系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第07講 我們從事哪一種神學研究(下)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

好,從認信角度看改革宗神學。
Okay, reformed theology in a confessional perspective.
改革宗教會中有許許多多的信仰告白和教理問答,
There are a plethora of reformed confessions and catechisms
來見證改革宗信仰。
that bear witness of the reformed faith.
你們可能也知道,
And you probably know that
“改教傳統圖書出版社”已經和小詹姆士•丹尼森一起合作11年了。
Reformation Heritage Books has spent eleven years with James Dennison
他忠心勤勞地工作,已經從多種語言
and, who did yeoman’s work in translating dozens,
翻譯了幾十個改革宗信仰告白。
or having translated dozens of reformed confessions in all kinds of languages.
而大概就在三年前,
And we just completed about three years ago,
我們剛出版了一套非常重要的英文的改革宗信仰告白,
putting out a definitive set of all the reformed confessions in English
這些信仰告白跨時百年,從16世紀20年代一直到17世紀末。
from the early 1520s all the way until the late 1600s.
正如沙夫的《基督教信條》,這是一套非常重要的書(含3捲),
And just as Schaff’s Creeds of Christendom was a definitive three volume set
囊括了各大主要會議的所有信條和大公基督教信仰的信仰告白,
of all the decrees of the main councils and confessions of the Christian faith in general,
它已經是教科書級別的一套書,已經賣出了成千上萬套。
has become a standard set and it sold hundreds and thousands of sets.
而丹尼森的這一套很顯然是為改革宗的信仰告白而寫的。
Dennison’s set is obviously the set now for reformed confessions.
所以,如果你想要深刻理解改革宗的所有信仰告白,
So if you want to get a good grasp of all the reformed confessions,
這是一套非常好的書。
and that is just a great great set of books.
看到這些長年被埋沒於各種語言之中的信仰告白,
And it’s just wonderful that so many of them that were buried all these years
現在終於有英文版的了,這實在是太好了。
in various languages are now available in English.
但是,這些信仰告白中的大部分如今都已經停止使用了。
However, most of those confessions are not used today.
所以,不知道你們是否意識到了,
So in this book, Reformed Confessions Harmonized,
我們在《改革宗信仰告白的和諧》這本書中,採用的是
you may realize this, you may not, what we have done
改革宗所有成文的信仰告白中使用率最高的七個信仰告白。
is we’ve taken the seven most living confessions of all those reformed confessions written.
全世界信奉改革宗信仰的大部分人
There are seven of them that are still really alive and actively
現在仍然在積極地使用這七個信仰告白。
used by large segments of the reformed faith around the world today.
這七個信仰告白分別是德國、荷蘭傳統之下,
Namely the three forms of unity from the Dutch German tradition,
也是歐洲傳統之下的三項聯合信條。
the continental European tradition.
瑞士這一分支的《第一瑞士信條》(現今已無人使用),
And the Swiss family of confessions, there was the First Helvetic, which no one is using today,
和布林格寫的《第二瑞士信條》。
but there was the Second Helvetic Confession, written by Bullinger.
還有三個威斯敏斯特信仰準則,即《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》,
And then the three Westminster standards, Westminster Confession of Faith,
《威斯敏斯特小教理問答》和《威斯敏斯特大教理問答》。
Shorter Catechism, Larger Catechism.
在這本書中,我把這七個信仰告白分別放在七欄中。
So in this book, what I have done is I have taken them and put them in seven columns,
為的就是分屬長老會、匈牙利改革宗和改革宗的基督徒
so that the idea here is that Presbyterians, the Hungarian reformed, and the reformed
能夠從彼此的傳統中互相學習,
can learn from each other’s traditions
也能夠看出事實上,他們彼此是多麼的相似。
and see how similar they really are.
這本書其實誕生於一次會議,
This book actually was born at a meeting
是保守改革宗雜誌的編輯們參加的一次小型會議, 大約15人,
in which editors of small magazines, conservative reformed editors got together,
會議地點是在(加拿大)安大略省的聖凱瑟琳斯。
about 15 of them, in St. Catherines, Ontario,
在這次會議上,大家討論瞭如何促進
and talked about how to promote
保守改革宗、長老會的基督徒群體之間的團契。
more fellowship among conservative reformed Presbyterian groups.
這本書的構想其實是我提出來的,
And then I actually came up with this idea,
就是突然想到:我們應該把這些信仰告白進行一個對比。
it just popped into my mind that we should have a parallel column.
我並沒有想過自己要來寫這本書。
And I had no intention of doing it,
但是大家都知道,如果一個人提出某個想法,
and you know what happens when you come up with an idea,
大家就會對這個人說,你來做吧。我說,我寫不了。
people turn around and say, you do it. I said no.
但他們說,不行,這本書就應該你來寫。你寫吧!
And they said no, you are the person to do it, please do it.
最終我還是妥協了。
And so I finally capitulated.
結果,這本書比我所有其他的書都賣得更好。
But this was actually sold more copies than anything else I have done in my life.
我也認為它達到了我寫這本書的初衷。
And I think it has been meeting the purpose for which it was designed.
我在各地參加會議時,遇見了許多有長老宗背景的人,
And I have met many people in my conference travels who have come up to me and said,
他們對我說:“謝謝你寫了這樣一本書。
from a Presbyterian tradition, thank you for putting this together,
在此之前,我從來沒有讀過《比利時信條》,
cause I never even read the Belgic Confession before you put this together,
但是現在我讀了,才看到我們的《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》
and now I’ve been reading it and I see the similarity between
和歐洲大陸的三項聯合信條之間的相似之處,
our Westminster Confession and the three continental ones,
這實在是很美好的一件事。”
and it’s beautiful.
後來我們也把布林格寫的《匈牙利改革宗信仰告白》放了進去,
And then we have thrown the Hungarian Reformed Confession into the mix by Bullinger,
與其他信仰告白相比,這個信仰告白在某些方面更為詳細一些。
which is even more detailed in certain areas than the others.
我們可以看到,在整個歐洲的改革宗傳統里,
You see that all throughout the European reformed tradition,
這些信仰告白呈現出了一種不可思議的合一性。
it was incredible unity in reformed confessions.
我們前面提到的七個改革宗信仰告白仍然是最為突出的,
So these sevens still stand out the most, let me just, really briefly here,
所以我將非常簡略地給你們快速地介紹一下它們。
give you a quick snapshot of each of them.
《比利時信條》是由殉道的牧師基道·德布利所寫。
The Belgic Confession is written by a martyr and pastor Guido de Brès.
“比利時”一詞指的是整個低地國家地區,
And the word “Belgic” refers to the whole of the low countries,
包括現在的比利時和荷蘭兩國。
that is both the Netherlands and Belgium.
所以,若說它是《荷蘭信條》也是恰如其分的。
And so it fittingly describes a Dutch confession.
荷蘭人就傾向於把它稱為《荷蘭信條》。
Dutch people tend to prefer it being called the Netherlands Confession of Faith.
我想,若我是荷蘭人,
I can see that if I was in the Netherlands,
我應該也想用自己國家的名字來給它命名。
I probably want to do that, give it your own name.
但是在美國,我們稱之為《比利時信條》。
America, we call it the Belgic Confession of Faith.
當然,人們就哪個名字更為合適的問題也可以展開爭論。
And you can argue which is the better name.
還記得在我牧養的第二教會中,有一名會眾是從荷蘭來的,
But I had one guy in my second church, who was from the Netherlands,
他聽到我稱這個信仰告白為《比利時信條》,他非常的生氣。
and he was so upset that I called it the Belgic Confession of Faith.
本來在他的眼中,我一直是一個很好的牧師,
I was a good minister in his eyes,
但是當我不說《荷蘭信條》的時候,
a really good domine in his eyes
對他而言,我就不再是一個很好的牧師了。
until I refuse to call it the Netherlands (Confession).
我對他說,其他說英語的人都不說《荷蘭信條》,
I said how can I call it the Netherlands Confession of Faith in English
我怎麼能這麼說呢,
when nobody else does,
要是我這樣做,就等於我自己新造了一個詞。
that’s like inventing a term.
但是他始終不能理解這一點。
But he didn’t understand that.
後來,他就開始針對我,認為我是全世界最差勁的牧師。
So, then he turned on me and just thought that I was the worst minister in the whole world.
我一點也沒有誇張,事情真的就是這樣。
I am not exaggerating, that really happened.
一直到他離世,他始終都在怨恨我、並與我的服侍作對。
And he was bitterly opposed to my ministry until he died
長期以來都是我肉體里的一根刺。
and was a constant thorn in my flesh,
這一切都只是因為我不說《荷蘭信條》。
and it was only because I refuse to call it the Netherlands Confession of Faith.
所以今天逼迫仍然在進行。
So blood is still being shed now.
基道·德布利確實為他所寫的信條遭受了逼迫,
Guido de Brès did shed his blood for this,
所以我心裡得了安慰,因為我並沒有像他那樣遭受迫害。
so I was comforted that I wasn’t persecuted like that.
在他被捕之前,當局已經追捕了他六年之久。
But he was hunted for six years before they got hold of him.
他搬了十幾、二十次家。
And he moved like 19, 20 times,
這還只是我們有歷史數據支持的保守估計,
at least what we know, probably more,
他實際上的搬家次數可能更多。
as he’s been chased by authorities.
他把所寫的《比利時信條》扔進了政府的牆內,
He threw the Confession over the church walls, rather the political wall
想要引起法國總督的註意,盼望他能讀一讀。
to reach the governor of France, hoping that he would read it.
我們也不知道那位法國總督究竟有沒有讀。
No one knows if he had ever read it.
但是德布利確實深受逼迫。
But he certainly was persecuted.
在《比利時信條》成書一年以後的1562年,
It was translated from Latin into Dutch in 1562,
人們將它從拉丁語譯為荷蘭語。
one year after it was written,
《比利時信條》立時便受到了荷蘭改革宗教會的熱烈歡迎。
was very warmly embraced right away by the reformed churches in the Netherlands,
同年,安特衛普總會對它進行了稍微的修改。
was then revised a bit by the Synod of Antwerp later that same year, 1562.
最終,多特總會(1618-1619)對其進行了
And then revised yet once more, a little bit, you would say a good editorship job on it
進一步的修改與編輯,並最終採納了這一信條。
and adopted by the Synod of Dort, the major Synod of Dort in 1618-1619.
兩年後,即1563年,
Two years later, the Heidelberg Catechism was written,
烏爾西努和奧利維亞努寫成了《海德堡教理問答》,
(其實主要是烏爾西努寫的)。
Primarily Ursinus actually,
這一任務是由普法爾茨地區選侯腓特烈三世所委托的。
and according to the commission of Elector Frederick III, ruler of the Palatinate.
《海德堡教理問答》完成的時候,
Ursinus was 28 years old
烏爾西努年僅28歲,奧利維亞努只有26歲。
when it was written, Olevianus was 26.
順便說一下, 烏爾西努在二十五歲左右時已經寫了兩個教理問答,
And Ursinus had already written, by the way, two catechisms in his mid-twenties,
一個叫做《大教理問答》,我記得大概有353個問題,
one called a Larger Catechism, I think it was 353 questions,
一個叫做《小教理問答》,大概有一百多個問題。
and one called the Smaller Catechism, a hundred some questions.
這兩個教理問答的水準都是極高的。
Both are masterful catechisms.
事實上,《海德堡教理問答》中近百分之八十的內容
And actually you can trace back nearly 80 percent of material
都可以追溯到這兩個教理問答。
of the Heidelberg catechism to one of these two catechisms.
這也就是為什麼我們可以比較肯定地作出這個結論,
So that’s how we could say or conclude
即烏爾西努是《海德堡教理問答》的主要作者。
that Ursinus was the major author.
烏爾西努和奧利維亞努是兩個非常不一樣的人。
The two men were very different from each other.
烏爾西努較為內向、安靜,並且好學。
Ursinus was more an introvert, quiet, studious.
奧利維亞努是一位優秀的牧者、傑出的傳道人,善於與人交往。
Olevianus was a very very good pastor, outstanding preacher, people oriented.
所以他們是一個很好的彼此互補的組合。
And so they made a good combination.
早期時候,因奧利維亞努在26歲時寫了一本
And the original view is that Olevianus added pastoral notes
關於《使徒信經》的書,所以人們都以為
to the Catechism, had greater impact on Lord’s Day 7 through 23,
是奧利維亞努為《海德堡教理問答》補充的教牧說明,
because he had already written a book on the Apostles’ Creed
也是主日7至主日23的主要作者。
by the time he was 26.
但這隻是一種猜測,僅僅是我們的想法,
But that’s a bit of speculation, that’s what we think happened,
我們沒有任何的證據可以證明這一點。
but we had no proof of that.
我們能夠肯定的是, 烏爾西努是《海德堡教理問答》的主要作者,
What we do know, is that the major author was Ursinus
而奧利維亞努也對之有所貢獻。
and that Olevianus had input.
烏爾西努實在是一位偉大的年輕神學家。
And Ursinus was just a great young theologian.
彼得·馬特說,最初腓特烈是邀請他移居海德堡去寫教理問答,
Peter Martyr said when Frederick originally asked Peter Martyr to move to Heidelberg
但是他拒絕了。
to write the catechism, Peter Martyr refused
他說,“我已經年紀老邁了,但是我這裡有一位年輕的神學家,
and said, I am too old, but by the way, I have got a young theologian
他來寫這個教理問答,會比我寫得更好。
who can do a better job of it than I can,
我會讓他到你那裡去,他現在二十幾歲,
and I’ll send him to you, he’s in his twenties,
是一位極其優秀的、非常有潛力的、愛上帝的年輕人。”
he’s a great young man of God with great potential.
腓特烈便接待了烏爾西努。
And Frederick received him
而當烏爾西努到了海德堡以後,立即在門上掛了一個牌子,
and Ursinus promptly, when he got to Heidelberg, he put a sign above his door,
要表達的基本意思是:朋友,歡迎你來這裡,
and said, friend, you are welcome here,
你到這裡來要談的事情談完之後,望你務必離開,
but basically as soon as your conversation is done for what you have come,
因為我還要做大量的研究。
please leave, because I have got a lot of study to do.
我並不建議今天的牧者在他們的門上掛一個這樣的牌子,
I won’t suggest that pastors put that sign above their door today,
但這就是當時烏爾西努認真嚴肅的研究態度。
but that’s how serious he was about studying.
對他而言,這是他一生的呼召,
It was for him a lifetime calling,
刻苦鑽研,為所有教會寫出這樣的信條,此事極其重要。
serious business to produce material for all the churches through hard study.
《海德堡教理問答》被德國和荷蘭改革宗教會欣然接受,
The Catechism was wonderfully accepted by German and Dutch Reformed churches,
也在全世界範圍內受到了廣泛的認可。
respected around the world,
在某種程度上,《海德堡教理問答》遵循了《羅馬書》的結構,
and followed in some ways the pattern of the book of Romans,
分為愁苦、救贖和感恩三個部分。
of misery, deliverance, and gratitude, following three sections.
人們認為,可能除了《效法基督》之外,
And has perhaps, perhaps, beside the Imitation of Christ,
《海德堡教理問答》便是世界上銷量最高的書了,
is thought to have been the most sold book in the world,
當然是除了聖經以外。
other than the Bible, of course.
《海德堡教理問答》對整個世界產生了極為深遠的影響,
But it’s had a profound impact on the whole world
後來人們陸陸續續地將它翻譯成了一百多種語言。
and then translated into one hundred and some languages.
《多特信條》傳達的是1618至1619年
Canons of Dort express the decisions of the
在多德雷赫特市召開的國際改革宗大會的決議,
international Reformed Synod that met in the city of Dordrecht, 1618-1619,
回應詹姆斯·亞米念的追隨者,即荷蘭抗辯派
to answer the five points of objection against Reformed doctrine
提出的針對改革宗教義的五點反對意見。
raised by the Dutch Remonstrants, or followers of James Arminius.
人們常常忘了,亞米念其實在1609年就已經去世了,
People often don’t realize that Arminius died in 1609,
因此, 他的追隨者才是向政府提出反對改革宗的意見的人。
and it was his followers, really, that presented objections to the government,
亞米念的追隨者原以為,與改革宗比起來,
thinking that the government was some more sympathetic to Arminians
政府會更偏向於亞米念派。
than they were to the Reformed.
所以,如果他們能夠利用政府
And so if they could use the government
來推翻加爾文主義者所認可的那五點,
to overthrow these various five points that were embraced by Calvinist,
那麼亞米念主義就可以在荷蘭稱王稱霸,
then Arminianism could rule the day in the Netherlands,
還可以通過國家的國會宣言變成荷蘭的國教。
and could become the State religion by the State’s general proclamation.
這就是他們當時的目標。
That was their goal.
因此,他們要求國會召集一個國際會議來商議這些事情。
And so they asked the States-General to call an international synod to discuss these things.
國會首先拒絕了他們的要求,
The States-General refused to do that,
而最終當國會以3比2的投票通過召集國際會議的提案時,
and eventually the Netherlands was actually on the brink of civil war when the States-General
荷蘭已經處於爆發內戰的邊緣。
finally voted 3 to 2 to call an international synod.
國會當然是擔心會產生動亂。
They were worried about the trouble that would result, of course.
那麼,亞米念派堅持主張的有五件事情:
Now the Arminians asserted five things.
第一,上帝基於祂的先見,即誰會選擇跟隨基督,
First, God chose whom he would save based on his foresight
來選擇祂要拯救的人。
of who would choose Him.
亞米念確實相信預定論,但他們所信的預定論是,
Arminians do believe in predestination, but
上帝預定得永生的人,是那些祂提前預見到會選擇祂的人。
God predestines those who he foresees will choose Him.
第二,基督為拯救全人類而死。
Two, Christ died to redeem everyone.
第三,人的自由意志並非完全被罪奴役,也就是說,
Three, man’s free will is not entirely enslaved to sin, that is to say,
一個人可以在上帝的幫助之下,憑藉他的自由意志來選擇基督。
you can choose Christ by your own free will, God helping you.
我現在讀的這些都是他們宣稱的,
Four, sinners, these are all things they said
是改革宗沒有教導的東西,是謬誤。
the Reformed are not teaching, that are errors,
第四,罪人能夠抗拒上帝的恩典,即使是最大的恩典。
sinners may resist God’s grace, even in its strongest forms.
第五,(當時他們在這一點上還不是很確定),
And Five, they weren’t sure on this one, but they said it may be possible
他們認為,上帝的兒女有可能完全失喪,並最終沉淪。
that a child of God might fall away totally and finally to damnation.
簡言之,就是上帝的兒女有可能放棄信仰、成為背教者。
It may be possible that a child of God might, in one word, apostatize.
多特總會分別在四項中對每一個反對意見都給與了回應。
Now the Synod answered each of these objections under four heads.
我們會來查考這幾項被人們現在稱為“加爾文主義五要點”的內容,
And we will be looking at those, what now is called the five points of Calvinism.
但是是講“從辯惑學角度看改革宗神學”時。
We will be looking at those in the next lecture under the polemical perspective
但願一會兒我們能夠講到那裡。
or next hour, actually, hopefully we’ll get to that.
所以現在我就暫且不講這一點,我們一會兒就會講回這裡。
So I won’t go into that now, we’ll come back to that momentarily.
那麼,第四個信仰告白就是瑞士教會的《第二瑞士信條》,
The fourth confession then is that of the Swiss churches, the Second Helvetic Confession,
這整個信條幾乎都是布林格一個人寫的。
written almost exclusively by Bullinger.
有趣的是, 它最初是布林格撰寫的個人信仰告白,
Interestingly, Bullinger initially wrote this as a personal confession of faith.
後來便被改革宗教會所採用。
And then later it was used for the reformed churches.
瑞士的城市伯爾尼、比爾、日內瓦、
It was adopted by the Swiss cities of Berne, Biel,
沙夫豪森、聖加爾和米爾豪森的教會都採用了它。
Geneva, Schaffhausen, St. Gall, and Mühlhausen.
這份信仰告白的內容比一般改革宗信仰告白的內容略多,
And this reformed confession is just a tad bit more than a reformed confession.
它幾乎可以說是一本改革宗神學手冊。
It’s almost a manual of reformed theology. Cause
因為布林格在有些地方寫得相當詳細, 會涉及一些比較次要的點,
Bullinger goes in quite some detail and some rather small points at times,
所以這份信仰告白的長度有點介於信仰告白
sort of a halfway bridge between a confession
和小的系統神學著作之間,它比較長。
and a mini systematic theology. So it’s pretty long.
但是人們今天仍然在使用它,
But it’s still used today,
這也是我們將之包括在我們這本改革宗信仰告白的書中的原因。
that’s why we included it in our Reformed Confession’s book.
時至今日,匈牙利的改革宗教會仍在使用它。
It’s still used today by the Hungarian reformed churches.
最後當然就是今天的保守長老會
And then you have, of course, the three major confessions being
所使用的三大信仰告白。
used by the conservative Presbyterian churches today.
當然,這三個信仰告白
The Westminster Confession of Faith… All of these, of course,
都是在17世紀40年代的威斯敏斯特會議期間寫的。
were written in 1640s when the Westminster Assembly met.
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》,
Westminster Confession of Faith,
它持守改革宗長老會的基督教信仰觀,
which asserts a reformed and Presbyterian view of the Christian faith,
借鑒了在它之前的其他改革宗信仰告白的思想精華。
draws from all the other reformed confessions before it.
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》有著時間上的優勢,
Because it’s 1640s,
因為當時已經是17世紀40年代了,
it has the advantage
距離《多特信條》已經整整一代人的時間,
of being a full generation beyond the Canons of Dort,
距離《海德堡教理問答》和《比利時信條》也已經80多年。
and 80 some years beyond the Heidelberg Catechism and the Belgic Confession.
而我們的神學研究在這80年間也有了進一步的發展。
Well, a lot of theology happened in those 80 years,
這就是為什麼《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》中
and so the Westminster Confession of Faith
包含了三項聯合信條中沒有的一些內容,並且,
has things in it that are not in the three forms of unity.
人們在那個時候能夠用更加精確的神學語言來表述某些內容。
And some things are developed in a more precise theological language,
於是這就使得有些人說,
which makes some people say
“《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》遠遠優於三項聯合信條,
this is far superior than the three forms of unity.
比如我們在三項聯合信條中就找不到有關屬靈上立嗣的教義.”
Things like adoption, spiritual adoption, where do you find that in the three forms of unity, it’s not there.
而《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》就這一點寫了整整一章的內容,
Well, Westminster wrote a whole chapter on it,
第12章。
chapter 12.
行為之約、恩典之約,聖約神學這一概念也是在
Covenant of works, covenant of grace, covenant theology
is far more developed 80 years later in the Westminster Confession.
而整個系統神學緒論,也就是這門課,
And the whole area of Prolegomena, which is this course,
即聖經是上帝的默示、聖經的無誤性,
the whole area of inspiration and infallibility of the Bible
以及特殊啟示的含義是什麼,
and what special revelation means,
三項聯合信條中幾乎沒有提及到這些,
which is virtually uncovered,
只有《比利時信條》中有極少量的相關內容,
except in the Belgic Confession, a bit,
但在《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》中卻有與之相關的很詳細的敘述.
is much greater detailed confessed by the Westminster Confession of Faith.
在約翰·歐文等人的帶領之下,
Now Confession was adapted for use
《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》在1658年被改革宗公理會修訂使用,
by the reformed Congregational churches as the Savoy Declaration, 1658,
被稱為《薩伏伊宣言》。
spearheaded by people like John Owen.
所以,獨立的公理會教會也在使用它。
So independent Congregational churches.
後來,特別浸信會的神學家
And then it was modified by Particular Baptist theologians,
在對《薩伏伊宣言》進行修改後採納使用它,
and adopted in two different versions by Baptists
稱之為《倫敦浸信會第二公認信條》,
known as the Second London Baptist Confession,
第一版在1677年,第二版在1689年。
first version 1677, second version 1689.
從《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》中衍生出來了第六個信仰告白,
Then sixly, the Westminster Shorter Catechism
即《威斯敏斯特小教理問答》。
came out of the Westminster Confession of Faith.
當時發生的事情的基本情況是這樣的:
What happened basically was this,
被邀參加威斯敏斯特會議的神學家們
the Westminster assembly divines
都前往了倫敦的威斯敏斯特大教堂,要在那裡會面。
went to meet in London in the Westminster Abbey.
(明年五月我們會帶一個旅行團去威斯敏斯特大教堂,
And the next May when we go there with a tour group,
我們打算去參觀當時他們寫《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》的那個房間)
we hope to go to that very room where they wrote the Westminster Confession of Faith.
這些神學家們的目標是,
And the goal was,
用一兩個星期的時間,改寫英格蘭教會的《三十九條信綱》,
in a week or two, to rewrite the 39 articles of the church of England,
使它們更充分地體現改革宗信仰。
make them more thoroughly reformed.
假設你是其中一位被選中的神學家,
So you are one of the men chosen,
出行之前你要跟你的妻子道別,你給她一個吻,然後說,
and you go, you say goodbye to your wife, give her a kiss and say,
“親愛的,我們此行是想對英格蘭教會做點改變,
I hope to see you back in about ten days or so, my dear,
我大概十天左右就能回來見你了。”
and we’ll hope to work on the church of England.
然後,五年半以後,你才回來。
You come back five and half years later.
當然,並非所有參加威斯敏斯特會議的神學家們
Now not all the Westminster Assembly divines
全程都待在了那裡,他們中有些人常常回家。
stayed that whole time. I mean, some of them went home often.
在修改《三十九條信綱》時,神學家們爭論不斷,
And the debates went on and on.
最終他們決定,他們需要從頭開始,寫一個全新的信仰告白。
Finally they decided, they needed to start from scratch, you see, write a whole new confession.
而當他們終於寫完信仰告白之後,他們說,
And when they get the Confession done, they said, you know,
“我們這份信仰告白里現在有這麼美好的神學,
now we got this wonderful theology out there,
但是普通人卻不容易看懂。
but the common people can’t understand it,
我們應該為孩子們和普通教友們寫一個教理問答。”
we better do something for children and for the average parishioner in the catechism form.
所以他們就寫了《威斯敏斯特小教理問答》。
And so they do the Shorter Catechism.
然後他們又說,這個教理問答對教導小孩子特別好,
And then they said, but yeah, that’s good for kids, but you know,
但是成年人也需要一個教理問答。
the adults need a catechism as well.
所以他們就寫了《威斯敏斯特大教理問答》。
So they do a Larger Catechism.
而他們在寫這個的同時,順便也寫了一個公共敬拜的指南,
And then while they are at it, they do a directory for worship
還有幾個其他的文檔。
and a couple of other documents as well.
《威斯敏斯特小教理問答》成為迄今為止最為著名的教理問答。
Westminster Shorter Catechism becomes by far the most famous one.
事實上,不僅僅是孩子們在使用它,
It’s not just used by kids, it’s actually become used by churches
許多教會也使用它來做基本的教學工具。
and it becomes the foundational teaching tool.
當有人想要加入一間教會的時候,
When people want to join a church,
牧師通常會與他們一起查考一遍《威斯敏斯特小教理問答》。
the pastor usually goes through the Westminster Shorter Catechism with them.
這個教理問答的開篇是改革宗神學歷史上最為著名的一句話,
And of course, this catechism opens with the most famous statement in reformed theology ever made,
我猜《海德堡教理問答》的第一問可能是緊追其後的第二名,
with the possible exception of, Question 1 of the Heidelberg Catechism will be a close second I guess.
小教理的第一問:“人生的首要目的是什麼?”
What is man’s chief end?
答: ”人生的首要目的就是榮耀上帝, 並以祂為樂, 直到永遠。”
Man’s chief end, or main purpose it is, is to glorify God and to enjoy Him forever. Question 1.
《威斯敏斯特小教理問答》在1693年
Catechism is adapted in 1693 by Benjamin Keach.
經由便雅憫·濟慈改編後,供浸信會使用。
He “baptizes” it, as you were, and he uses it for the baptists.
第七個信仰告白《威斯敏斯特大教理問答》
And then sevenly, the Larger Catechism
所呈現的教義體系與《威斯敏斯特小教理問答》一致,
presents the same system of doctrine as Shorter Catechism,
但是它包含的細節更為豐富,比起《小教理問答》的適合記憶,
but in a degree of detail better suited to aid teachers
它更能夠在教師和牧師的教導中有所助益。
and preachers, than for memorization.
《威斯敏斯特大教理問答》敘述詳細,特別是在倫理方面,
And what you find in the Larger Catechism is a much greater detail, particularly in the area of ethics,
它在對上帝十誡的闡述上有極其豐富的擴充,
a huge expansion on the Ten Commandments,
不惜筆墨地、詳盡地羅列出了所有該做、不該做的事情。
long detailed answers of all the dos and don’ts.
雖然《威斯敏斯特大教理問答》沒有《小教理問答》那麼著名,
The Larger Catechism, though not nearly as well known as the Shorter,
但它卻包含了非常豐富的教義寶藏,故此,我們不應該忽視它。
contains a wealth of doctrine, and should not be neglected.
綜上所述,這七個改革宗的信仰告白,
Now the summary then, is this, that all seven of these reformed confessions,
以及丹尼森所寫的四冊書中記載的其他數百個信仰告白,
as well as the hundreds of others contained in the four volumes of Dennison,
展現了改革宗神學不同凡響的合一性。
display a remarkable measure of unity.
雖然改革宗中有不同的分支、不同的傳統。
Even though there were different traditions in different streams.
但是,這就出現了一個問題,也是人們在教會歷史中常常探究的:
That raises the question, however, that is often being looked at in church history:
既然路德宗能將他們所有的信仰告白都放在一本書里,
you know, the Lutherans were able to capture all their confessions and put them in one book
即《協同書》(我記得首版是在1580年),
called the Book of Concord, first published in 1580, I believe.
那為什麼改革宗信仰有這麼多信仰告白,要四本書才記載得完。
Why does the reformed faith have so many confessions, that it takes four major volumes to contain them.
路德宗對這一問題給出的答案是,
Well, one answer is, the reformed faith, split into so many different groups,
改革宗信仰分裂成了這麼多宗派、這麼多國家, 他們內部分裂太多,
and so many different countries, this is the answer of the Lutherans,
最後只能有這樣一套極不方便、極不實用的書。
that you know, they just bifurcated themselves so much that you get this awkward, unwieldy set of four volumes.
改革宗的基督徒真可憐!
Poor reformed people!
但改革宗基督徒(從改革宗的角度出發)
Answer from the reformed perspective is,
給出的答案則是:聖經本身包羅萬象,
the Bible is so rich and there’s so many wonderful traditions
改革宗信仰中有著諸多合乎聖經的、極為美好的傳統。
that has come out of the Scripture in the reformed perspective.
正是因著聖經語言的豐富和改教家們的聖經研究,
That’s because of the riches of the biblical language and the biblical study of the reformers
我們才得以擁有所有這些不同的信仰告白。
that we have all these different confessions.
我們要為這四捲滿滿噹噹的改革宗信仰告白而贊美上帝!
Praise God for four volumes of spadeful reformed confessions!
所以,關鍵就是,我們是願意將之視為一個長處,
So the idea is do you want to see it as a plus,
還是想要把它視為一個不足。
or do you want to see it as a minus.
很顯然,我作為一個改革宗基督徒,我認為這是一個長處。
Obviously I am reformed, so I see it as a plus.
我認為改革宗能擁有這些非常好的、彼此補充的信仰告白
I think it’s beautiful we have all these wonderful reformed confessions
是十分美好的一件事。
that reinforce each other.
但路德宗的基督徒不會贊成我的這個觀點。
But Lutherans will not agree with that.
在今天,多個教會在“北美長老會與改革宗聯合議會”
Now today, various churches fellowship together in the North American Presbyterian
(簡稱NAPARC)中相互合作。
and Reformed Council, it’s called NAPARC.
我的教會(聖傳歸正教會,簡稱HRC)屬於這個團體,
And our churches are in that,
自由歸正教會(簡稱FRC)也屬於這個團體。
Free Reformed churches are in that.
還有其他幾個保守改革宗和長老會的教會都屬於這一團體。
A number of other conservative reformed and Presbyterian churches are in that.
所有這些教會都持守這七個信仰告白中的一個或者多個。
And all of these churches adhere to one or more of these seven living confessions.
他們每年會有一次為期兩天的團契聚會,
And what they do is they fellowship once a year for two days to get together,
他們設法讓彼此喜樂、鼓勵彼此,並與彼此團契相交。
to try to please each other a little bit, and try to encourage each other, fellowship with each other.
事實上,在我們教會(聖傳歸正教會)還沒有加入
It was really interesting when we hadn’t
“北美長老會與改革宗聯合議會”時,
quite joined the NAPARC yet,
我個人曾受邀去參加過他們的一些會議,
and when I was actually invited as outside observer
就是作為一個旁觀者去觀察。
to come to some of the meetings just as an individual.
當時,他們經歷了將基督教歸正教會(簡稱CRC)
And it was very interesting when NAPARC went through
從“北美長老會與改革宗聯合議會”中除名的一整個痛苦的過程,
the whole process of expunging the Christian Reformed church from NAPARC
因為基督教歸正教會在女性擔任教會職分的問題上
for being unfaithful due to the women in office issue
和會議報告中第44項問題(即聖經的權威)上不忠於上帝的話語。
and biblical report authority number 44 issue.
對於當時在場的每一個人而言,這是一件很令人難過的事。
It was very painful for everyone there,
但他們覺得他們實在無法與那個宗派再合作下去了。
but they felt they just could not go on with that denomination.
而當時的基督教歸正教會是
And the Christian Reformed church
“北美長老會與改革宗聯合議會”中最大的一間教會,
that time is by far the biggest church in NAPARC,
這也使得這整個決議變得更加的艱難。
which made it all the more difficult.
當然,人們可以討論,
So NAPARC, you can debate
“北美長老會與改革宗聯合議會”到底重不重要。
how important it is.
它確實不是驚天動地的,也不是必不可少的。
It’s not earth shaking, it’s not a necessity to be there,
但是它傳達了這樣一個信息,
but it’s a way of saying we are gonna help each other
即我們要幫助彼此持守改革宗豐富的信仰告白傳統。
stay within the confines of this rich reformed confessional tradition.
好,讓我很快的講一下從神學角度看改革宗神學,
All right, let me just take a quick look at reformed theology in a theological perspective
然後我們就休息一下。
and then we’ll take a break.
這部分非常的短。
This is a short section.
歷史學家和神學家常常嘗試在神學體系中
Historians and theologians have often stumbled in the attempt
找到一個中心教義,卻始終沒有收穫。
to identify a central dogma in a theological system.
克拉克·戴維斯博士以前在威斯敏斯特神學院時常常這樣說,
In reality, the reformed tradition is so rich, this is what Dr. Clark Davis used to say at Westminster,
“事實上,改革宗傳統十分的合乎聖經,並且它豐富至極。
the reformed system is so biblical and so rich,
所以,既然聖經沒有教導,
that because the Bible doesn’t say
說有一個統管其他所有教義的中心教義,
here is one central doctrine that governs all the rest,
那麼改革宗神學中也沒有一個統管一切的中心教義。”
reformed theology doesn’t have a single doctrine, of which you can say that just governs everything.
但是人們一直在嘗試,要找到改革宗神學中的一個中心教義,
Now people have tried to give Reformed theologies a central doctrine,
於是在教會歷史上,人們提出了至少二十幾種可能。
at least twenty different options have been suggested in church history.
人們最常提及、認為它是中心教義的一個教義便是預定論。
One of the most common is that predestination is the central doctrine.
雖然相比於其他宗派, 特別是奧古斯丁主義宗派之外的那些宗派,
And though the reformed have a greater acts on predestination than most other traditions,
改革宗確實更加強調預定論,
certainly the non-Augustinian traditions.
但是,預定論絕對沒有在改革宗信仰告白
Predestination by no means dominates
或改革宗作家的心中占據主導地位。
reformed confessions or reformed writers.
《海德堡教理問答》只在第54問中隱隱約約地提到了它,
Heidelberg catechism has one little implicit reference to it in Question 54,
“一群得永生的選民”,
“a church chosen to everlasting life”,
這是整個教理問答中唯一一處提及預定論的地方。
the only expression about predestination in the whole catechism.
也許有人會說,加爾文就比較好地
Calvin, now you can argue that Calvin interweaves
把揀選和預定這兩個教義融入了他的《基督教要義》一書中,
election and predestination throughout his Institutes with some measure of success, perhaps.
但是這兩個教義在加爾文的書中絕對沒有占據主導地位。
But it’s by no means a dominant thing.
在《基督教要義》的最後一版里,
And in the last edition, his dominant treatment of it
加爾文一直到了書的後半部分
in his long chapter about it doesn’t come
才用了較長的一章來重點討論這一教義。
until over halfway through his Institutes.
即便如此,有意思的是,加爾文在禱告這一主題上
And even then, it’s interesting, that Calvin’s chapter on prayer
所寫的內容比他在預定論上寫得更多。
is longer than his chapter on predestination.
因此,我們不能因為加爾文沒有把預定論
So I don’t think you can make an argument that
當作最核心的教義,就說他不是一位改革宗神學家。
Calvin is not a reformed theologian because he doesn’t center on predestination.
當然,這並不否定,預定論能夠讓我們
Now that’s not saying that predestination does not
對改革宗思想帶來的最深層次的衝擊略見一斑。
give us a clue to the deepest impulse of reformed thought.
預定論確實能在這個方面幫助我們,讓我們知道,
It does in this sense that the real core of reformed theology
改革宗神學真正的核心便是認識上帝和認識我們自己,
is about knowing God and knowing myself,
尤其是認識這位三位一體的上帝。
but particularly about knowing the Triune God.
因為我們若不認識這位三位一體的上帝,我們就無法認識自己。
Because you can’t know yourself without knowing the Triune God.
因此,如果說改革宗神學有一個共同點的話,
And for that reason, if reformed theology has one common denominator,
那就是“以上帝為中心的神學”。
that it’s God-centered theology.
所以,我們的出發點必須始終是創世紀1章1節,“起初,上帝……”
And the starting point, therefore, is always Genesis 1:1, In the beginning, God…
所有的一切都要以上帝為中心。
Everything revolves around God.
華腓德說,“用一句話來說,
B. B. Warfield said, “The Calvinist, in a word,
加爾文主義者是一個處處都能看見上帝的人。
is the man who sees God everywhere.
他在自然中看見上帝, 在歷史中看見上帝, 在恩典中看見上帝。
God in nature, God in history, God in grace.
他處處都能看見上帝強有力的步伐,
Everywhere he sees God in His mighty stepping,
到處都能感受到上帝大能的臂膀,以及他強有力的心跳。”
everywhere he feels the working of His mighty arm, and the throbbing of His mighty heart.”
一位成熟的改革宗基督徒會熱烈地
So the magnificent obsession, and I use the word “obsession” purposefully,
痴迷於通過耶穌基督認識上帝。我故意用的“痴迷”這個詞。
the magnificent obsession of a mature reformed Christian is to know God through Jesus Christ.
“認識你獨一的真神,並且認識你所差來的耶穌基督,
This is life eternal, to know God and Jesus Christ,
這就是永生。”約翰福音17章3節。
whom Thou hast sent, John 17:3.
因此,在上帝的恩典之中,當我們作為改革宗的神學家,
And so by God’s grace, when we are reformed theologians,
雙眼已蒙上帝的開啟,
our eyes have been opened
得見上帝在基督里閃耀,我們得見祂的榮耀。
to see God shining in Christ, and what we see is His glory.
而這將主宰著改革宗信仰中的一切。
And you see that tends to govern all kinds of things in the reformed faith.
舉例來說,
Historically that was the reason
這就是歷史上的改革宗教會一直都是唱詩篇的原因。
in reformed churches, they always sing the psalms, just to take one example.
為什麼呢?這是因為詩篇是以上帝和祂的榮耀為中心,
Why? Because the psalms center on God and His glory,
而不是以我們的感受或我們情感的跌宕起伏為中心。
none of all my feelings and my little ups and downs.
詩篇以上帝為中心的這一特點,在改革宗信仰中至為寶貴。
The God centrality of the psalms, you see, is precious in the reformed tradition.
有人可能查看得更為詳細,他會說,
Now you might get a bit more particular and say,
“在“以上帝為中心”這一點里,
within that God-centerness,
歷經數百年的改革宗神學其實一直都在強調上帝的主權,
there was an emphasis in reformed theology in all centuries on the sovereignty of God,
即上帝是主, 一切的主宰, 是歷史的主, 也是每一個細節的主,
that God is Lord, Lord of all, Lord of history, Lord of every detail,
我們頭上的每一根頭髮祂都數過,
the God who has every hair of your head numbered,
而祂也按照祂自己旨意的計劃來帶領我們生命中的一切事物,
who directs all things in your life according to the counsel of His own will,
以弗所書1章11節。”
Ephesians 1:11.
這個人說得對!
And you would be right!
許多人因此就說:
And a lot of people, therefore,
上帝的主權是改革宗信仰中占據主導地位的教義。
have said the sovereignty of God is the one dominant doctrine of the reformed faith.
但是,我覺得這樣說也還是有點名過其實。
Well, even that is going too far,
但不可否認,上帝的主權確實是一個非常關鍵的教義。
but it is a very key doctrine, sovereignty of God.
我認為來自蘇格蘭的“拉比” 約翰·鄧肯說得很對,
But “Rabbi” John Duncan from Scotland, I think makes a good point when he says,
他說,在改革宗思想里,“上帝的主權”這一教義的重點,
at the very heart of the doctrine of God’s sovereignty in the reformed thinking,
指的是上帝在耶穌基督里對我們的父親般的主權。
is God’s sovereignty to us in Jesus Christ, a Fatherly sovereignty to us in Jesus Christ.
正是出於這一原因,
And it’s for that reason,
我在我的書《為上帝的榮耀而活:加爾文主義導論》中
that I argue in my chapter on The Marrow of Calvinism in my book
“加爾文主義的精髓”那一章中寫道,
Living For God’s Glory: An Introduction to Calvinism.
如果我們一定要選擇一個詞,來代表加爾文主義的精髓,
The Marrow of Calvinism, if you have to label it in one word,
我會選“上帝在耶穌基督里的父親般的主權”。
I would choose the Fatherly sovereignty of God in Jesus Christ.
所以,若從神學的角度來看,
So from the theological perspective,
改革宗神學的基本精神是上帝的榮耀,它讓我們看到,
then, reformed theology breath a spirit of divine glory, and it finds nothing
沒有什麼比上帝本身更令人喜樂。而在這種喜樂中,改革宗神學
so savory as God Himself and in finding that savory,
格外清晰地顯明瞭上帝在耶穌基督里父親般的主權。
it particularly shines light upon the fatherly sovereignty of God in Jesus Christ.
我想跟你們簡單地提一下這一點。
I want to look at one thing here with you very briefly.
你們知道,釋經學是解讀聖經的一門科學。
Hermeneutics, you know is the science of biblical interpretation.
它不是一些文學和語言技能的集合體,
It’s not merely a collection of literary and linguistic skills,
而是一種詮釋聖經的屬靈智慧。
but a kind of spiritual wisdom of how you interpret the Scriptures.
因此,改革宗神學通過讓我們明白它的結構原理,
So reformed theology helps make us wise in interpreting the Bible,
它有助於我們更有智慧地詮釋聖經,
by informing us of one of it’s primary structural Hermeneutics principles,
這個原理就是:上帝對祂的聖約的信實。
which is God’s faithfulness to His covenants.
在歷史上,改革宗神學一直都是聖約神學,
Reformed theology historically has always been covenant theology,
不是因為聖約是改革宗神學中最偉大的一個真理、
not because covenant is its greatest truth
也不是因為它是中心焦點(因為只有上帝才是中心焦點),
or central focus, only God is that.
而是因為聖約是影響著整個聖經啟示發展的框架。
But because covenant is the framework that shapes all biblical revelation.
蘇格蘭神學家羅伯特·羅沃克(1555-1598)說過,
The Scottish divine Robert Rollock, 1555 to 1598, said,
“上帝所說的一切話都與某個聖約有關,
“All the word of God appertains to some covenant;
因為若沒有聖約,上帝就不會對人說話。”
for God speaks nothing to man without the covenant.”
因此,若我們從改革宗神學的方面來看,
So the covenant, you might say,
聖約可以說是一個基礎的解經思路。
is a fundamental Hermeneutical perspective from the aspect of reformed theology.
“聖約”一詞在舊約中出現了284次,
The word “covenant” occurs 284 times in the Old Testament,
在新約中出現了33次。
and 33 times in the New Testament.
聖經中也記載,
The Bible recognizes
上帝在歷史的不同階段與祂的子民建立了多個“聖約”。
a plurality of “covenants” which God made with his people at various points in history.
因此,貫穿整本聖經的救贖歷史都是由各個聖約構成的。
And so redemptive history throughout the Bible is structured by various covenants.
上帝與諾亞所立的約;上帝與亞伯蘭罕、以撒和雅各所立的約;
God’s covenant with Noah; his covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob;
祂在西奈山上與以色列國所立的約;
his covenant with the nation of Israel at Mount Sinai;
祂與大衛所立的國度的約;當然還有祂在基督里所立的新約。
his covenant with David regarding the kingdom; and of course his new covenant in Christ.
因此,改革宗系統神學在與聖經神學這一學科合作的過程中,
And so in cooperation with the discipline of biblical theology,
必須找到各個文本在聖經中的位置,
reformed systematic theology must discern the location
即在某個文本之前的歷史中,上帝已經確立了哪些聖約,
of each text of the Bible with respect to the covenants
以及這些聖約對此文本造成了怎樣的影響。
that precede it and frame it.
因此,若我們能好好地從事聖約神學的研究,
And so this covenant theology, when it’s done rightly,
聖約神學就能為我們提供一種敏銳細緻釋經思路,
provides a sensitive hermeneutic for discovering
幫助我們明白整本聖經都有利於教導和訓練當今上帝的子民。
how all Scripture is profitable for teaching and training of God’s people today.
雖然改革宗神學認可上帝在救贖歷史中所立的聖約不止一個,
And while recognizing the plurality of God’s covenantal administrations in redemptive history,
但它同時也認可將這些聖約連接在一起的深刻合一性,
reformed theology also acknowledges the profound unity that bind these covenants together
這些聖約同屬一個恩典之約。
as one covenant of grace.
從與亞伯拉罕所立的約開始,一直到在基督里所立的新約,
In the covenant with Abraham through the new covenant in Christ,
上帝不變的應許始終都是,祂要將這些子民收納為祂的子民,
God’s promise to take a people for His own and to give Himself to them as their God,
祂要做他們的上帝,他們要做祂的子民。
and they to Him as His people, remains essentially the same.
每一個救贖聖約都建立在前面已立的聖約基礎之上,
Each redemptive covenant builds upon previous covenants
為上帝應許的進一步實現做預備。
and paves the way for greater fulfillment.
例如,上帝在西奈山與以色列人所立的約,
For example, God’s covenant with Israel at Sinai
是源自祂對亞伯拉罕、以撒和雅各的應許,
grows out of his promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,
這些應許在以色列人被上帝拯救出埃及時已經部分實現了。
promises partly fulfilled in the nation’s deliverance and exodus out of Egypt.
這就是聖經中會有複數的“聖約”一詞的原因。
That’s why the Bible at times speaks of biblical “covenants,” plural,
但是,聖經也常常用一個單數的“聖約”
but also sums them up with a singular “covenant”
來概括所有的聖約,比如利未記26章42至45節,
many times, Leviticus 26:42–45,
尼希米記9章8節,以及詩篇中的多處經文。
Nehemiah 9:8, and many places in the Psalms.
而上帝所有應許的支點自始至終都是彌賽亞,耶穌基督。
The fulcrum on which all the covenant promises hinge is always the Messiah, Jesus Christ.
聖約中的這些應許源自上帝在萬古以先便定下的計劃,
The promises of the covenant are rooted in an arrangement made by God before time began,
我們通常稱之為“永恆的救贖之約”。
often called the “eternal covenant of redemption”,
在那時,除了三位一體上帝的三個位格之外,,
when no one yet existed to give
沒有任何人存在,也沒有任何人來給與或者接受應許。
or to receive promises except the three persons of the Trinity.
因此,改革宗神學的聖約釋經法
So this covenantal hermeneutic of Reformed theology
對上帝所有的應許如何指向基督、以及如何應用於基督的教會
offers great insight today into how all the promises of God point to Christ
提供了深刻見解。
and apply to his church.
好,讓我簡單地從辯惑學角度來講一講聖約。
Alright, let me say a word or two about polemical perspective of the covenant.
在《多特信經》駁斥了抗辯派的觀點的三百年之後,
So what has happened after the Canons of Dort refuted the Remonstrants’ articles
人們用荷蘭花“鬱金香”(英語縮寫是TULIP)一詞
is that three centuries later, these five points in four heads of rebuttal
來代稱在《多特信條》四項教義中所提出的五個要點。
came to be known as “TULIP” in the English anacronym of the Dutch flower.
當然,出人意料的是“鬱金香”(TULIP)是一個英語詞,
The irony of course is “TULIP” is an English word
而這是一份荷蘭語的信仰告白。
and this is a Dutch confession.
但是不管怎麼說,荷蘭人很喜歡鬱金香,所以我覺得,
But anyway Dutch like tulips so I guess.
當他們用“鬱金香”來代表這五點時,他們認為這樣是可行的。
they brought them together and say this is gonna work
但是人們針對“鬱金香”(TULIP)一詞,提出了很多爭論,
And people have argued a lot about the TULIP, whether
即它是否是對《多特信條》的一種準確描述。
that’s an accurate portrayal summary of the Canons of Dort.
從某種意義上來說,“鬱金香”是一種準確描述。
In a sense it is, but people have argued a lot
但是自從有人開始使用這一詞,人們就一直在爭論,
since this term was first used about whether
爭論這個詞是否是一個最佳選擇。
the exact vocabulary is the best vocabulary.
例如,“全然敗壞”這幾個字眼會給人一種錯誤的印象,
“Total depravity,” the very words give some people the mistaken impression that
即每個罪人總是處於他最邪惡的狀態,
everybody is always as bad as they could possibly be,
但其實這並不是“全然敗壞”的意思。
which is not what “total depravity” means.
而在十六、十七世紀,
“Limited atonement” was actually not the terminology used
人們採用的並不是“有限的救贖”這樣的說法,
in the sixteenth through seventeenth centuries,
所以這個詞也有一些不太合時宜。
so it’s a bit anachronistic.
而比起“個別的救贖”之類的說法,
And it seems to be rather negative, it’s “limited”,
“有限的救贖”給人一種很消極的感覺,它是“有限的”,
instead of saying something like “personal atonement”.
而“不可抗拒的恩典”這一說法有時候也有點不太合適,
And the term “irresistible grace” is a bit awkward at times, because
因為有一些恩典是人可以抗拒的,有一些恩典是不可抗拒的。
some grace can be resisted, some grace can not be resisted.
人們對此有爭議,即這可能不是一種最好的說法。
It’s not the best term, that’s been debated.
但總而言之,“鬱金香”(TULIP)這一縮寫詞
But all in all, “TULIP” is perhaps a helpful anacronym
對於解釋《多特信條》的主要內容還是有一些幫助的。
to explain the summary of the Canons of Dort.
然而,這五大點的精髓簡而言之就是,
The quintessence of the five points, however, is simply this:
上帝通過在基督里的主權恩典來拯救罪人。
God saves sinners by sovereign grace in Christ.
《多特信條》肯定了羅馬書9章15節所說的,
The Canons are affirming Romans 9:15,
“我要憐憫誰就憐憫誰,要恩待誰就恩待誰”。
“I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion”.
人們之所以一定要寫出《多特信條》,是因為
And one reason why the Canons had to be written is because
荷蘭、德國傳統中的《比利時信條》和《海德堡教理問答》
in the Dutch/German tradition, the Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism
在某些方面的教導比較缺乏,
said so little about some of these areas
以至於亞米念派可以見縫插針、提出反對意見。
that it left an opening for the Arminians to raise objections.
因此,在某種程度上,
So in a way, the Canons of Dort
《多特信條》完善了三項聯合信條,它是非常有必要的。
are kind of like the completion of the three forms of unity, they are needed.
不屬於德國、荷蘭傳統的人們通常會作出這樣的評價:
And often people outside of the German-Dutch tradition look at the Canons and say,
“《比利時信條》非常好,它很平和、友好,
oh wow, Belgic Confession, that’s great, it’s kind of irenical, it’s nice,
又對所有的教義有一個總結;
it summarizes all doctrines.
而《海德堡教理問答》非常溫暖,並且與個人聯繫緊密;
And the Heidelberg Catechism, that’s warm and personal.
但是《多特信條》太死板、太強硬、太冷酷、
But oh the Canons of Dort, that’s rigid and hard and cold
太註重前因後果,並且太教條。“
and causal and decretal.
其實《多特信條》也很溫暖,它也與個人的聯繫也十分緊密,
Well in actuality, Canons of Dort are also very warm
並且,它也是很有牧養意義的。
and personal and pastoral,
人們在寫《多特信條》時,非常謹慎地建構了它的框架,
carefully constructed,
而它裡面也沒有極端加爾文主義的影子。
don’t embrace hyper-Calvinism.
事實上,《多特信條》更支持的是墮落後預定論,
In fact they are more infralapsarian
而不是墮落前預定論。
than they are supralapsarian.
它並不強硬、冰冷,它強調人的責任,也強調上帝白白的恩典。
And they are not harsh and cold, and they stress man’s responsibility, they stress the free offer of grace.
《多特信條》是一份謹慎而精心的信仰告白,
That’s very carefully and well written,
它豐富了改革宗傳統的認信告白資料庫。
and it enriches the confessional literature of the tradition.
因此,讓我們簡要地來查考一下這五點,
So let’s look at these five things, just briefly here,
不過我們要採用一個稍有不同的方式。
just a little bit of a different scenario.
我想不用“鬱金香”(TULIP),而是用以下的說法。
Instead of using “TULIP”, I am going to do it this way.
第一點,揀選:上帝所預定的恩典。
Number one, election: sovereign grace decreed.
據《抗議書》上所表達的原意,
See the Remonstrance said, literally, that
上帝定意要通過基督拯救那些“在聖靈的恩典之下,
God decreed to save through Christ, this is a quote, “those who through the grace of the Holy Spirit,
會相信祂的聖子,並且會在信心與順服信仰中堅守的人。”
would believe on His same Son, and who would persevere in that very faith and obedience of faith.”
換言之,他們相信揀選是有條件的、是以上帝的先見為前提的,
In other words, they believe in conditional election upon God’s foresight,
即上帝預先知道誰會相信基督、併在信心與順服中堅守到底。
that a sinner would trust in Christ and persevere in faith and obedience.
出席多特大會的改革宗神學家們在《多特信條》第一項中陳明,
What the Reformed divines at Dort are saying in Head one
上帝的揀選是無條件的,上帝本可以公義地讓全人類滅亡,
is that God’s election is unconditional, that God could rightly have damned all mankind,
因為世人都犯了罪,在祂面前都是有罪的。
for all have sinned and are guilty in His sight.
但是上帝在憐憫之中,差派傳道人來呼召罪人悔改、信福音,
But in His mercies, He sends preachers to call sinners to repentance and faith.
讓他們能夠因此而得救。
so that they may be saved
上帝的震怒常在那些不信福音的人身上。
His wrath abides on those who do not believe the Gospel,
但是上帝也揀選一群人,讓福音在他們身上有救贖性的功效。
but He also determines those in whom the Gospel will have a saving impact.
當然,聖經中支持這一部分的經文
And of course it leans on
是羅馬書第9章和以弗所書1章4至6節,
Romans 9 and Ephesians 1:4 through 6,
這幾處正是支持“上帝擁有無條件揀選的主權”的
those classic texts that are so strong on
強有力的經典經文。
sovereign unconditional election.
第二點,救贖。
Number two, redemption.
《多特信條》的第二項教義涉及的是救贖的問題。
Head two of the Canons deals with redemption.
救贖是人藉著基督之死而獲得的上帝的恩典。
This is sovereign grace merited, sovereign grace merited.
亞米念派的《抗議書》這樣說,
You see the Arminian Remonstrance said
“世界救主耶穌基督為所有人死,
“Jesus Christ, Savior of the world, has died for each and every man,
人人藉著十字架的救贖都可以罪得赦免、與上帝和好;
and through His death on the cross has merited reconciliation and forgiveness of sins for all;
儘管如此,實際上只有相信的人才能得到這樣的寬恕。”
nevertheless so that no one in fact becomes a partaker of this forgiveness except believers.”
對於亞米念派來說,這是一種普遍的、有條件的救贖,
For the Arminian, this is a universal conditional redemption,
只是提供了救恩的可能性,卻沒有真正的實現救恩。
an offer of salvation, but no real accomplishment of salvation.
這一點很重要。
This is important.
亞米念主義認為,基督提供的僅僅是罪人得救贖的可能性,
In Arminianism, Christ provides only the potential for sinners to be saved,
只有當罪人來到基督面前,他們才能得救。
only the potential if they come to Christ.
我們可以看到,如果救恩是提供給所有人的、他們都可以得救,
You see, of course, if a provided salvation for them all that they were saved
但他們卻沒有來到基督面前,
and they didn’t come to Christ,
這當然是一個矛盾的地方,是一個邏輯上的矛盾。
you’d have an oxymoron, you’d have a logical contradiction.
因此,如果救恩的基礎在於人是否相信,
So it can only be a potential salvation when it depends upon man,
那麼這種救恩只是一種救恩的可能性。
whether they believe or not.
改革宗神學家們在《多特信條》的第二項中這樣回應,
Reformed theologians responded in Head 2 by saying that
基督的犧牲確確實實為上帝選民的罪付上了贖價,
Christ’s sacrifice actually does atone for the sins of the elect,
它滿足了上帝的公義。
it satisfies God’s justice,
因此,基督成就的不是一種救贖的可能性,
so it’s not a potential salvation,
而是確確實實的救贖價值,真真切切地完成了對他們的救贖。
but it actually merits and accomplishes their salvation.
這是他們的論點。
That’s the argument.
基督的獻祭擁有無限的價值,此舉目的明確,
Christ’s infinitely valuable satisfaction intentionally and effectually
也有效地拯救了上帝托付給他去救贖的那些人。
redeems the people whom God entrusted to his Son to save.
那些強調基督之死的特殊性的經文都特別能夠支持這一點。
And that leans especially on texts that stress the particularity of his death.
例如,基督在約翰福音第10章中說,
For example, when he says in John 10 that he didn’t come
他來,只為他自己的羊捨命。
to lay down his life for anyone but for his sheep.
第三點,敗壞,需要上帝的恩典;以及呼召,上帝恩典的實現。
Thirdly, you have depravity: sovereign grace needed; and calling: sovereign grace applied.
有意思的是,我們看到《多特信條》在這裡
Now it’s interesting that what’s going on here
將第三項和第四項教義放在了一起,
is that the Canons bring together Head 3 and Head 4 in one.
不知道你們以前有沒有註意到這一點,
I don’t know if you’ve ever noticed that,
但《多特信條》寫的是“第三項與第四項教義”,所以是一起的。
but it says 3/4, so one Head.
他們為什麼要這樣做呢?
Why did they do that?
他們為什麼不用第三項教義來回應第三個反對意見,
Why didn’t they just answer three with three,
用第四項教義來回答第四個反對意見呢?
and four with four?
其實是因為亞米念派對改革宗神學的理解。
Well, you see, because Arminians were looking at the Reformed
他們對改革宗的基督徒說:
that they were saying something like this:
“你們認為人是全然敗壞的,
you guys believe in this thorough depravity of man,
那麼你們相信的是一個毫無希望的宗教。
you got a hopeless religion,
你們說人在靈里是死亡的,什麼也不能做,
man is dead, man can do nothing,
那他就像草木瓦石一般,毫無生命力。
man’s like a stock in a block of stone,
這是完全沒有希望的。
and there’s no hope,
比如,你們有什麼盼望、認為上帝會救一個嬰兒?
and what hope do you have, for example, that God will ever save an infant?
這個嬰兒全然敗壞,又來到了這個全然敗壞的世界。
And that infant is also depraved, coming to the world depraved.
上帝無法呼召一名嬰兒,因為嬰兒沒有能力接受呼召。”
And God can’t give a calling to that infant, because infant doesn’t have the capacity
諸如此類的話。
to receive it and so on.
而改革宗的基督徒則回應說,“亞米念派,你們沒有明白。
So the reformed answered and said, what you are failing to see, Arminians,
我們不是單獨教導全然敗壞這一個教義,
is that we don’t teach the doctrine of depravity all by itself,
而是將它與另一教義結合起來,即上帝呼召罪人,
but together with the doctrine of depravity, we teach that God calls sinners
並且上帝可以將重生的種子放在嬰幼兒的心中,
and God can plant the seed of regeneration also in babies and infants,
而祂通常也是這樣做的。
and normally does do so.
所以,你們分開教導的這兩個教義,我們會把它們結合在一起,
So we may never separate the two things you are separating,
即人的敗壞和上帝呼召他們得拯救。”
man’s depravity and God’s calling to salvation.
因此,敗壞與重生,敗壞與呼召應該總是一起教導,
So depravity and regeneration, depravity and calling
為此,《多特信條》堅持把第三項與第四項教義放在一起,
always belong together, hence 3/4,
並沒有因亞米念派的挑釁而喪失立場。
and refuse to take the bait from the Arminians and separate the two.
實際上,他們對亞米念派這樣說道,
In fact, they looked at the Arminians and said,
“其實你們才是悲觀的,我們是樂觀的。
you are the pessimistic ones, and we are the optimistic ones,
因為當我們將人的敗壞與上帝的呼召放在一起時,
because when calling and depravity come together, you see,
上帝的呼召能夠勝過我們的敗壞,上帝可以救贖我們。
God’s calling will trump our depravity and God will redeem us,
所以我們是樂觀的。
and we are the optimistic ones.
而根據你們的教義,嬰兒根本無法得救,因為你們認為,
Because you know what, you don’t have a way for infants to be saved either,
上帝的揀選是基於祂對“人用信心來回應”的先見,
because you say that God only elect on the basis of foreseen faith
而嬰兒沒有能力用信心來回應。
and infants don’t have the capacity to respond with faith.
所以事實上,你們的神學才是冷酷無情的。”
And so actually, you are the ones that are cool in your theology.
結果,抗辯派與改革宗神學家爭論不止。
And so they went back and forth like that.
周必克教授:馬克,你有問題?
Beeke: Yes, Mark.
馬克:可能說“死亡的嬰兒”會更貼切。
Mark: It might be helpful to add “infants who die”.
周必克教授:對,我剛剛不是這麼說的嗎?
Beeke: right, I didn’t say that?
馬克:好像沒有。
Mark: I didn’t hear that.
周必克教授:對。我是這個意思。
Beeke: okay, okay. That’s what I mean,
就是那些死於襁褓的信徒的子女。謝謝你。
infants who die in infancy of the seed of believers. Yeah, thank you.
如果我們不瞭解當時的歷史背景,
So that’s critical to understand that the Arminians are trying
我們可能在讀《多特信條》的時候會忽略一些東西。
to make the reformed look… if you don’t know the historical context,
很重要的一點是,當時的亞米念派想讓改革宗難堪,
you might miss that when you just read the Canons of Dort…
想讓人們覺得改革宗神學里的上帝是狹隘、嚴厲的,
make them look bad,and make God look narrow
是一個設立條條框框的上帝,並且很少有人能夠得救。
and strict and restricted, and few people get saved.
然而改革宗神學家對亞米念派這樣說道,
Whereas the reformed are saying to the Arminians,
“基本上,你們編造的是一個有可能的救贖,
you guys really ultimately are only authoring this supposed salvation,
而不是一個已經實現的救贖。
not an accomplished salvation.
我們的教導是更合乎聖經的,
And in our system of teaching, which we believe is more biblical,
即基督已確實地實現了救贖,他的呼召不可抗拒、也不可逆。
Jesus actually effects the salvation, his calling is irresistable, irreversible,
因此,他呼召敗壞的罪人。這兩點不可分割。有問題嗎?”
and so he calls depraved sinners. And those two things cannot be separated. Yeah.
學生:亞米念派可能會這樣回應,“因為基督的救贖人人有份,
Student: Those Arminians would answer, saying that since Christ’s atonement was for everyone,
而嬰幼兒沒有能力相信,所以那些死去的嬰兒都是得救的。”
and the kids don’t have the ability to believe, then all the infants who die, all of them would be saved.
周必克教授:有些人確實是這樣爭辯的。
Beeke: some argue that way. Yeah.
但也有些人不是這樣想的。他們來來回回爭辯了很久。
Some didn’t take it up that way. But they went back and forth that way. But
但是,改革宗要表達的觀點是,
the point, though, of the reformed
上帝是一個守約的上帝,祂的呼召是不可抗拒的。
is that God is a covenant-keeping God and calls irresistibly,
因此,正如《多特信條》第一項教義第十七條所說,
therefore, as Head one seventeen says,
那些失去襁褓中的嬰孩的父母沒有任何理由懷疑子女的得救。
parents who lose an infant in infancy need not doubt about the infant’s salvation.
那麼亞米念確實可能會像你所說的那樣來爭論。
And they would come back to that argument that you just offered for the Arminian.
但是我們不要忘了,這裡有一個問題,
Well yes, but the problem is, don’t forget,
即亞米念的神學宣稱基督並沒有真正為每一個人實現救贖,
Christ did not actually merit and effect salvation for anyone,
因此根據亞米念的神學,一個人仍然需要自己實際去相信的意志。
so by your theology, you’re still insisting that that person has an act of the will to believe,
所以,他們提出的論點是前後矛盾的。
so you are inconsistent in your reasoning.
好,那麼典型的改革宗教導便是:
All right, now in the classic reformed presentation of
人是全然敗壞的,我們需要上帝的恩典。
man’s depravity: sovereign grace needed,
說“人是全然敗壞”的時候,《多特信條》想要表達的,
what the Canons of Dort are actually saying is not that man is totally depraved in the sense
並非是人每一秒鐘都完全地展現了他心裡的惡。
he’s always acting out his depravity as bad as he really is inside.
如果真的是這樣,如果全然敗壞的意思是,
If that’s the case, if man’s always as bad as he can possibly be,
人在每一秒鐘都展現出了他最凶惡的一面,
if that’s what’s meant by total depravity,
那麼沒有哪位加爾文主義者會相信這一教義。
no Calvinist would believe that.
因為如果真是這樣,那我們現在很有可能會開始互相殘殺,
Because then we’d all be killing each other right now
很快這個世界上便不會再有活人。
and there’d be no one alive in the planet,
或者,我們現在都去搶劫銀行,做一些荒謬邪惡的事情。
you know, or you would all be going out robbing a bank right now, doing some ridiculous things.
全然敗壞的真實意思是,
But total depravity means
當聖潔的上帝俯身查看我們,若沒有祂救贖的恩典,
that when God looks down in His holiness at you, that every single part of you
我們身上的每一部分都無可救藥地被罪污染,
is hopelessly stained by sin apart from his redeeming grace.
不管是我們的意志、情感、靈魂、還是心智,
Not a single part of you, not your will, not your affections, not your soul,
我們身上沒有哪一部分, 能以本來面貌坦然無懼地立於上帝面前.
not your mind can stand before God as you are,
因為我們生命的每一個部分都是有罪的,我們是全然敗壞的。
because you are sinful in every part of your existence, total depravity,
或者說,每一部分都被罪污染了,這樣可能更好理解。
you might add, if you want to understand it better, in every part, every part stained by sin.
接下來呼召,上帝恩典的實現。
Now calling then is sovereign grace applied. And
《多特信條》中說,人憑著本性確實會抗拒上帝恩典的呼召,
the Canons would argue that the natural man resists the call to grace,
但是當上帝要在一個人身上實現祂的救恩時,
but God when he is going to effect salvation
祂會戰勝他本性里的抗拒,使他在有生之年變得心甘情願。
overcomes that natural resistance and makes man willing in the day of his power.
所以,這樣的恩典是不可抗拒的。
So that that grace becomes irresistible.
《多特信條》說,因此,上帝非常誠懇地透過福音來呼召我們,
And therefore, God’s call in the Gospel is sincere, the Canons say,
那些聽到福音的人都是“真實地蒙召”,
all those who hear the Gospel are “unfeignedly called,”
上帝對所有憑信心到基督那裡去的人都“極其誠懇地應許了永生”。
and God “seriously promises eternal life” to all who come to Christ in faith.
但是,只有那些獲得了不可抗拒的呼召的人,才會到基督那裡去,
But the only ones who will come are those who are irresistibly called,
上帝在這些人的心中種下了重生的種子,
in whom God works through the seed of regeneration
讓他們能夠相信、悔改等等。
and enables them to believe and repent and so on.
故《多特信條》稱上帝的這一作工為“超自然之工”,
So that, the Canons called “a supernatural work”,
因它是一種超越我們理解的人不可抗拒的作工,
an irresistible work beyond our comprehension,
就像使人死里複活一樣。
like arising from the dead.
當然,類似以弗所書第2章這樣的經文就可以支持這一論點,
And of course it based on text like Ephesians 2,
雖然我們死在罪惡過犯中,
but you were dead in sins and transpasses,
“然而,神既有豐富的憐憫,因他愛我們的大愛,
“but God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,
當我們死在過犯中的時候,便叫我們與基督一同活過來。”
even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ.”
同樣,以西結書36章26至27節也能夠支持這一教義。
And then again, Ezekiel 36:26-27.
之後,《多特信條》又反駁了亞米念派的一個反對意見,
And then the Canons rebut the Arminian objection that
即他們認為改革宗的教義
this treats man like they are stocks and blocks,
將人看作草木瓦石,或沒有靈魂的機器。
or stones, we would say today I suppose, or soulless machines.
《多特信條》並沒有將人看作是沒有靈魂、沒有意志的機器,
The Canons do not treat men as if they were soulless machines without a will,
註意看它是怎麼說的:
but notice what they say,
“上帝使人重生之恩並沒有把人視為毫無知覺的草木瓦石,
“The grace of regeneration does not treat men as senseless blocks and stocks,
也沒有剝奪人的意志及其屬性,
nor takes away their will and its properties,
更沒有用強迫的方式侵犯人的意志;”
neither does violence to the will,”
換言之,上帝並不會強迫一個人得救,
In other words, God doesn’t force you to be saved,
“而是在靈命方面使人的意志得以蘇醒,得到醫治,得到更正,
“but spiritually quickens the will, heals it, corrects it,
並且用甜蜜的大能的方式使”人真心實意地順服。
and at the same time sweetly and powerfully bends it” toward sincere obedience.
《多特信條》接著說,那麼,在這個基督徒的生命里,
And then the will itself becomes active
他得到了醫治與更正的意志開始變得活躍、有生命力。
in the Christian life, says the Canons of Dort.
好,這就將我們引向最後一點:聖徒的堅忍是上帝恩典的保守。
All right, and that leads us to the last one, that perseverance is sovereign grace preserved.
《抗議書》的第五條這樣說,
The fifth article of the Remonstrance says that
“只要屬基督的子民自己準備好要戰鬥、祈求基督的幫助,
Christ secures his people“if only they are prepared to fight themselves,
並且不離棄基督”,那麼基督就會保守他們。
and beseech His help, and do not desert Him themselves.”
這裡體現的又是這類“x和x一起”的神學,
So again, that’s kind of the “both…and” theology,
這實際上是羅馬天主教神學的典型特點。
that’s so typical actually of Roman Catholic theology.
抗辯派的意思是,上帝和人在所有的事上都有合作,
See, God and man are cooperating in all these things,
因此,只要我們自己準備好了要努力、要尋求上帝的幫助,
and therefore only if you prepare to fight yourself, only if you beseech God for His help,
並且不離棄上帝,那麼上帝就會保守我們。
only if you do not desert Him yourself, then God will preserve you.
因此,他們基本上又再一次地將人作為這件事情成敗的關鍵。
So the condition ultimately is again, put upon man.
因此,在《多特信條》成文兩年後的1621年,
And so, by 1621, two years after the Canons are written,
亞米念派在這一教義上達成了一致觀點,
the Arminians unit in the declaration and actually state in the declaration that
他們宣告,亞米念派正式地否認“聖徒的堅忍”這一教義。
they now officially believe, or disbelieve rather, in the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints.
當他們將《抗辯書》呈遞政府時,只是宣稱
So when they gave their Remonstrance to the government, they were saying
改革宗信仰所教導的“聖徒的堅忍”這一教義可能是錯誤的。
that maybe that perseverance is a wrong doctrine in the reformed faith.
但是在多特大會結束的兩年後,亞米念派拿掉“可能”一詞,
Two years after the Synod is over, the Arminians were saying,
很確定地宣稱:“聖徒的堅忍”是一個錯誤的教義。
take away the “maybe” now, it definitely is a wrong doctrine,
他們說,“我們不相信聖徒能夠堅守到底,
we don’t believe in the perseverance of saints,
因為我們認為信徒有失去救恩的可能性。”
because believers can lose their salvation.
改革宗神學家在《多特信條》第五項中
And reformed divines
對抗辯派的這一反對意見作出了回應。
respond in Head 5,
對於我個人而言,
which to me is one of the most
這是在所有信仰告白中對一個教義的最令人驚喜的描述。
amazing statements of doctrine ever written in confessional literature.
一個人若想要受造就,
I mean, if you want to be edified,
他就應該回家好好讀一讀《多特信條》的第五項教義。
you go home and you read Head 5 of the Canons of Dort,
這項教義實在是令人驚嘆,
it is an amazing piece of work
特別是在得救確據、信仰持守上的教導;
on assurance of faith, on perseverance,
它談到信徒可能會在信仰上有很大程度的倒退、
on how far a believer can fall
但卻仍然得蒙上帝的保守;
and yet still be preserved,
它還談到了聖靈的偉大事工。
the tremendous ministry of the Holy Spirit.
這是一項有憐憫的教義,是一項富有牧者關懷的教義,
It’s a compassionate head, it’s a pastoral head,
它的內容令人驚嘆。
it’s got amazing content.
我們來讀一讀第五項教義第六條中寫的一句話:
Just listen to this one statement, this is taken from Head 5, Article 6.
“上帝大有憐憫,他根據自己的不變的揀選的旨意,
God, who is rich in mercy, according to His unchangeable purpose of election,
即使當他自己的子民陷於悲慘的墮落之中的時候,
does not wholly withdraw the Holy Spirit from His own people,
上帝也沒有完全從他們收回聖靈,
even in their melancholy falls;
更沒有任憑他們墮落到喪失兒子名分之恩和稱義的地位的地步;
nor suffers them to proceed so far as to lose the grace of adoption,
也沒有任憑他們犯罪至死,
and forfeit the state of justification, or to commit the sin unto death;
更沒有任憑他們完全被棄,自陷於永遠的滅亡之中。”
nor does He permit them to be totally deserted, and to plunge themselves into everlasting destruction.
這裡面的每一個詞都是經過反覆推敲才最終選定的,
I mean, every word there is just carefully chosen,
它接著說,上帝會在祂看為合適的時間里,使他們迴轉,
and it says, but he will in due time revive them and bring them back
再一次回到認罪悔改的道路上,諸如此類。
in the way of repentance and faith and so on.
“他們沒有完全從信心與恩典中墮落,也沒有繼續退後,以至滅亡.”
“They would not totally fall from faith and grace, nor continue and perish finally in their backslidings.”
因此,《多特信條》實在是一份成熟完善的信仰告白。
So it’s just a masterful document.
好了,我今天的計劃就是講到這裡,
Alright, so that’s where I was hoping to reach today,
即從各種角度來看改革宗神學。
that we would cover those various perspectives of the reformed faith.
然後還有最後一點,就是我們下周要講的,
Then we got one more to look at, which we will look at next week,
從經歷式的角度來看改革宗神學。
reformed theology from the experiential perspective.
首先,從經歷式角度看改革宗神學。
So first then, reformed theology in the experiential perspective.
我們在神學院里常常聽到這樣的說法,
You hear all the time in the seminary that
即我們不僅是在用頭腦理解上帝的話語,
the Word of God is not only to address our mind,
更是用我們的心和我們在生命中的體驗來理解上帝的話語。
but also our heart and our experience in life.
我們在屬靈上的經歷滲透到了我們整個的生活方式中。
Our spiritual experience that spills over into our whole way of living.
我最敬佩的神學家之一就是三十九歲便英年早逝的、
Robert Burns, in introducing one of my favorite theologians, Thomas Halyburton,
偉大的蘇格蘭神學家托馬斯·哈利伯頓。他去世前這樣說,
a great Scottish divine who died when he was 39
“我希望自己能盡可能地被葬在離撒母耳•羅德福近的地方。
and said, I want to be buried as close as possible to Samuel Rutherford,
因為當主耶穌再來的時候,我想親眼看到羅德福的喜樂。”
said I want to see Rutherford’s joy on his face when Jesus comes again,
哈利伯頓的願望實現了,他就葬在羅德福的旁邊。
and got his wish, and he is buried right next to him.
托馬斯·哈利伯頓有一本非常珍貴的作品全集,
Robert Burns introduced the one volume, a precious volume
也是我十分珍愛的一本書。
of the complete works of Thomas Halyburton, which I treasure
羅伯特·伯恩斯在這本全集的引言中這樣說,
and in the introduction, he says, Halyburton was primarily,
雖然哈利伯頓以各種深刻的方式來啟迪人的思想,
even though he addressed the mind in all kinds of profound ways,
但是他首要的身份是一位經歷式的神學家
but he was primarily an experiential theologian,
(經歷式的英文是“experiential”,
or experimental, of course was the word they used then,
但過去的人會說“experimental”,兩者詞義基本相當)。
basically means the same thing.
伯恩斯接著問道,這句話是什麼意思呢? 意思就是,
And he said what does this really mean,
“基督教使‘人在工作上與內心中’都有透徹深刻的理解”,
and then he made this statement which I have used many times in lectures,
這也是我經常在課堂上使用的一句話。
it’s “Christianity brought home to ‘men’s business and bosoms.”
換句話說,基督教不只會使一個人的心裡清楚明白,
In other words, it’s Christianity brought home to your own heart,
還會影響他的工作生活、家庭生活,他在生活中的一切。
but also impacts your business life, you family life, all that you do in daily life.
伯恩斯接著寫道,
And then Burns adds behind it,
“我們不僅應該明白基督教、理解它、相信它,
because Christianity should not only be known and understood and believed,
還需要感受它、享受它,並且實際地應用它。”
but also felt and enjoyed, and practically applied.
這句話引自托馬斯·哈利伯頓作品全集中引言的第14和15頁。
Pages 14 and 15 of the intro to the works of Thomas Halyburton.
因此,撰寫《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》的清教徒們這樣說道,
And so the Puritans who wrote the Westminster Confession said,
“我們需要在信仰中扎根並沉澱,
“A most sovereign antidote against all kinds of errors,
這是能化解一切謬誤之荼毒的最好的解藥……
is to be grounded and settled in the faith.
但是我們最為贊同的,不是一種純粹推測的頭腦知識……
But yet the knowledge we especially commend, is not a brain-knowledge,
而是一種內在的、良好的的認識,一種心中的理解。”
a mere speculation, but an inward, a savory, a heart knowledge.”
引自《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》第6頁,“給讀者的信”。
That’s taken from Epistle to the Reader in the Westminster Confession of Faith, page 6.
若我們以經歷式的角度來看神學,那麼,
So the experiential perspective transforms
自我們打開聖經的那一刻, 我們研究神學的方式便會煥然一新。
how we approach theology from the moment we open our Bibles.
在《改教傳統英皇欽定本聖經(KJV研讀本)》
Our own Jerry Bilkes writes in the introduction article
一書最開始的引言中,我們神學院的教授
to the Reformation Heritage KJV Study Bible, there’s an article there
傑拉德·比爾克斯寫了一篇文章,叫做《經歷性地閱讀聖經》。
at the beginning called Reading the Bible Experientially,
他在文中這樣寫道,
and Bilkes writes in that article,
“有一種方法,可以測試我們是否在經歷性地閱讀聖經,
“A test as to whether you are reading the Bible experientially
即是否在我們閱讀聖經的過程中,聖經也在閱讀我們。”
is whether in the process of reading the Bible, the Bible reads you.”
“有一種方法,可以測試我們是否在經歷性地閱讀聖經,
“A test as to whether you are reading the Bible experientially is
即是否在我們閱讀聖經的過程中,聖經也在閱讀我們。”
whether in the process of reading the Bible, the Bible reads you.”
比爾克斯教授的意思是,如果我們在以正確的方式研究神學,
So his idea, which is a good one is that the Word of God,
上帝的話語便會牢牢抓住我們,帶領我們順服於上帝。
when we do theology rightly, grasps hold of us,
而他的這一觀點是非常正確的。
and brings us into subjection to God.
一個神學家如果不順服於上帝,他或許深得人的欽佩,
A theologian that is not brought into subjection to God can be admired by many people,
但實際上他並不認識上帝。
but he doesn’t know God.
因此,聖經鑒查我們的心思意念,向我們啟示,
And so the Word searches us as it reveals how
在基督徒的生命中,屬靈之事本該是什麼樣子,
spiritual matters should go in our lives,
即“聖經理想主義”,我們應該成為什麼樣子;
biblical idealism, what we should be like.
聖經還向我們啟示,在現實中,屬靈之事通常是什麼樣子,
But also how they often do go in our lives,
即“聖經現實主義”,也是羅馬書第7章所教導的,
that’s our biblical realism, Romans 7, we don’t
即我們並沒有按照我們本該有的方式來生活;
live and aren’t inside the way we ought to be.
聖經還向我們啟示,在天堂里,屬靈之事最終定會成就的樣子,
And how they ultimately will go for believers, that is one day in heaven,
即“聖經樂觀主義”。
which is our biblical optimism.
你們中大部分人可能已經知道,我在《經歷式基督教》一書中
So I argue, as most of you probably know, in my literature on experiential Christianity,
提出了這一論點,即經歷式講道需要融合這三種主義。
that these three things come together in experiential preaching.
“聖經理想主義”,即羅馬書第8章所教導的內容。
Biblical idealism, Romans 8 type of thing;
“聖經現實主義”,即羅馬書第7章所教導的內容。
Biblical realism, Romans 7 type of thing;
還有“聖經樂觀主義”,即啟示錄21章所教導的內容。
And biblical optimism, a Revelation 21 type of thing.
所以,一個以上帝為中心的神學旨在塑造以上帝為中心的靈魂,
So God-centered theology then aims to mold God-centered souls
他們與上帝有個人的、親密的關係。
who have personal encounters with God.
科頓·馬瑟曾這樣寫道,
Cotton Mather once wrote,
“設立基督徒傳道人這一職分的偉大原因與目的,
“The great design and intention of the office of a Christian preacher
就是在人的靈魂中恢覆上帝的王權與統治。”
are to restore the throne and dominion of God in the souls of men.”
“設立基督徒傳道人這一職分的偉大原因與目的,
“The great design and intention of the office of a Christian preacher
就是在人的靈魂中恢覆上帝的王權與統治。”
are to restore the throne and dominion of God in the souls of men.”
這就是為什麼鐘馬田過去常說,一位傳道人不需要特別有恩賜,
That’s why Lloyd Jones used to say, you know, a preacher doesn’t have to be overwhelmingly gifted,
只需要他在講完道、說“阿門”的時候,能夠讓我覺得,
as long as he gives me, by the time he says Amen,
自己就在全能的上帝的面前。
a sense that I am right in the presence of the Almighty God,
如果在聖靈的恩典之下,他能讓我有這樣的經歷和感受,
if he gives me that experientially by the grace of the Holy Spirit of course,
那麼對我而言,這就是一個意義十足的敬拜,
it’s a meaningful worship hour
即便他在言語上不是特別自然流暢,
for me, even if his words weren’t exactly smooth,
又即便他並不是最有恩賜的傳道人。
or he wasn’t the most gifted.
這就是改革宗神學的宗旨,即在聖靈的恩典之下,
So reformed theology aims to do this, not just in preaching, but also teaching
我們藉著講道與教導,能夠在人的靈魂中形成對福音現實的認識.
by forming an awareness of Gospel realities in the souls of men and women by the Spirit’s grace.
這就意味著,神學不僅必須要應用我們所詮釋的真理,
And that means that theology must not only apply the truth we are expounding,
還必須在應用這些真理的同時,將信徒與不信的人區別開來。
but it must also discriminate the believer from the unbeliever in the application of those truth.
當然,對於來自荷蘭背景的人(我自己也是荷蘭後裔),
Now of course in the Dutch background, from which I hail,
《海德堡教理問答》是一個主要的信仰告白。
where the Heidelberg Catechism is a major confession,
牧師們會用《海德堡教理問答》來講道,
that is preached from,
它也在我們的腦海裡留下了極其深刻的印象。
that’s embedded and printed very deeply in our minds
《海德堡教理問答》以認信的形式體現了經歷式神學,
that experiential theology is confessionally rooted in the catechism,
它遵循了一種經歷式的順序,即愁苦、拯救和感謝。
which follows an experiential order of misery, deliverance, and gratitude.
“你無論是生是死,要享有這種安慰,
“How many things are necessary for you to know
有多少事情必須知道呢?”
that you, enjoying this comfort, may live and die happily?”
主日1第二問的答案是:
And the answer in Question 2 of Lord’s Day 1 is
“有三件事:第一,我的罪惡和愁苦有多大;
“Three; the first, how great my sins and miseries are;
第二,我當怎樣從自己一切罪 惡和愁苦中得拯救;
the second, how I may be delivered from all my sins and miseries;
第三,我當怎樣為這樣的拯救感謝上帝。”
and the third, how I shall express my gratitude to God for such deliverance.”
而《比利時信條》遵循的是改革宗神學的傳統順序,
Now the Belgic Confession follows the traditional order of reformed theology
即它先有幾條系統神學緒論的教義,
where it has couple articles on prolegomena,
然後就開始遵循系統神學六大主題的順序,
and then it actually follows, even though there was not headings,
即從神論一直到末世論,
the six loci from the doctrine of
雖然它並沒有列出這幾個主題的大標題。
God to the doctrine of the last things.
它採用了這一傳統順序,也是此順序的一個早期的典型代表,
Very traditional order and an early example of that order,
而這是完全沒有問題的。
and that’s perfectly fine.
《海德堡教理問答》遵循的是一種經歷式的順序。
Heidelberg Catechism follows an experiential order.
但其實,重點不是我們一定要遵循某種順序,雖然順序很重要。
The key point is not exactly which order we follow, although that’s important,
其實,在講解了查看改革宗神學的所有其他視角之後,
but what I am arguing for here in this last perspective,
我在這最後一點中想講的是:無論我們採用哪種順序,
we’ve looked at all the other perspectives of reformed theology,
無論是主題式順序還是什麼,
is that the experiential dimension of theology,
我們一定不能把經歷神學的這一部分留到每章的最後,
whatever order you use, topically must be
僅把它作為一兩個應用。
not just something attached to the end of each chapter
反之,我們必須讓它在我們的神學中貫穿始終。
as a one or two applications. But it must be interwoven throughout,
所以,當我們在教導某個教義,我們就要提出應用;
so when you teach something, you apply it;
我們每教一個教義,都要提出相應的應用。
you teach it, you apply it; you teach it, you apply it.
當然,你也可以在每章的末尾加上一系列的個人、經歷性的應用,
And yes, you can have a bunch of personal applications, experiential applications
那也是可以的。
at the end of each chapter, that’s fine.
但是,當我們在教導神學時,
But when you teach theology,
千萬不要在一刻不停地講了45分鐘的教義之後,
don’t teach for 45 minutes straight ahead doctrine,
突然加上五分鐘的應用,就好像是事後才想起來的,
and then all of sudden, have five minutes application that seems almost like an afterthought,
然後就又進入了下一個部分的內容。
and you move on to the next lecture.
過去歷史上所有偉大的改革宗神學家們
All the great historic reformed divines of the past
都是以經歷式的方式教導神學的,也是以這樣的方式講道的。
taught and preached this way.
他們都是屬上帝的、擁有著經歷性特征的神學家,
They were experimental, experiential men of God,
他們想要牧養的是全人。
who wanted the whole man ministered to,
這當然也是這間神學院的目標,
which of course is what this whole seminary is all about,
我們整全的座右銘是“頭腦、心靈和行動”,
our whole motto is head, heart and hands,
整個人都要參與其中,整個人都要受到神學的影響。
that the whole man is involved, the man gets impacted by theology.
我們可以用《海德堡教理問答》中的三個觀點來有效地總結此點,
Now we can summarize it in these three thoughts of the Catechism quite effectively
即講道和教導一定不能僅僅描述人在罪惡與愁苦中的困境,
that preaching and teaching must not only describe the plight of man in our sin and misery,
也應該讓人有對“上帝對一切罪惡的忿怒”有一種內在的認識。
but also inculcate an inner sense of the wrath of God against all sin.
我們需要瞭解,這是多麼令人髮指的事情,
We need to understand what an abominable thing it is,
即我們本來是按照上帝的形象所造的人,
being created in God’s image
卻在聖潔的上帝眼中淪落為只配下地獄的罪人。
to be a hell-worthy sinner in the sight of a holy God.
我們的神學必須要合乎聖經地教導人這一點。
Our theology must teach us that, based on the Word of God.
我們也必須要在講道中講這一點,
And we must preach that as well,
我們的整個生活方式都必須顯出罪惡的可憎。
and our whole way of life must show the heinousness of sin.
約翰·歐文這樣說,“那些對罪不以為意的人,
John Owen put it this way, he who has but slight thoughts of sin
絕不可能思想到上帝的偉大。”
never has had great thoughts of God.
學生:周必克教授,您能再讀一遍嗎?
Student: Dr. Beeke, could you repeat that?
周必克教授:可以。“那些對罪不以為意的人,
Beeke: Yeah. “He who has but slight thoughts of sin has
絕不可能思想到上帝的偉大。”歐文全集第6捲,第394頁。
never had great thoughts of God.” Volume 6:394.
當然,其次,我們的講道和神學
Secondly, of course, preaching and theology
必須要強調在基督里得拯救的經歷式認識。
must stress knowing deliverance in Christ.
這是改革宗神學的頂點,是它的標誌,是它的精髓所在。
That’s the apex, that’s the hallmark, that’s the essence of reformed theology.
它是以基督為中心的。因此,雖然在我們的神學研究中,
It’s Christological. And so though we lower the sinner
罪人不再自視甚高,我們要在上帝面前謙卑自己。
in his own estimation in doing theology, we humble ourselves before God,
但是我們同時也激勵罪人,
we also lift up the sinner,
我們帶著在基督里的喜樂和盼望激勵我們自己。
we lift up ourselves with joy and hope through Christ.
我們一旦因信稱義了,我們便能與保羅一樣,
And we declare that once we are justified by faith
像羅馬書5章1至2節那樣宣佈,
as Paul says in Romans 5:1-2,
“我們既因信稱義,就藉著我們的主耶穌基督得與神相和。
“we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ:
我們又藉著他,因信得進入現在所站的這恩典中,
by whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand,
並且歡歡喜喜盼望神的榮耀。”
and rejoice in the hope of the glory of God.”
然後第三點,我們需要知道整個成聖的生活是怎樣的,
And then thirdly, we need to know the whole life of sanctification,
或者如《海德堡教理問答》中所說的那樣,
or as the Catechism puts it,
如何為這洪大的救恩向上帝表達感謝。
how to express our gratitude to God for so great deliverance.
因此,在改革宗神學中,我們常常強調的是基督徒應該如何生活,
So in reformed theology, we are always stressing how the Christian ought to live,
並非是為了以此邀功,而是因為感恩上帝的救贖。
not to merit anything, but out of gratitude.
基督已經做成了一切的功勞,而我們必須要做的就是感恩。
Christ has done all the meriting. We must do the thanking.
所以,基督的愛使被救贖的人不再為自己而活,
And so the love of Christ can not but cause the redeemed to no longer live for themselves,
乃是為替他們死而複活的主活。
but for him who died and rose for them.
因此,羅馬書12章1至2節說得特別好,
And so Romans 12:1-2 puts it so beautifully,
“所以弟兄們,我以神的慈悲勸你們,將身體獻上,”
“I beseech you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present your bodies”,
這裡實際上指的是全人,整個人,
actually it’s the whole man,
“當做活祭,是聖潔的,是神所喜悅的,
“a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God,
你們如此侍奉乃是理所當然的。
which is your reasonable service.
不要效法這個世界,只要心意更新而變化,
And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind,
叫你們察驗何為神的善良、純全、可喜悅的旨意。”
that ye may prove what is that good, and perfect, and acceptable, will of God.”
所以,我們在回應上帝之愛時也會萌發一種帶有愛的內心情感,
So an inner motion of love wells up in response to the love of God to us,
比起罪疚與奴隸般的惶恐,
and it moves the believer to do far more for God
這種情感反而能夠促使我們更多地服侍上帝。
than guilt and slavish fear can ever motivate him to do.
而我們在這樣的時刻才會真正愛上神學。
And that’s when you really get to love theology.
當我們在研究神學時,我們感受到它與我們全人聯絡,
When you feel, as you study it, that it relates to your whole man,
它激發的不只是我們的思想,還能觸動我們的情緒、
it just doesn’t stimulate your mind, but it moves your emotions
激動我們的感情、打動我們的心弦。於是,在神學研究中,
and your affections, and your heart and you just well up as you are doing theology
我們的心因為三一上帝的美麗、因為祂救恩的美好、
with this love back to God for the beauty of the Triune God,
因為我們能夠認識祂而噴涌出對祂的愛,以作為回應。
the beauty of His salvation, the beauty of knowing Him, and you just,
我們也能和路德一樣說,教義就是天堂。
well, you say with Luther, doctrine is heaven.
我們可能會遇見一些人,他們說,教義實在是枯燥。
And then you meet somebody who says, doctrine is boring.
我們會很驚訝,教義怎麼可能會枯燥呢?
You go, what? What world do you live in?
他們可能也很驚訝,說,“你覺得教義很有意思?這怎麼可能?”
And they look at you and say, you think doctrine is exciting? What world do you live in?
這兩個群體之間橫跨著一道鴻溝,因為一邊不想要任何真理,
And there’s this chasm between people that don’t want truth
而另一邊十分渴慕真理的靈糧,因為它能改變人的整個生命。
and people that just are eager to drink in truth because it transforms my whole life.
因此,改革宗神學的特點,便是喜樂地擁抱真理、順服真理,
So this joyful embracing, this joyful submission to truth, the truth of our covenant God
喜樂地順服於我們守約信實的上帝。
is a hallmark of reformed theology.
科頓·馬瑟說,“如果在我對上帝旨意的順服與服從中,
Cotton Mather said, “If I may in any act of obedience, or of submission,
能有一絲一毫是出於對祂的感恩;
to the will of God, be a grateful spectacle to Him,
又或者在上帝的幫助下,我在祂面前成為了讓祂喜悅的某種人、
or if He may take satisfaction in what He helps me to be, and to do before him
成就了讓祂滿意的某件事,這將是我此生最大的幸福,
this is the highest felicity I could wish for in this life;
也是我窮極一生要為之奮鬥的最高目標。”
and the top of all my ambition.”
你們明白他想要表達的意思嗎?我再放慢速度讀一遍,
See what he’s saying? I’ll read again slowly,
因為這句話的內涵實在太豐富了。
because there’s a lot packed in that sentence.
“如果在我對上帝旨意的順服與服從中,
“If I may in any act of obedience, or of submission,
能有一絲一毫是出於對祂的感恩;
to the will of God, be a grateful spectacle to Him,
又或者在上帝的幫助下,我在祂面前成為了讓祂喜悅的某種人、
or if He may take satisfaction in what He helps me to be, and to do before Him,
成就了讓祂滿意的某件事,這將是我此生最大的幸福,
this is the highest felicity I could wish for;
也是我窮極一生要為之奮鬥的最高目標。”
the top of my ambition.”
這是一種充滿喜樂的順服。
It’s a joyful submission.
因著被上帝更新的心,而擁有感恩、滿足,
Gratitude, sanctification, doing God’s will
在上帝所造的世界中按照上帝的旨意而行。
in God’s world, from a heart changed by God.
羅馬書12章至15章中便總結了這種感恩的經歷。
This is the experience of gratitude summarized in Romans 12 through 15.
因此,基督的愛激勵著我們,
So Christ’s love for us moves us
使我們按照個人所得的屬靈恩賜,謙卑地服侍基督的教會;
to humbly serve his church according to our spiritual gifts,
也要忍耐仇敵,以善勝惡,就像我們今早在敬拜時聽到的那樣;
to bear patiently with enemies and overcome evil with good as we heard this morning,
還要順服上帝所命定的權柄。
and to submit to authorities that are God ordained,
保羅在羅馬書12章和13章中便對這些教導進行了應用,
that’s how Paul applies this in Romans 12 and 13,
隨後他在13章至15章中教導我們,
and he goes on through chapters 13, 14 and 15,
作為一名基督徒、因著感謝上帝而生活意味著什麼,
giving us all kinds of marks of what it means
還列舉出一名基督徒身上應有的那些標誌。
to be a Christian, living out of gratitude to God.
保羅最終在第15章中這樣總結道,
And finally concludes in chapter 15, and says,
我們要通過禱告與個人的見證來為福音的傳播努力、奮鬥,
we strive by our prayers and our personal witness for the spread of the gospel,
讓各國一起作為活祭獻給上帝,來蒙祂的悅納。
so that even the nations may be an acceptable offering to God.
你們看到了嗎?當我們研究神學時,
You see, when you do theology,
我們不僅渴望我們自己的整個生命被更新,
you want your own life transformed,
我們還渴望被上帝使用,做祂去更新別人的器皿,
but you also want to be instrumental to transform others,
我們盼望全世界都能因為相信基督耶穌,
you want the whole world to know this glorious God
而認識這位榮耀的上帝。
in the faith of Jesus Christ.
我們要和詩人以撒·華滋一起說,
And so you say with the poet Isaac Watts,
“若得萬物獻主為報,難償深恩,仍嫌微少;
“Were the whole realm of nature mine, that were a present far too small;
主愛如此聖善奇妙,合獻身心,全力圖效。”
Love so amazing, so divine, demands my soul, my life, my all.”
如果他所描述的是我們生命的現實,
See when that is real, you can weep tears of joy
那麼,當我們從經歷式角度研究神學時,便可喜極而泣。
as you do theology from a reformed experiential perspective.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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