系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第19講 被擴展為等級制教訓的特殊啟示(斯莫利牧師)

55 views

此系列只有簡體字幕並只能在本台線上收看
本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

歡迎大家回到系統神學緒論的課堂上。
Welcome back to the lecture series on Prolegomena.
我們今天要講的,是課程大綱上的第15大點,
In today’s lecture, we’ll be picking up under heading 15 in the outline,
“關於特殊啟示的謬誤”。
“Errors regarding special revelation.”
在上課之前,我們先來讀兩節經文,以賽亞書8章19、20節。
To begin our lecture, I’d like to read from Isaiah 8:19 and 20.
以賽亞書第8章,第19節和20節。
Isaiah 8, verse 19 and 20.
有人對你們說:“當求問那些交鬼的和行巫術的,
And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar spirits,
就是聲音綿蠻、言語微細的。”
and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter:
你們便回答說:“百姓不當求問自己的神嗎?
should not a people seek unto their God?
豈可為活人求問死人呢? 人當以訓誨和法度為標準。”
for the living to the dead? To the law and to the testimony:
他們所說的若不與此相符,必不得見晨光。
if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.
我們來禱告。
Let’s pray.
我們在天上的父,我們生活在一個充斥著謊言的世界里,
Our Father in heaven, we live in a world where we are surrounded
這些謊言宣稱,它們會給人屬靈上的光照。
by claims to having spiritual light.
天父,坦白說,這些謊言觸動著我們的心。
And frankly, Father, these things tug at our hearts.
我們總是被各樣所謂的真理源頭吸引,卻不就近你的聖言。
We are always being attracted to some other source of truth than to Your holy Word.
但是我們感謝你,感謝你將你的聖言賜給了我們。
But we thank You that You have given us Your Word,
因為主啊,若沒有你的聖言,我們就只能生活在完全的黑暗之中。
because without it, Lord, we would live in utter darkness.
所以我們祈求你,求你使用這堂課,
And we pray that You would use this lecture
用它來使我們的心完全歸順於你,
to both confirm within our own hearts an absolute commitment
用它來讓我們完全的依靠聖經,因為你賜下的真理唯獨在聖經中。
and dependence to the Holy Scriptures as the only divine source of truth
藉著這真理,我們才能得救。
by which we may be saved.
主啊,我們也祈求你裝備我們,讓我們能去幫助別人,
And Lord, we also pray that You would equip us so that we would be ready to help others
幫助他們逃離虛假的光,去追尋那真光,
to avoid false lights and instead to follow the true Light,
就是在聖經中閃爍著光芒的基督。
which is Christ as he shines in the Holy Scriptures.
禱告祈求奉耶穌的聖名,阿門。
We pray it in Jesus’s name. Amen.
上帝賜下的特殊啟示,是基督教的根基。
Special revelation from God is the bedrock foundation for Christianity.
如果一幢建築的根基出現了重大缺陷,
Now, a major flaw in the foundation of any building
那麼它的上層建築也會出現裂痕,
will lead to cracks in the superstructure,
最終,這將導致整幢建築坍塌瓦解。
and eventually the demise of the entire building.
所以,我們必須萬分謹慎,避免在基本教義上出現錯誤。
Therefore, we must watch carefully against error in foundational doctrines.
特殊啟示這一教義,雖然似乎看起來沒有某些教義那麼重要,
It may not seem as crucial as the atonement of Christ
比如“基督的代贖”或者“因信稱義”,
or as justification by faith alone,
但事實上,它在基督教信仰中有著根基性的地位。
but the doctrine of special revelation holds a foundational position within Christian belief.
如果我們對特殊啟示沒有合乎聖經的準確認識,
And all those doctrines face an uncertain future
不明白上帝是如何在祂的聖言中啟示祂自己的,
if they’re not solidly supported by a biblical understanding
那麼,所有其他教義,都將“前途未卜”。
of how God has revealed Himself in His holy Word.
如果我們讓人的知識與上帝的話語平起平坐,
Special revelation is distorted whenever we place
或者把它放在上帝話語之上、甚至用它代替上帝的話語,
a human source of knowledge alongside, above or in place of
那麼,我們就曲解了特殊啟示。
the Word of God.
因此,在這節“關於特殊啟示的謬誤”的課上,我們要來探討,
And in this lecture, errors regarding special revelation,
人是怎樣試圖用人的知識來壓制、取代上帝的話語的。
we are going to be considering some of the ways in which people seek to do that,
事實上,人們這樣的做法極大地損害了那些受他們教導的人。
much to the harm of those who have listened to them.
我們要講的第一點是,“被擴展為等級制教訓的特殊啟示”。
We begin with subpoint A, “Special revelation extended to hierarchical tradition,”
等級制教訓,就是由教會權柄建立的教訓。
that is tradition that is established by church authorities.
約翰·加爾文告誡我們,要警惕這一錯誤,
John Calvin warned against this error
他說,“教會必須持守這樣的教導:
when he said, “No other word is to be held
只有律法書、先知書、以及使徒所寫的是上帝的話語,
as the Word of God and given place as such in the church
除此之外,上帝沒有賜下別的話語,
than what is contained first in the law and the prophets
也沒有別的話語能與之平起平坐。
and then in the writings of the apostles.
教會的教導,只有在符合上帝話語的命令和標準時,
And the only authorized way of teaching in the church is by the prescription
才具有權威和權柄。”
and standard of His Word.”
改革宗教會在《比利時信條》第七條中這樣說道:
The Reformed churches state in the Belgium Confession, Article Seven.
“既然上帝吩咐對衪的聖言不可增加,也不可刪剪,
“Since it is forbidden to add onto or take away anything from the Word of God,
很顯然,其中的教義在各個方面都是極其完美和全備的。
it does thereby evidently appear that the doctrine thereof is most perfect and complete in all respects.
不管人怎樣聖潔,
Neither do we consider of equal value
我們都不認為他們的著述與聖經具有同樣的價值;
any writing of men, however holy these men may have been, with those divine Scriptures;
我們也不應當認為
nor ought we to consider custom, or the great multitude,
習慣、群眾、古老、世代的傳承、決議、教令、法規
or antiquity, or succession of times and persons, or councils, decrees, or statutes,
與上帝的真理具有同樣的價值。”
as of equal value with the truth of God.”
改革宗教會之所以認為他們有必要發出此類的認信宣言,
Now the reason why the Reformed churches found it necessary to make pronouncements such of these,
是因為羅馬天主教聲稱他們對聖經的詮釋是完全無誤的,
is because the Roman Catholic Church claimed to infallibly interpret Scripture
他們甚至用他們自己的權威教訓來對聖經進行添加,
and even to supplement Scripture with its own authoritative traditions,
企圖把教會的聲明變成一種有效的上帝啟示的方式。
effectively making the church pronouncements into a means of divine revelation.
This was so in the 16th century and it remains so today.
它的這一教導,即聖經和羅馬天主教的教導都是上帝的啟示,
The doctrine of divine revelation in both the Holy Scriptures and the teachings of Roman Catholicism
被編入了羅馬天主教的官方認信宣言中。
was codified in that church’s official confessional statements.
我們現在仍然能在1994出版的《天主教教理》中讀到這一條。
We find it today in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, copyright 1994.
我們可以把天主教對此的教導歸納為以下幾點:
Its teachings on this subject can be summarized in the following points.
第一,上帝啟示的傳承有兩種方式:
First, divine revelation was passed down in two ways:
口頭的“神聖教訓”和書面的“聖經”。
orally as “Sacred Tradition” and in writing as the “Sacred Scriptures,”
天主教認為,這兩者都是“從上帝而來”的超自然啟示。
both of which “flow from the same divine well-spring” of supernatural revelation.
第二,《天主教教理》說,
Secondly, the church “does not derive her certainty about all revealed truths
教會“對上帝啟示真理的確信,不單單來自聖經。
from the Holy Scriptures alone.” The Catholic Catechism says. “Both Scripture and Tradition
人們必須以同樣的熱忱與敬畏來接受、尊崇聖經和教會教訓。
must be accepted and honored with equal sentiments of devotion and reverence.”
第三,教會的“訓導當局”,即教皇和主教的教導職分,
Third, the church’s “Magisterium,” that is the teaching office of the pope and the bishops,
有詮釋上帝話語的權柄。
has the authority to interpret the Word of God,
如果訓導當局對某個教義進行了定義,
and when that Magisterium defines doctrine,
基督徒應該“以堅定不移的信心認同並接納”。
it does so “in a form obliging the Christian people to an irrevocable adherence of faith.”
第四,教皇作為“眾信徒中地位最高的牧師和教師”,
Number four, the pope, “as supreme pastor and teacher of all the faithful,”
當他公開權威地教導某個信仰方面或道德方面的教義時,
speaks with “infallibility” when “he proclaims by a definitive act a doctrine
他是完全無誤的,
pertaining to faith or morals,”
信徒們必須要“以堅定不移的信心服從”他的教導。
and his doctrine “must be adhered to with the obedience of faith.”
最後第五,《天主教教理》寫道,
And fifth, the Catholic Catechism says
即使教皇沒有公開權威地教導某教義,
that even when the pope is not making a definitive pronouncement,
信徒們也必須“帶著虔誠的認同”接受他的教導。
his teachings must be received by the faithful “with religious assent.”
但是,這種羅馬天主教的典型教導的最大問題,
Now, the great problem with classic Roman assertions
就是聖經不是這樣教導的。
is that there is no indication
聖經不曾教導說,除了聖經之外,
in the Holy Scriptures of a second,
我們還能從另一個地方找到上帝的權威啟示。
equally authoritative source of divine revelation beside the Bible.
但是,羅馬天主教試圖從聖經中尋找支持它的教導的確據,
Now, the Roman church attempts to find biblical support
他們常常引用兩處經文。
for its position largely in two ways.
首先,路德維希·奧脫(1906-1985)說,
First, Ludwig Ott, who lived from 1906 to 1985, said,
“基督應許他的使徒,
“Christ promised His Apostles
他會賜給他們聖靈、會幫助他們完成教導的工作。”
the assistance of the Holy Ghost for the fulfillment of their teaching task.”
這裡的關鍵經文就是約翰福音16章12至13節。
The key text here is John 16:12-13,
基督說,“我還有好些事要告訴你們,但你們現在擔當不了 。
where Christ said, “I have yet many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now.
只等真理的聖靈來了,他要引導你們明白一切的真理,
Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth:
因為他不是憑自己說的,乃是把他所聽見的都說出來,
for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear,
並要把將來的事告訴你們。”
that shall he speak and will show you the things to come.”
Roman Catholic apologist in the 16th century, John Eck, said,
“我們不僅應該相信、持守聖經中明確教導或證實的真理,
“Not only are those things expressly stated in the Scriptures or proved from them to believed and kept…,
我們也必須相信和持守我們的母會所相信和遵循的教導。
but also it is necessary to believe and keep those things Holy Mother Church believes and observes.
因為聖經並沒有事無巨細地將所有事情都清楚地傳承下來,
For not everything has been clearly handed down in the Sacred Scriptures,
它把許多內容都留給教會來決定。
but very many have been left to the Church to determine,
因為聖靈是光照和帶領教會的那一位,
which is illumined and governed by the Holy Spirit,
所以教會不會偏離真理的道路。”
and on this account cannot wander from the path of truth.”
艾克說,正因為如此,若有人離開教會,這是一種惡,
Therefore, Eck wrote, it is wicked to depart from the church.
因為教會有“聖靈親自默示的教訓”。
Because its “tradition” is “from the intimate inspiration of the Holy Spirit.”.
換言之,羅馬天主教用基督的應許,即聖靈教導事工的應許,
In other words, they’re taking this promise by Christ about the teaching ministry of the Holy Spirit
來作為他們持守天主教教訓的理由,
and they’re using it to justify their taking their traditions,
並說,他們的教訓與聖經一樣,都出自聖靈。
and saying these are also from the Holy Spirit, just as Holy Scripture is.
我們對此觀點的回應是,
Now, we respond to this argument by observing
在這兩節經文中,基督並沒有說羅馬主教是完全無誤的,
that Christ didn’t say anything in this text about the infallibility of the bishop of Rome
他其實沒有說任何教會組織是完全無誤的。
or for any church organization, for that matter.
這兩節經文所應許的,是聖靈會在基督離世、升天之後,
What the text promises is the continuing work of the Holy Spirit to teach the church
繼續祂教導教會的工作。
after Christ returns to heaven.
但是基督究竟想說什麼?
But what was Christ speaking of?
如果直接聯繫他當時說話的背景,
We can consider the application of his words either
我們既可以從一個狹義的角度,來思想我們應該如何應用基督的話,
in a very focused, immediate sense in the context of his original speaking them,
也可以從一個更加廣義的角度來思考。
or in a more general application.
基督的這個應許,最直接的應用對象
The most immediate application of the promise is to the eleven Apostles
是當時聽主耶穌說話的人 – 與他一起的十一個門徒。
who are with Christ at the time he said those things.
主耶穌應許,門徒會進一步明白真理,
They would receive further insight into the truth,
這樣他們就可以以聖靈的啟示為新約教會奠定基礎,
so that by these revelations of the Spirit, they might lay the foundation
正如保羅在以弗所書2章20節和3章5節中描述的那樣。
for the new covenant church, as Paul describes in Ephesians 2:20 and 3:5.
基督的話中絲毫沒有這樣的暗示,
There is nothing in Jesus’s words that so much as hints
說未來的教會神職人員中會有人與使徒一樣,
that any officers in the church in future ages
說出完全無誤的話語。
would inherit the infallibility of the apostles.
天主教教會也承認,基督的這個應許也同樣適用於每一個信徒。
Christ’s promise also has a general application to all believers, as the Catholic Church admits.
聖靈的光照使得信徒們經歷性地認識上帝話語中的真理,
The Spirit’s illumination enables believers to know the truth of God’s Word experientially
然後他們用一種有力的方式為這一真理作見證。
and to bear witness to that truth in a powerful way.
但是,雖然基督徒擁有聖靈,
However, Christians, even though they have the Holy Spirit,
他們有時還是會提出不完全、又錯誤的神學設想,
can and sometimes do have an incomplete and erroneous theology.
某些教會也可能會從真理的道路上偏離。
Individual churches may fall away.
基督的教會作為一個整體,她最後一定不會完全失喪,
The Church of Christ as a whole cannot fully or finally fail
因為基督與她同在。
because Christ is with her.
但可悲的是,這並不代表某些宗派不會失喪。
But sadly, this is not true of particular denominations.
正如加爾文所說,
While the church
雖然教會“處在聖靈的帶領之下”,但這並不代表
is “governed by the Spirit,” that does not mean that
教會能夠脫離上帝的話語 “平穩前進”。
“it can proceed safely without the Word,” as Calvin said.
相反,我們決不能將聖靈的光照與上帝的話語分開。
Rather, we must never separate the illumination of the Spirit from the Word of God.
為了證明他們的教導,即他們的教訓來自上帝、擁有權威,
A second line of argument to which Roman Catholics appeal
羅馬天主教在聖經中找到的第二處經文支持,
to support their idea of a divinely authoritative tradition
是新約聖經中有關“教訓”的經文。
is the New Testament references to tradition,
比如帖撒羅尼迦後書2章15節和3章6節。
such as 2 Thessalonians 2:15 and Chapter 3, verse 6.
保羅在帖撒羅尼迦後書2章15節中寫道,
In 2 Thessalonians 2:15, Paul wrote,
“所以弟兄們,你們要站立得穩,
“Therefore, brethren, stand fast,
凡所領受的教訓,不拘是我們口傳的,是信上寫的,都要堅守。”
and hold the traditions which you’ve been taught, whether by word, or our epistle,”
保羅在3章6節中又說,
and in Chapter 3, verse six, Paul said,
“弟兄們,我們奉主耶穌基督的名吩咐你們,
“Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ,
凡有弟兄不按規矩而行,不遵守從我們所受的教訓,
that you withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly,
就當遠離他。”
and not after the tradition which he received of us.”
所以羅馬天主教的理論是,
And so their argument is that
聖經說了,使徒所教訓、所寫的,都是上帝的話語,
the Bible says the Word of God includes both the preaching and the writing of the apostles;
使徒的教導構成了一種不同於聖經、但具有同等權威的教訓,
the preaching of the apostles created an authoritative tradition which is distinct from the writings
而這種教訓也在教會中傳承了下來。
and is also preserved in the church.
我們應該如何回應他們呢?
How do we respond to that?
我們可以這樣回應。
We respond by acknowledging that
我們承認,聖經確實可以把“教訓”描繪成一種
the Bible can speak positively of “tradition” as authoritative truth
我們應該認可、且要傳揚給他人的權威性真理,
that we should receive and pass down to others.
教訓本身並不是問題。
Tradition is not inherently evil.
但問題是:這個教訓是否忠於上帝的話語?
The question is whether or not that tradition is faithful to the Word of God.
如果一個教訓忠於上帝的話語,那我們就應該遵守它。
If tradition is faithful to the word of God, it should be followed.
那些聽到使徒教訓的人,應該將那些教導傳給別人,
Those who heard the preaching of the apostles were to pass it along to others,
因為使徒所教導的就是上帝的話語,
because the preaching of the apostles was the Word of God,
正如使徒所寫的就是上帝的話語一樣。
just as their writing is the Word of God.
比如我們在哥林多前書11章2節、提摩太后書2章2節、
For example, we can see that in 1 Corinthians 11:2,
和帖撒羅尼迦前書2章13節中都能讀到這樣的例子。
但是聖經從沒有應許過,
However, there is no promise in the Bible that
說“教會的教訓會永遠持守上帝話語的純正性和完整性”。
the traditions of the church will always preserve the Word of God in its purity and entirety.
聖經更沒有應許,說某個教會(如羅馬教會)
Much less is there a promise that any particular church, such as the Church of Rome,
會在他們世世代代的教導中完美地持守真理。
will preserve the truth in its teachings perfectly through the ages.
事實是,天主教教皇就與大公會議出現過矛盾之處。
And a point of fact, popes and councils have contradicted each other.
例如,我們來查考一下發生於1378至1417年間的天主教會大分裂。
For example, we consider the great Western schism from 1378 to 1417,
在那次大分裂中,三個教皇相互要將另外兩個教皇逐出教會,
where we find three rival popes excommunicating one another,
最後他們卻一同被康斯坦茨大公會議罷黜,
only to find themselves deposed by the Council of Constance,
結果康斯坦茨大公會議的決議卻又被它自己任命的教皇廢除。
the decrees of which council were then nullified by the very pope that it appointed.
歷史讓我們看到,“教訓”本身並是完全無誤的。
History shows us that there is no infallible tradition.
相反,保羅所說的“教訓”,是指他自己教導的教訓。
Rather, when Paul speaks of “tradition”, he is referring to his own teachings.
而今天,我們只有在聖經里才能讀到保羅的教訓。
The only direct access that we have to those teachings today is in the written Word of God.
這就好比法利賽人扭曲了摩西和先知的教導一樣,
Just as the teachings of Moses and the prophets were corrupted by the Pharisees
法利賽人的“教訓”並不符合上帝的話語。
until their tradition contradicted the Word of God,
所以新約聖經告誡我們,
so the New Testament warns that
假教師會侵入教會、扭曲真理,會將人們引入歧途。
false teachers will invade the church, pervert the truth and draw people away.
因此,世界上會出現許多自稱是上帝話語的“教訓”,
Therefore, there are many traditions that claim to be God’s Word.
這就意味著,我們必須要用上帝成文的話語來檢驗這些“教訓”。
This means that tradition must always be tested by the written Word of God.
保羅在歌羅西書2章6至8節說,
Paul writes in Colossians 2:6 through 8,
“你們既然接受了主基督耶穌,
“As you have therefore received Christ Jesus the Lord,
就當遵他而行,在他裡面生根建造,信心堅固,
so walk you in him; rooted and built up in him, and established in the faith,
正如你們所領的教訓,感謝的心也更增長了。
as you have been taught, abounding therein with Thanksgiving.
你們要謹慎,恐怕有人用他的理學和虛空的妄言,
Beware, lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit,
不照著基督,乃照人間的遺傳和世上的小學,就把你們擄去。”
after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.”
Although the Roman Catholic Church continues to affirm
會議正式確立了羅馬天主教的教義立場。
the official doctrinal stance taken at the Council of Trent,
雖然今天的羅馬天主教仍持守著這一立場,
which met from 1545 to 1563,
但他們在“教會啟示的本質”上的理解,
it has drifted in its understanding
其實已經發生了一些變化。
of the nature of revelation in the church.
艾弗里·杜勒斯(1918-2008)指出,
Avery Dulles, who lived from 1918 to 2008, noted that
自20世紀60年代的第二次梵蒂岡會議以來,
since the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s,
人們不再將教訓視為一種傳遞“明確教導”的客觀“載體”,
tradition has been viewed not merely as an objective “body of explicit teaching,”
而是將之視為在“擁有信心和禱告的教會中”
but as the organic “practice and life
逐步發展的一種“操練與生命”。
of the believing and praying church,”
他還提到,天主教教會的許多教義“並沒有直接言明”。
which contains, he says, many doctrines “in a merely implicit way.”
杜勒斯寫道,
Dulles wrote,
“所以,教訓不是靜止的,不是單單用來持守的,
“Tradition, finally, is not static or simply preservative.
而是在動態中不斷發展的。”
It develops dynamically.”
因此,在第二次梵蒂岡會議之後,
Thus, tradition in a post-Vatican II sense,
人們便將教訓看作一種在不斷進步的認識,
is a progressive understanding that develops
這種知識來自天主教的禮拜、來自教父的著作、
out of the Catholic liturgy, the writings of the church fathers,
也來自被聖靈感動的那些“信徒的感覺”。
and the “sense of the faithful” as moved by the Spirit.
布魯斯‧德馬雷斯特指出,
Bruce Demarest notes,
“第二次梵蒂岡會議所宣稱的
“Vatican II thus moves in the direction
“人能夠在生命的宗教層面經歷性地找到上帝”,
of liberal Protestantism when it claims that man finds God experientially
是在朝著自由派新教的方向發展。”
in the religious dimension of life.”
要瞭解這一轉變的重大性,我們需要
To understand the significance of this shift, we must give closer examination to the
進一步仔細查考從18世紀的“啟蒙運動”中興起的神學思潮。
theological currents that arose from the 18th century movement known as the “Enlightenment.”
但是我們現在先暫作休息。
But first, let’s take a break.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

Tags: , , ,