼續教導祂的子民的工作交托給了祭司們。
Deuteronomy tells us, to the priests.
申命記24章8節記載,上帝通過摩西對以色列民說,
The Lord said to the people through Moses in Deuteronomy 24:8,
“照祭司利未人一切所指教你們的留意遵行。
“Do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you:
我怎樣吩咐他們,你們要怎樣遵行。”
as I commanded them, so shall ye observe to do.”
所以,申命記33章第10節是這樣描述利未子孫的,
And thus, it was written of the Levis in Deuteronomy 33:10,
“他們要將你的典章教訓雅各,將你的律法教訓以色列”。
“They shall teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law”.
在我們的大祭司耶穌基督將自己作為那偉大的祭獻給上帝後,
Now the old covenant priesthood with all of its rituals
舊約祭司及其儀典就廢止了,
passed away with the great sacrifice of our High Priest Jesus Christ,
但是教導上帝話語的職分依舊存在著,
but in the ministers of the Word in the new covenant church,
並由新約教會的傳道人來擔當。
the teaching office continues.
既然教導的職分繼續存在著,那麼我們就需要培訓弟兄,
The perpetuity of this teaching office requires the training of men
讓他們既能明白純正的教義、又能駁斥謬誤。
in sound doctrine and the refutation of error,
這就是神學家的工作。
and thus the work of theologians.
約翰·加爾文在談到上帝差遣的牧師時這樣說,
John Calvin said of God’s pastors,
“他們必須終其一生全力持守這些教義,
“They must all their life long endeavor to maintain the doctrine,
故此,他們從始至終都必須開口傳講上帝托付給他們的聖道,
and therewithal they must have their mouths open to preach the word that is committed unto them,
保守聖道的寶藏不被遺棄、也不被掩蓋,
to the end that that treasure be not lost nor buried,
而是讓所有人都與之有份。”
but that all men may be made partakers thereof.”
因此,神學對聖道的傳講也有助益。
And thus, theology serves missions.
第四點,上帝已經啟示,因此我們一定要榮耀祂。
Fourthly, God has spoken, and so we must glorify Him.
最廣為人知的“要聽主”的命令出現在申命記6章4至5節:
The most famous call to hear the Lord appears in Deuteronomy 6:4 and 5:
“以色列啊,你要聽!耶和華我們神是獨一的主。
“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord:
你要盡心、盡性、儘力愛耶和華你的神。”
and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.”
上帝已經向我們說話,所以我們一定要愛祂。
God has spoken, and therefore we must love him.
我們所做的一切研究、服從與教導,都旨在回報主,
All our study, obedience, and teaching aims at returning to the Lord
用祂所配得的、全心全意的愛去回報祂。
the love that He has shown to us and that He deserves from us.
我們如何表達對主的愛呢?
And such love expresses itself
要唯獨敬拜祂、單單敬畏祂,並唯獨服侍祂。
in exclusive worship, the fear and service of the Lord alone,
正如申命記6章12節至14節中所說的。
as Deuteronomy 6:12 to 14 go on to say.
加爾文在他的教理問答中這樣問道:
Calvin asked in his catechism,
“什麼是關於上帝的真實又正確的認識?“
“What is the true and right knowledge of God?”
答:”讓我們能夠榮耀上帝的認識,
and answered, “When we know Him
就是關於上帝的真實又正確的認識。”
in order that we may honour Him.”
正統神學旨在贊美上帝。
Orthodox theology aims at doxology.
申命記10章12節指出,
Deuteronomy 10:12 indicates
上帝在聖經中所教導我們的,概括起來就是要敬拜祂:
that worship is the sum of all God teaches us in the Word:
“以色列啊,現在耶和華你神向你所要的是什麼呢?
“And now, O Israel, what doth the Lord thy God require of thee,
只要你敬畏耶和華你的神,遵行他的道,
but to fear the Lord thy God, and to walk in his ways,
愛他,盡心、盡性侍奉他。”
and to love him, and to serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul.”
相反,申命記教導我們,一個人最大的不幸就是去侍奉別神。
By contrast, the greatest disaster, Deuteronomy tells us, into which a people can fall is to serve other gods.
純正的神學讓我們認識到真上帝的本質,
Sound theology teaches us the nature of the true God,
這樣我們就不會去敬拜“那些本來不是神的”,
so we will not worship “them which by nature are no gods”,
加拉太書4章8節。
Galatians 4:8.
我們並不希望自己和撒瑪利亞人一樣,受到基督這樣的責備,
We do not want to fall under Christ’s rebuke to the Samaritans, which he said,
“你們敬拜的你們不知道”,約翰福音4章22節。
“You worship you know not what”, John 4:22.
約翰內斯·荷列比烏說,
Johannes Wollebius said,
“基督教神學是有關上帝的教義,
“Christian theology is the doctrine concerning God,
即我們因祂的榮耀和我們的救恩而認識祂、敬拜祂。”
as he is known and worshiped for his glory and for our salvation.”
真神學不僅能夠引導我們來敬拜真神,
True theology not only directs us to worship the true God,
還會引導我們、讓我們明白,
but also directs us in how
上帝希望我們以怎樣的方式來敬拜祂。
He wants us to worship Him.
摩西禁止以色列民在敬拜上去效仿其他的國家,
After forbidding Israel to imitate other nations in the manner in which they worship their gods,
他說,”凡我所吩咐的,你們都要謹守遵行,
Moses said, “Whatsoever thing I command you, observe to do it:
不可加添,也不可刪減“。
thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it”.
上帝的聖潔以及合乎聖經的教會觀這樣教導我們:
And the doctrine of God’s holiness and a biblical view of the church teach us
我們必須要按照上帝的命令來熱心敬拜祂,
that we must be zealous to worship God as He commands us,
而絕非按照人隨己意、自己編造的規條,
and in no other way, not by the inventions of man’s will,
正如保羅在歌羅西書2章20至23節中所說的。
which Paul condemns in Colossians 2:20 to 23.
加爾文這樣說道,
Calvin said,
“如果我們想知道,上帝的律法是否對我們有所造就,
“If we will know whether we have profited in God’s law or no,
我們就必須仔細省察自己、並認真反思,
we must always sift and search ourselves
查看自己是否有熱忱、有渴望,想贊美上帝、榮耀上帝。”
whether we have such desire and zeal that God should be honored and glorified by us.”
因此,神學家的目的,不應該只是為了積累知識,
Thus, the theologian should not be motivated by merely a desire to accumulate knowledge,
更不應該是為了賺取更多的名望,
much less simply to advance in his own prestige,
而是應該和聖維克多的理查德一樣,
but as Richard of St. Victor said,
是為了自己“正在燃燒的靈魂中所擁有的熱忱”。
by “the fervor of my burning soul.”

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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