系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第18講 特殊啟示之聖經教導

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

在詩篇19篇中,詩人將宇宙比作一位傳道人,
Psalm 19 portrays the universe as a preacher
它傳揚著上帝遍滿全地的榮耀。
who declares God’s glory throughout the world.
雖然我們已在之前的課中對詩篇19篇進行了詳細的分析與理解,
And we’ve looked at that earlier in this course in detail at Psalm 19,
但這首詩還有值得我們留意的地方。
but that same Psalm
在詩篇19篇中,詩人認為
ascribes the source of wisdom,
智慧、救恩、和喜樂都不是出自普遍啟示,
salvation, and joy not to general revelation,
而是出自上帝的話語。
but to the Word of God,
我們稱上帝的話語為“特殊啟示”。
what we call “special revelation.”
特殊啟示這一教義,既與上帝揀選的教義相契合
And so the doctrine of special revelation is that which coordinates
(因為,並非人類史上所有人都得到了特殊啟示,
both with the doctrine of divine election, for not all in history receive special revelation,
許多人甚至從未聽說過它);
millions of people never come in contact with it,
也與“要向各國各民宣講福音”的教義相契合,
as well as the doctrine of universal gospel proclamation.
因為人人都需要福音。
Because everyone needs it.
正因為如此,我們傳福音的工作十分緊迫。
Hence the urgency for mission work.
那麼,我們從聖經中描述上帝啟示的術語可以看出,
Now, the biblical terminology of divine revelation
上帝不僅通過自然與人交流,
indicates that God communicates with human beings not only through nature,
也通過人類可以理解、複述的文字信息和口頭信息來與人交流。
but also through words, verbal messages that they can understand and repeat.
因此,因著上帝滿有主權的恩典,祂將啟示賜給了人,
And so revelation is an act of sovereign grace
向他們顯明那些隱藏起來的祂的真理。
making known to people hidden divine truth,
人若靠自己,根本無法認識這些真理。
truth they cannot discover on their own.
因此,啟示就意味著,
And thus revelation implies
上帝永恆的榮耀降臨到了我們現實而平凡的生活之中。
an intrusion of eternal glory into our ordinary, mundane existence.
但是,我們每次談到特殊啟示時,
But when we speak of special revelation,
都需要將它與救恩聯繫起來。
we’re always connecting it with salvation.
早在伊甸園的時候,上帝的啟示就已經開始了。
It began already in the Garden of Eden,
即便是當時還未犯罪的亞當和夏娃,他們若只有普遍啟示,
even sinless Adam and Eve needed more than general revelation
也無法瞭解上帝的祝福、遵行祂的旨意。
to know God’s blessing and to do His will.
蛇所攻擊的,正是上帝話語的善良與信實。
The serpent attacked the goodness and trustworthiness of God’s word.
這就使得特殊啟示成為了屬靈爭戰的焦點,
Thereby making special revelation the focal point of spiritual conflict,
上帝與撒旦爭戰的焦點。
conflict between God and the devil.
“上帝豈是真說… …?”
“Yea, hath God said…?”
上帝確實對亞當與夏娃說過一番話,
God did say,
但撒旦扭曲了上帝的話語。
but then the devil twisted it.
因此,上帝的話語就是爭戰的戰場。
So this is the area of conflict.
然後,在人類墮落之後,
And after the fall of man,
特殊啟示更是擔負起了一個更加重大的責任,
special revelation then takes on a much greater role of importance.
因為上帝正是藉著特殊啟示來向遠離祂的罪人顯明祂的臨在。
Because now God is revealing His presence to sinners who are alienated from Him.
在創世記3章8節至19節中,上帝既給了人審判,
And He speaks words of judgment, Genesis 3:8 through 19,
也賜下了平安和應許的話語,其中就有福音的第一個應許。
as well as words of peace and promise, including the first gospel promise.
當然,這一應許最終是在時候滿足時,
And that, of course, ends up culminating in the fullness of time
隨著耶穌的到來、受苦、受死、複活、與升天,得以實現。
in the coming of Jesus, his suffering, his death, resurrection, and ascension into heaven.
所以在今天的課上,我想與大家一起探討,
So in the lecture today, I just want to introduce to you
聖經在“上帝賜下特殊啟示”上,究竟有哪些教導。
the biblical teachings about God’s work of special revelation.
這一點將成為我們最後兩節課的內容的基礎。
And that will set the stage for the last two days of lectures
屆時我們要探討的,是“聖經作為上帝聖言的本質”,
that talk about the nature of the Bible as God’s word,
即它的無誤性、權威性、無謬性、等等。
inerrancy, authority, infallibility, and so on.
那麼今天,我們要概括性地談論一下特殊啟示的一個特點,
And what we’re going to see today as we talk about special revelation generically,
即特殊啟示總是與道成肉身的主耶穌基督聯繫在一起。
is that special revelation always connects with the incarnation, with the Lord Jesus Christ.
好,我們首先要思想的,
So first, let’s look at
是特殊啟示中體現出的三位一體上帝的中保性工作。
the Trinitarian meditorial work of special revelation.
三位一體上帝的三個位格,
The works of God towards His creation
總是會一起參與到祂在受造物身上所作的一切工作中。
always engage all three Persons of the Trinity.
當然,關於這個問題,我們會在神論這門課中更深入地探討。
We learn that in-depth, of course, in the Theology Proper class.
但我們要知道,三位一體上帝的三個位格是同質的,
But they share one divine essence,
因此,毫無例外地,三個位格也一同參與到了特殊啟示的工作當中。
so special revelation is no exception to this rule.
約翰福音3章34節和35節說:“上帝所差來的就說上帝的話,
John 3:34 and 35 says, “For he whom God hath sent spaketh the words of God;
因為上帝賜聖靈給他是沒有限量的。
for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.
父愛子,已將萬有交在他手裡。”
The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.”
因此,我們從這裡可以看出,
So here we see
三位一體上帝的三個位格都參與到了特殊啟示中,
that the delivery of God’s words to this world and to fallen sinners in this world
將上帝的話語傳給了世界,傳給了世上墮落的罪人。
involves all three Persons of the Trinity.
天父上帝是策劃者,
God the Father stands behind it all.
祂出於愛,差下聖子,
And the Father sends the Son with divine love,
然後,聖父賜下聖靈來裝備聖子,已完成祂要作的工。
and then gives the Spirit to equip the Son for the work he’s called to do.
聖子所說的一切,都出自聖父;
And the Son speaks the words of the Father
聖子行萬事,也全是靠聖靈的能力。
and he works by the power of the Spirit.
聖靈也與聖子同行,充滿聖子,
And the Spirit accompanies the Son then with infinite divine fullness,
因此,聖子所說的一切話,都富有深意、都在執行聖父的旨意。
so that all the words the Son speaks are full of meaning and accomplish the Father’s will.
三位一體上帝的三個位格同心合意地向人類顯明瞭自己。
So the Three act as one to reveal God to man.
所以,從根本上來講,
And therefore, the doctrine of special revelation,
特殊啟示的教義具有三位一體性、也具有中保性。
at its very foundation, has a Trinitarian and a meditorial character.
約翰·歐文是這樣說的:
John Owen put it this way,
“聖父將顯明上帝旨意的特殊啟示賜給了基督,
“The special revelation of God’s will, gifted to Christ by the Father,
使之為著歷世歷代教會的益處,
communicated by Christ through the Holy Spirit
藉著聖靈將特殊啟示傳給了使徒和其他人。
to the apostles and to others, for the benefit of the entire church,
從最大程度上來說,
taken at its greatest extent,
這一特殊啟示就是上帝的福音教導、或福音神學。”
is the divine teaching or theology of the gospel.”
約翰·傅瑞姆這樣說:
John Frame put it this way,
“在特殊啟示中,上帝展現出了祂樂於交通的本質。
“In special revelation, God is by His very nature, communicative.
三位一體上帝的三個位格自始至終都一直在相互交通,
God eternally communicates His love and purposes
在永恆中傳遞著彼此的愛與心意。
from within the Trinity.
在上帝的屬性中,交通是很關鍵的一部分。
This communication is essential to God’s nature.
因為,雖然上帝還有許多其他的屬性,
For He is among all His other attributes
但祂一直生生不息地在交通著。”
a speaking God.”
上帝離不開祂的話語,祂的“道”,祂的獨生愛子。
God cannot be without His Word, capital “W”, His own Son.
約翰福音1章1節說,因為“道就是上帝”。
John 1:1, for God’s Word is God.
因此,上帝的話語是祂的一種至高無上的“自我表達”。
And therefore, it’s His self-expression in its very highest sense.
於是,我們得以看到上帝本體真相的顯明,
And so you have the Living Word Jesus,
看到那活潑的“道”耶穌,尤其是通過上帝成文的話語,聖經。
being God’s express image, revealed, especially through the written Word, the Holy Bible.
我們可以看到,這一切都通過主耶穌基督的中保工作、
That’s all connected, you see, with Trinitarian character through the Word,
在聖經的三位一體性中緊密連接著。
through the mediatorial work of the Lord Jesus Christ,
那麼,我們可以總結出以下幾點。
which then means several things. Number one,
第一,聖子是啟示上帝的唯一中保。
the Son is the only Mediator of the Divine revelation.
若沒有聖子的啟示,我們根本無從認識聖父,
Apart from the Son, the Father is wrapped
因為祂的隱秘,人類難以企及。
in impenetrable mystery.
詩篇97篇說,上帝隱藏在祂憤怒的密雲中。
He’s hidden, Psalm 97 says, in a cloud of divine wrath.
對人類而言,若沒有聖子,
Without the Son, God can only be
上帝就是那永遠燃燒、會吞滅我們的烈火。
a consuming fire and an everlasting burning.
這就是為什麼耶穌會說,“一切所有的,都是我父交付我的。
And so Jesus said, “All things are delivered unto me of my Father,
除了父,沒有人知道子;
and no man knoweth who the Son is but the Father,
除了子和子所願意指示的,沒有人知道父。”
and who the Father is but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him.”
這就是為什麼,基督的中保工作是如此關鍵!
You see how critical the meditorial work of Christ is.
世上只有一條路,能讓你我認識聖父,
The only way you will know the Father
這條路就是聖子通過聖言、通過特殊啟示來向我們顯明聖父。
is if the Son reveals the Father to you through the Word, through special revelation.
聖子與聖父的親密關係獨一無二,
So possessing unique intimacy with the Father,
唯有祂能夠向我們顯明聖父。
the Son is uniquely qualified to make the Father known.
所以約翰說,基督就是道。
So, Christ is the Word, John says,
他的意思是,基督是顯明那自有永有上帝的活潑的道。
that is he’s the living revelation of God, who’s been from the beginning,
所以,“從來沒有人看見上帝,
so that no one has ever known God
只有在父懷裡的獨生子將祂表明出來。”
unless the only begotten Son, who’s in the bosom of the Father, has declared Him,
約翰福音1章18節。
John 1:18.
因此,卡爾·亨利這樣寫道:
So Carl Henry wrote,
“無論是道成肉身前、道成肉身後、還是如今在榮耀之中,
“the Logos of God, preincarnate, incarnate, and now glorified,
這位上帝之‘道’,一直都是向人啟示上帝的中保。
is the mediating agent of all divine disclosure.
他是向人啟示永活上帝的絕無僅有的獨一中保。”
He’s the unique and sole mediator of the revelation of the living God.”
換句話說,
Another way of saying that
只有基督,才能彌合上帝與罪人之間的裂痕和鴻溝。
is simply to say Christ is the one who bridges the gap between God and sinners.
加爾文這樣說道:“自亞當墮落以來,若沒有這位中保的啟示,
Calvin put it this way, “After the fall of the first man, no knowledge of God,
我們對上帝的任何認識都無法拯救我們。”
apart from the Mediator has any power unto salvation.”
因此,基督是看不見的上帝的形像,
So Christ is the image of the invisible God,
所有智慧與知識的寶藏都藏在他裡面。
in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.
他是世界的光,是我們所需要的一切。
He’s the light of the world. He’s everything we need.
以賽亞書第9章說,對於黑暗中的人,他就是曙光。
He’s like the dawning of light upon people in darkness. Isaiah 9.
只有通過他,我們才能獲得能救贖我們的特殊啟示。
Only through him do we get the special revelation that brings us salvation.
明白這一點,對我們如何回應上帝的話語具有重大意義。
And that has significant implications for our response to God’s Word.
基督說:“聽從你們的,就是聽從我;棄絕你們的,就是棄絕我;
Christ said, “He that heareath you heareth me; and he that despiseth you dispiseth me,
棄絕我的,就是棄絕那差我來的。”
and he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me.”
因此,我們如何回應上帝賜給我們的話語,
So our response to God’s personal words
就是我們如何回應基督他自己。
is really nothing other than our response to Christ himself.
在上帝賜給我們的話語中,
In God’s personal words,
基督親自來使我們相信、使我們順服。
Christ himself comes to engage our faith and our obedience.
第二點,聖父也參與到了特殊啟示中,
But secondly, not only is the Son involved,
祂是滿有主權的策劃者。
but the Father is the sovereign Initiator,
聖父指定了這個計劃,要通過聖子來啟示上帝。
the sovereign Initiator of divine revelation in the Son.
耶穌自己就多次提到這一點,特別是在約翰福音中,對不對?
Jesus says this in tons of ways, particularly in the book of John, right?
約翰福音7章16節, “我的教訓不是我自己的,乃是那差我來者的.”
“My doctrine is not mine, but His that sent me,” John 7:16.
約翰福音8章28節, “我說這些話乃是照著父所教訓我的。”
“As my Father hath taught me, so speak I these things,” John 8:28.
約翰福音12章49節,“因為我沒有憑著自己講,
“I have not spoken by myself, but the Father which sent me,
唯有差我來的父已經給我命令,叫我說什麼、講什麼。”
He gave me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak,” John 12:49.
還有約翰福音14章9節和10節,
“The words that I speak unto you,
“我對你們所說的話,不是憑著自己說的,
I speak not of myself, but the Father that dwelleth in me,
乃是住在我裡面的父做他自己的事。”
He doeth the works,” John14:9 and 10.
因此,滿有主權的聖父是策劃者,
So, the Father in His sovereignty passes on special revelation through His Son,
祂通過活潑的“道”聖子、通過聖經將特殊啟示賜給了我們。
the living Word, the written word, but it’s initiated by the Father.
正因為如此,正因為耶穌自己就是這一啟示的“載體”,
And because of that, and because Jesus embodies that revelation,
所以他才會對站在他面前的門徒說,
he can look at his disciples standing right in front of him and he can say this,
“因為天國的奧秘只叫你們知道,不叫他們,”
Matthew 13:11, “It is given to you to know the mysteries of the Kingdom of heaven,
就是那些看不見他啟示的人,“知道”,馬太福音13章11節。
but to them, to those who are blinded by His revelation, it is not given.”
因此,聖子是上帝特殊啟示的核心。
So the Son is at the center of God’s special revelation.
他是特殊啟示的獨一中保。
He is the Mediator of it and the only One.
而聖父則是“向人啟示上帝”這一計劃的策劃者。
The Father’s Initiator of this sovereign revelation.
接下來是第三點:
And the Spirit, thirdly,
聖靈是“通過聖子向人啟示上帝”這一計劃的有效執行者。
is the effective Agent of divine revelation in the Son.
我們想一想,在基督開始服侍的時候,他是怎麼做的?
So when Christ began his ministry, how did he do it?
他是靠著誰的力量來做的?
He did it in the power of who?
他依靠的正是那無限充滿他的聖靈。
The Holy Spirit, who filled him without measure.
基督明確地宣佈,以賽亞的應許是指著他說的,
And he expressly claimed the promise of Isaiah,
“主的靈在我身上,因為他用膏膏我,叫我傳福音給貧窮的人。”
“The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because He hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor.”
路加福音4章18節,“主的靈在我身上。”
“The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,” Luke 4:18.
因此,基督的靈就是執行特殊啟示的那一位,
So the Spirit of Christ is the agent of revelation
是祂感動了古時的先知,讓他們寫下了關於基督的事情,
who operates upon the ancient prophets as they wrote about Christ,
彼得前書1章10節至12節。
同時,聖靈也是基督道成肉身時,在他身上作工的那一位;
But He’s also the operative Agent on Christ himself when he comes in the flesh.
是基督升天后,仍在作工的那一位。
And He’s the operative Agent after Jesus leaves this world.
耶穌說,我要往我的父那裡去,也要賜給你們真理的聖靈。
He says, I will ascend to my Father and send you the Spirit of truth,
福音會藉著聖靈向人們作見證,
by which the gospel witness,
上帝全備的福音會傳到世界的各個角落,
the whole gospel would expand throughout the world,
所以耶穌說,“我去是於你們有益的,”(約翰福音16章7節)
so “it is expedient for you that I go away,” (John 16:7)
因為聖靈會把福音啟示給你們,
because the Spirit will take this gospel and reveal it to you,
祂會把關乎我的事情啟示給你們。
He’ll take the things of me and reveal them unto you.
因此,當基督差遣他的使徒教會向全世界傳福音時,
So when Christ sent the Apostolic Church into her mission in the world,
聖靈也與他們同去。
the Spirit went with them.
這也是我們在使徒行傳中一再讀到的信息,對不對?
That’s what the Book of Acts says over and over, right?
使徒行傳中記載說,使徒靠著聖靈、基督的靈
They did it by the Spirit, they did it by the Spirit,
成就了一個又一個的事工。
the Spirit of Christ.
聖靈是聖子口中那有靈的氣,祂與使徒一路同行,
The Spirit went with them as the living breath of the Son,
將聖父在基督里賜下的真理和恩典傳給他們。
communicating the truth and grace that the Father gives us in Christ.
這就是為什麼,我們在所有的特殊啟示中
That’s why you see this intimate
都能看到三位一體上帝的三個位格親密無間的參與。
Trinitarian involvement in all special revelation.
保羅在哥林多前書2章9至16節中說,
Paul says in 1 Corinthians 2:9 through 16,
我們的感官和我們的理智都無法測透上帝恩典的奧秘。
that our senses and our intellect cannot penetrate the mysteries of God’s grace.
但是透過祂的聖靈,上帝將這些奧秘的事向我們顯明瞭。
But God has revealed them unto us by His Spirit,
聖靈賜給我們上帝的話語,在我們的心中形成基督的心,
Who gives us divine words and forms in us the mind of Christ
為了讓我們知曉上帝救恩的旨意。
to know God’s saving will.
有意思的是,聖父、聖子、聖靈樂意差遣人作上帝的使者,
Now, interestingly, the Father, the Son and the Spirit are pleased to make
將這一特殊啟示傳揚給全世界各國各地的人們。
this special revelation known to people all over the world through human messengers.
這一點尤其體現在新約時代傳講福音的傳道人身上。
And particularly in our New Testament age through ministers of the gospel.
這也是今天我們在神學院的真正原因。
That’s really why we’re sitting here today.
如果不是這樣,如果我們所講的是人的話、
If this weren’t true, If you can only speak man’s words,
我們自己的話、我們自己的觀點,
your words, your opinions,
那麼這間神學院也就不會存在。
the seminary would not exist.
大家也沒有必要為服侍接受培訓了,
There’d be no need to train you for the ministry
因為這樣的服侍毫無價值,也毫無意義。
because the ministry would be nothing.
我們憑藉自己,沒有力量、沒有全部、也沒有特殊啟示。
You’d have no power. You’d have no authority. You’d have no special revelation.
弗朗西斯庫斯·尤尼烏斯說,“我們神學中最有力、最絕對的因素,
Franciscus Junius said, “The principal efficient and absolute cause of our theology,
是天父上帝通過聖靈、在基督里向神學註入了生命的氣息。
is God the Father in the Son through His own Spirit breathing life into it,
因為,神學唯獨出自上帝,
as He’s the sole author,
祂才是神學智慧至高完美的創造主。
and highest and most perfect Creator
上帝通過祂的僕人、在他們身上展現了這種智慧。”
of this wisdom in and through His own servants.”
因此,我們從約翰福音17章中讀到,
So operating in this beautiful harmony,
我們三位一體的上帝,在祂三個位格的完美和諧、彼此相愛中,
this mutual love, the Triune God so reveals Himself
向人啟示了祂自己,讓人能夠通過與中保基督的聯合,
so that by union with a Mediator, others may enter
進入三位一體上帝的愛與交通之中。
into the circle of Divine Love and fellowship, John 17,
同時,他們也可以學習、瞭解、
and may study and know
熱愛、以及活出上帝的奧秘與真理,
and love and live the mysteries of God, God’s truth,
並將這些真理傳講給別人,
and those people may then bring that to others,
尤其是在他們受到了聖靈的恩膏之後。
particularly when they are anointed by the Spirit.
因此,這些人就組成了一個群體,
And so there is a community of people
他們從上帝的傳道人僕人那裡
who receive the special revelation of God
領受三位一體上帝的特殊啟示。
from the Triune God through the servant of God that we call the minister.
如果我們仔細想一想這句話中的深意,
Wow, you start thinking about the ramifications of that,
我們必定會得出這樣一個結論:
and you cannot but conclude
傳道是一個極其崇高的呼召,
that the ministry is a very, very high calling.
無與倫比的崇高。
Uniquely high.
這就是為什麼,我們應該毫不猶豫地認定:
And that’s why we must never hesitate to say
傳道是全世界最重要的呼召。
this is the most important call in all the world.
我認為教養子女是僅次於它、第二重要的呼召。
I would say motherhood is second.
其他的都是更次要的。
Everything else is third.
當然,無論上帝給我們的呼召是什麼,
And yes, we got to be Christians
我們都必須按著基督徒的本分來服侍。
in whatever calling we have,
我們沒有貶低其他呼召的意思,
we’re not belittling any other calling.
但是傳道的呼召確實有它獨一無二的特殊性。
But this is uniquely special.
一個人如果做了向上帝子民傳講福音的傳道人,
If you’ve become a minister of the gospel to the people of God,
他就變成了上帝手中的一個獨特渠道。
you are God’s unique channel through whom
上帝使用他的講道,將祂的特殊啟示顯明給祂的子民。
this special revelation is being unveiled through your preaching to the people.
一想到這一點,就令人肅然起敬。
That’s an awesome thought.
傳道人講道的對象,就是上帝樂意賜下祂話語的那群人。
And you’re doing it to the community, you see, that God wants to hear the Word.
關於這一點,道格拉斯·凱利在他的書中寫了一整章的內容,
And so Douglas Kelly has a whole section where he talks about
他說上帝自己就像一個共同體,裡面有聖父、聖子、和聖靈,
how God Himself within Himself is like a community, Father, Son, Spirit,
祂是一個大家庭,一個大家庭共同體。
a family, a family community.
然後上帝將祂的特殊啟示賜給了人類,
And God then spills out the special revelation
一個由男女老少所構成的人類共同體。
into the communities of men and women and children and teenagers.
而那連接三位一體上帝與教會共同體的紐帶,就是上帝的僕人。
And the connecting link between the community of God and the community in the church
他傳講上帝的道,將上帝的話語帶給祂的子民。
through the Word of God is the servant of God who brings that Word.
我們如果明白了這一點,我們就可以理解,
See, once you understand that, then you can understand
為什麼加爾文有勇氣說出這樣的話,他說:
how Calvin could be so bold as to say,
一個傳道人,當他站在講道臺上講道、闡述上帝話語的時候,
as long as you speak consistently with the Word of God when you speak the Word of God
只要他講的合乎聖經,他說的就是上帝要說的話。
that you’re expounding from the pulpit, you are speaking the very Word of God.
好,我們已經探討了“上帝賜下特殊啟示”,
Secondly or second main point, now we’ve seen
現在我們來看第二大點:
that the divine character of special revelation,
特殊啟示的特點:它使用了有限的人類。
what about the finite human character of special revelation?
如果特殊啟示與有限的人有關,
If special revelation is connected with people like us,
那麼特殊啟示就會有這樣的特點,對不對?
there’s a finite character to it, right?
因為人是“有限”的。
A human character.
出於某種原因,上帝使用了人來作祂賜下特殊啟示的途徑。
So God somehow uses humans in conveying His special revelation
祂既使用人(聖經作者)來書寫聖經,
both in its original recording in the actual Bible writers,
也使用人(福音的僕人)來詮釋聖經。
as well as through its exposition through servants of the Gospel.
在我們前面講到的所謂“以人形出現的特殊啟示”中,
Now God is revealing Himself then through His Word, through preaching,
上帝通過祂的話語、通過人的講道來啟示祂自己。
in what we’ve seen before, what we call in anthropic form of special revelation.
這就意味著,上帝的特殊啟示是用人的語言書寫的。
That means it comes in human language,
”anthropos“的意思是”人“,人的方式,人的形式。
anthropos, man, anthropic form.
特殊啟示是用人的語言書寫的,
It comes in human language.
它以人的思想和人的行為作為它的載體。
It comes in human categories of thought and action.
如果我們根本不明白上帝的啟示,它就毫無意義了。
And if you can’t understand it, what does it mean?
大概一個小時以前,我收到了一個包裹。
I just, about an hour ago, we got in the mail
收到時我有點意外,因為我完全忘了這件事情。
some copies, kind of surprised me, I forgot I even gave permission, but
包裹里裝著幾冊印著印尼文的書,是我寫過的一本書。
of one of my books in Indonesian, but the title of the book,
書的標題是英文的,封面上也有我的英文名字。
the cover of the book, was in English with my name in English.
我在沒打開書的塑料包裝之前,有點納悶,
And I thought to myself because it was wrapped in plastic,
我心想,“這是什麼?他們為什麼重印了這本已經印過的書?”
what is this? This is, why would they reprint the book I’ve already printed, but then
結果拆掉塑料包裝才發現,書的內容全是印尼文字。
I opened it up and inside it’s all Indonesian.
我一個字都讀不懂。
And I can’t understand a word of it.
我不懂印尼文,我的大腦完全無法理解。
It’s not in my human category, my human thinking.
我唯一能看懂的就是封面,但這對我無濟於事。
So the only thing I can read is the cover, doesn’t help me.
所以,我們要知道,
So, the distinction, you see,
雖然我們需要明白上帝與人之間的區別,它十分重要,
between the divine and the human is an important one to make.
但上帝與人之間並不會因為這個區別而失去有效交流的可能性。
But that distinction does not destroy the possibility of reliable communication.
這本印尼書的內容可能非常可信,
That Indonesian book may be very reliable.
這可能是一本一流的譯本,但願我在書中所寫的內容也合乎真理,
It may be a straight A translation and hopefully what I said in it is truth.
但問題是,我讀不懂。
But I don’t have access to it.
那麼,上帝是如何做的呢?
But you see, what God does
祂通過使人重生,
is He brings, thorough regeneration,
在祂的交通與人的交通之間建立了一種真實的相似之處,
a true analogy between His communication and ours, between His thought patterns and ours,
這樣我們就能明白一些關於上帝的真理。
so that we can understand something,
雖然從上帝的角度來看,祂對我們說話,就像在對嬰孩說話一樣,
even if it’s only baby talk on His part to us, cause he’s accommodating to us,
上帝這樣安排,是為了讓我們明白祂顯明出來的特殊旨意。
but so that we can understand His special revealed will.
這就是加爾文所說的“上帝為人做出的調整”,
So the idea, then, that’s important to account for here
我們重點講一下這個概念。
is what John Calvin called divine accommodation.
有人是這樣解釋的:
Someone put it this way,
這就像阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦給一個小孩子講解科學一樣。
it’s like Albert Einstein might talk to a little child about science.
上帝就是這樣給我們講解真理的。
That’s what God does when He talks to us about truth.
雖然上帝的智慧無限,
He puts it in our human categories
遠遠超越人類渺小有限的頭腦所能理解的範疇,
at our level, even though His level is far, far beyond
但是祂卻用人能明白的方式來向我們講解真理。
the level of our puny, finite minds.
聖經也一再反覆展現這一點。
And the Bible recognizes that over and over again,
如詩篇147篇第5節,或以賽亞書第40章。
Psalm 147:5, Isaiah 40,
誰能比上帝呢,用什麼形象能與上帝相比呢?
who who can you liken me to?
誰能與上帝相提並論呢?
Who can you compare me to?
羅馬書11章33節、34節,誰能知道上帝的心,誰能指教上帝?
Romans 11:33, 34, who can ever understand God’s counsel, who can ever teach Him anything,
因為上帝的智慧與知識無窮無盡。
for His understanding is infinite.
詩篇147篇第5節,祂的智慧無法測度。
Psalm 147:5, He’s wonderful in counsel.
以賽亞書28章29節,祂的智慧廣大。
Isaiah 28:29, His wisdom is supernatural.
詩篇139篇第6節,上帝的心意就像深邃的無底洞,
Psalm 139:6, His mind is like a deep abyss
我們根本無法觸及它的盡頭。
from which we can never reach to the bottom.
還有詩篇92篇第5節、等等,許許多多的經文。
Psalm 92:5. On and on and on it goes.
上帝遠遠超越我們,祂的智慧無窮無盡。
God is so far above us and beyond us.
但上帝所行的實在令人驚嘆。
But the amazing thing,
祂說,“我的意念非同你們的意念, 我的道路非同你們的道路。
though He says my thoughts are not your thoughts, my ways are not your ways,
天怎樣高過地,” 因為天比地高遠,
for the heavens are higher, as the heavens are higher than the earth,
“照樣,我的道路高過你們的道路,我的意念高過你們的意念。”
so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts higher than your thoughts.
以賽亞書第55章,這是第8節和第9節。
Isaiah 55. Right behind it, this was versus 8, 9,
雖然上帝這樣說,但是緊接著,祂在10節、11節中表示,
but right behind it, versus 10, 11, God says,
祂會按照人思想的水平對祂的想法做出調整,祂會賜下祂的話語。
but I will adapt my thoughts to yours, and I’ll send forth my Word.
“我口所出的話… …決不徒然返回”。
And my Word will never return void or in vain to those whom I send it.
然後10節、11節說,
It will nourish us
上帝的話語會像雨雪滋潤地上的植物一般喂養滋潤我們,
as rain and snow nourish the plants of the ground, versus 10 to 11.
它會與我們一路同行,賜給我們平安。
Side by side, without any tension.
“我的意念非同你們的意念, 我的道路非同你們的道路。”
My thoughts, not your thoughts, my ways, not your ways.
雖然上帝的智慧遠遠高過我們,但是祂卻通過祂的話語,
I’m far, far above it, but I’ll convey it,
用一種簡單的方式將其精髓傳達給了我們。
the essence of it, at a simple level through my Word.
也正因為如此,當上帝通過聖經、
And so as my word comes to you in the pages of Scripture,
通過講道臺上的講道與詮釋,向我們傳講祂話語的時候,
as my word comes to you from the pulpit in the exposition of it,
我們就能夠懂得上帝話語的含義。
you will be able to relate to it.
正是因為如此,在同一章里(以賽亞書55章),
And so the call, the call to repentance, the call to bow
上帝呼召人悔改,呼召人順服祂的特殊啟示。
under special revelation is also right there in the same chapter.
第1節(更正:第3節)說,
Incline your ear, verse 1 (correction: verse 3),
“你們當就近我來,側耳而聽,就必得活。”
and come to me, hear, and your soul shall live.
所以,我們在以賽亞書55章中看到了一幅奇妙的畫面,
And so in Isaiah 55, what we have is this wonderful picture,
我們看到了惡人,也看到了義人。
of the wicked men and the righteous man.
惡人不肯放棄他自己的道路,
The wicked man will not forsake his way,
即他自己的決定、意念,他的理性自主。
his self-determination or his thoughts, that’s rational autonomy.
雖然上帝向他發出了邀請,但是他卻不願迴轉歸向主,
And he won’t return unto the Lord, as a transcendent source of wisdom and knowledge,
不願去尋求那遠遠高於他的上帝的智慧與知識。
to whom he’s invited to go.
但是55章中描繪的義人,他們會悔改,
But the godly, will repent,
他們會捨棄自己的道路、放下自己的意念,他們會迴轉歸向主。
will forsake their ways, will forsake their own thoughts, will return to the Lord,
那麼,他們將會得到生命,得到永遠的救贖。
and they will find life, salvation forever.
而這連接的橋梁,
Now, the theological point of contact, then,
連接上帝無限偉大的旨意與人有限渺小的頭腦的橋梁,
between God’s great infinite mind and our finite, fallen puny minds
就是耶穌基督的道成肉身。
is the incarnation of Jesus Christ.
基督是永生上帝的道,祂就是上帝。
He’s the eternal Word of God, who himself is God.
祂是天父榮耀所發的光輝,是上帝本體的真相。
He’s the brightness of the Father’s glory. The express image of His person.
因此,在聖經中,上帝處處都在彰顯基督,對嗎?
So what God is doing through the Bible, everywhere Christ is revealed, right?
耶穌說,他給兩個行路去以馬忤斯的門徒講解舊約聖經,
Jesus said, I made known the Old Testament scriptures, I taught them
“凡經上指著我所說的話,我都給他們講明白了。”
things concerning myself, to the two travelers on the way to Emmaus.
路加福音24章。
Luke 24.
因此,上帝總是通過特殊啟示、在基督里與我們連接,
So God is coming down to us in Christ always, in Special Revelation,
他是我們的智慧、公義、聖潔和救贖。
to be our wisdom, our righteousness, our sanctification and our redemption.
哥林多前書1章30節。
所以,不是我們要努力達到上帝的標準,
So we’re not rising up to him
不是我們通過自己思想的“偉大”來使我們的思想、力量、和意念
and acquiring through our great brilliance of mind like his mind,
變得和上帝的思想、力量、和意念一樣,
or strength, like his strength, or thoughts like his thoughts,
或者使我們的道路變得和祂的道路一樣。
or ways like his ways,
而是上帝主動降卑,為了我們而有所調整。
but he is accommodating himself to us.
我非常贊同加爾文說的,“福音的深度遠遠超越人類理智的範疇,
I love what Calvin says, “The gospel far transcends human intellect
因此,哪怕是世上最聰明的人,也根本無法企及福音的高度。
so that the most intelligent men cannot reach its elevated height.
但是,如果我們去聽上帝賜給我們的福音信息,
But we will be no losers by listening to the gospel,
我們一定能聽明白。
which he has appointed for us,
因為上帝在賜下福音信息的時候,
for he accommodates himself
特地照著人的能力對它做出了相應的調整。”
to our capacity in addressing us.”
上帝不只在賜下祂話語時屈尊降卑,耶穌自己更是降卑的榜樣。
And not only is that true through human words, but it’s true through the very example of Jesus,
雖然耶穌是眾神之神、萬王之王、萬主之主,
the God of gods, King of kings, lord of Lords.
他卻虛己、倒空自己,
He emptied himself and made himself of no reputation,
他這樣做,
so that he might
是為了能夠讓上帝無誤的真理進入人有限的思想中,
bear infallible divine truth in our limited human patterns of thought,
為了讓上帝的榮耀進入人的有限中,人就是上帝的聖殿。
and divine glory might dwell in human finiteness, in his tabernacle.
因此,耶穌自願取了人性,擁有了人的靈魂。
And so Jesus was willing to become a, take on a human soul.
上帝之子變成了一個嬰孩。
The son of God became a baby.
這位在天上呼風喚雨的上帝,成為了一個在馬槽里哭泣的嬰孩。
He who thunders in the heavens cried in the manger.
哦,這就是上帝為我們所做的調整!
O the accommodation of God!
耶穌基督在他的神人二性中,
And Jesus Christ,
將上帝的心意與人的思想結合在了一起。
the mind of God joins the mind of man in the God-man.
他雖有神人二性,卻只有一個位格,
There’s two natures in one person
他的神人二性即沒有混淆、也沒有合成,
without confusing or mixing the divine and the human,
而是不可分割地聯合在了一起。
but uniting the divine and the human inseparably.
弗朗西斯庫斯·尤尼烏斯將此稱為“聯合的複本神學”,
Franciscus Junius called this the ectypal theology of union,
這個神學概念,
which we obtained by the hypostatic union
是我們從“基督神人二性的確實聯合”中總結出來的。
of the divine nature and the human nature in the person of Christ.
因此,基督擁有神人二性…… 神人二性啊!
And so now, as the God-man… The God-man!
我們得好好思想這一點!
Think about that.
基督就是這群新造的人的頭。
Christ is the head of a new people
他們雖然是人,卻認識這位無限的上帝,
who know the infinite God in a human manner,
因為他們藉著聖靈,與上帝道成肉身的兒子聯合,
for they are joined to God’s incarnate son by the Spirit
他們有上帝的形象,是上帝在這個世界上的代表。
to be God’s image and to represent God on the earth.
我希望你們開始看到,特殊啟示是多麼地特別!
I hope you’re beginning to feel how special special revelation is.
大家到現在有沒有什麼問題?
Any questions at this point?
如果沒有問題,我們就繼續往下講。
All right, we’ll keep plodding.
第三部分:特殊啟示在歷史上的多重模式。
The third section, the manifold historical modes of special revelation.
我們已經試著探討了特殊啟示的特點,
Now that we’ve tried to define the character of it,
接下來我們要看看,我們究竟是通過哪些方式得到特殊啟示的。
how does it really manifest itself in our world?
希伯來書1章1節說,
Well, Hebrews 1:1 says,
上帝已經“藉著眾先知多次多方地”對人說話了。
God has spoken to men “in different manners”, diverse manners, “by the prophets.”
由此可知,古時的先知有上帝的特殊啟示。
So we know they had special revelation.
聖經中還講到了其他許多超自然啟示的方法。
And there’s other modes of supernatural revelations as well in the Bible.
我把這些方法分成了四類:
And so what we’ve done here is we’ve divided them into four groups:
言語的、可見的、上帝護理中的、以及道成肉身的。
verbal, visual, providential, and incarnational.
那麼,第一種,言語的超自然啟示。
First, then, supernatural verbal revelation.
口頭交通、言語的超自然啟示,
The mode of special revelation that undergirds
是各種特殊啟示的基礎。
all modes of special revelation is the verbal, the spoken communication.
我們在聖經中隨處可見言語的超自然啟示,對吧?
And this is what pops up everywhere in the Bible, right?
光是“耶和華如此說”這個短語,在聖經中就出現了四百多次。
The phrase “Thus saith the Lord” appears 400 plus times in the Bible.
而類似“耶和華的言語”這樣的表達,
Expressions like “the word of the Lord” or “the words of the Lord”,
光舊約中就出現了三百多次。
another 300 times in the Old Testament only.
還有一個很有意思的說法,“耶和華的話臨到”某人,
“The word of the Lord came”, interesting expression, “the word of the Lord
這個說法在聖經中也出現了一百多次。
came” to someone, another hundred times in the Bible.
還有幾次,上帝應許要將“當說的話”傳給人。
Or God promising to send men in whose mouths He puts His word, several times.
這種說法也很有意思,
You see, that expression is interesting
因為它既表明,是上帝將“當說的話”放到人的嘴裡,
because it implies both direct revelation God puts the words into your mouth,
它還表明,人的心中也有一種強烈的渴望,
but it also expresses an inner compulsion
要將上帝的話語傳給別人。
to speak to others what God’s said.
這不就是傳道人的呼召嗎?
And isn’t that what the call of the ministry is all about?
如果你在剛進神學院的時候,還說不出
You see, if you can’t say when you enter the seminary already,
“是上帝在我裡面呼召我來傳道,
“I’m internally called to the ministry, and woe to me,
我傳的若不是福音,我就有禍了!”
woe to me, if I speak not the gospel.”
那麼我希望,你在畢業的時候能夠說出這句話。
You’d better be able to say that by the time you graduate.
至少在教會呼召你、按立你為牧師的時候,
And certainly by the time
你一定要能說出這句話。
you’re called and ordained.
“我傳的若不是福音,我就有禍了!
Woe unto me if I preach not the gospel,
上帝的特殊啟示在我心裡,如熊熊烈火在燃燒。
it’s burning in me, special revelation.
它在我眼中無比珍貴,我一定要將它傳給別人。”
It’s precious to me and I must convey it to others.
阿摩司就說過這樣的話。
It’s like Amos said, you know.
你們知道,阿摩司本是一名農夫。
Amos was a farmer,
當上帝呼召他做先知時,
God called him to be a prophet,
他說,獅子已經吼叫了,主耶和華髮命了,“誰能不說預言呢?”
and he says the lion has roared, the Lord God has spoken, who can but prophesy.
我們無法控制自己,根本不可能。
Couldn’t contain it. Impossible.
我們一定、一定要傳講上帝的話語!
You gotta preach it.You gotta preach it.
而這就是為什麼,一個傳道人就應該要有這樣的心志,
And that’s why that becomes the very heart of a minister,
這就是一個傳道人生命的實質。
the very life of a minister.
因為我的教會現在有三個牧師,
Because we have three ministers now, there,
所以偶爾會有一個主日,沒有安排我講道。雖然我人在教會裡。
every now and then there’s a Sunday where I don’t preach at all when I’m home.
然後,總會有人對我說,“你肯定感覺特別好吧!
And people come up to me all the time, it never fails, I just know it’s coming,
今天不用講道,你肯定很高興吧!”
and say, “Wow, it must really feel good to you to that.
每次都這樣,別人開口之前,我都知道他要說什麼了。
I bet you just love it that you’re not preaching today.”
但問題是,我其實一直都不知道該怎樣回答他們。
I never know how to answer that.
不是因為我不喜歡教會另外兩位牧師的講道。我很喜歡。
I mean, I love listening to my brothers preach. No problem there.
但問題是,上帝的話語在我心中燃燒,
But not preaching for a whole Sunday
我卻一整天都無法傳講它,這太難了!
when the Word of God is burning in you? That’s not easy.
我的心在吶喊:“主啊,我要傳講你的話語!”
That’s just like, “Oh, just, Lord, I gotta speak.”.
這是一個傳道人的心聲。
That’s the way a minister feels.
反之,如果一位傳道人說,“如果我又能充足地養家糊口,
It’s a bad sign when ministers say, “I wanna preach
又能盡可能地少講一點道,就好了!”這可不是一個好苗頭。
as little as possible and still make a full living.”
一個傳道人,應該恨不得每周都講道;
No. No. You’d preach every week, you’d preach
如果可以,如果他身體條件允許,如果他有這樣的渴望,
every day if you could, you’d preach three times a day
如果他有這樣把自己擺上的心志,他甚至恨不得一天講三次道。
if you had the power to and you desire to and the commitment to.
他會竭盡全力、付出一切,哪怕沒有分文的報酬。
You do it all if you could. Even if you never get paid a penny for it.
因為上帝的話語在他心中,如烈焰般熊熊燃燒。
Because it’s the Word burning inside of you.
我們從聖經的記載中可以讀到,
The word of God comes in a special way
上帝使用了多種形態來賜下祂的言語特殊啟示。
in verbal form in a variety of ways in the Bible.
有時候,例如在西奈山上,上帝用一種雷鳴般的聲音向人說話。
At times, like at Mt. Sinai, God speaks in a thunderous voice, audible voice.
有時候,上帝派祂的使者傳遞信息,
Other times, God sent angels, this is all, of course,
不過很顯然,那時聖經還沒有寫完,言語啟示的記載還沒有完成,
before the Bible is completely written, before the verbal word is completely recorded.
於是上帝派遣祂的使者作祂的代言人,來向人說話。
So God sent angels to speak to men as His spokespersons.
還有的時候,
It’s possible that in other cases,
可能上帝的話語就奇跡般地浮現在先知的腦海中。
the words simply arose supernaturally within the prophet’s own mind.
所以,雖然有時候,先知是將“耶和華對先知說…”的話記錄下來,
Sometimes “the Lord spoke to the prophet saying…” and he records it.
但是,有時上帝也會以一種超自然的方式
Other times a prophet just is writing
inspired words
將祂的話語放入先知的心中,
然後先知將這些默示的話語記錄下來。
that God has supernaturally given to his mind.
因此,上帝在護理超自然言語啟示時,
So the verbal regulatory process includes
也會監管、護理這一啟示的形成過程。
God’s sovereign superintendents of that process,
所以,當一位先知做歷史研究的時候、
such that even when the prophet is doing some historical research,
在引用聖經其他書卷的時候(如列王記、歷代志),
even when he’s quoting other books like Kings and Chronicles,
他對所記錄的歷史有充分的把握。
he’s recording history with certainty.
因為帶領先知的是上帝自己。路加福音1章1至4節。
Because God is guiding them. Luke 1:1-4.
又或者,我們從撒母耳記下23章1至3節可以看到,
Or even when the author is writing that carefully crafted poem
聖靈帶領聖經作者精心創作一首詩歌,
that has all kinds of alliteration and all kinds of Hebrew pattern to it,
詩中運用了各種押頭韻法、有著各樣希伯來語詞形變化。
that’s been superintended, 2 Samuel 23:1-3, by the Holy Spirit.
那麼,當上帝通過先知和新約作者
Now, when God communicates words and works
向人傳講祂的話語、和祂所作的工時,
through the prophet himself or the New Testament writer,
上帝的作工便與人的作工結合到了一起。
so that both are coming together, the divine and the human.
神學家將這種結合稱為“同時合作”,即兩者結合在了一起。
Theologians have called that concursive operation, two coming together.
這也是為什麼“同時合作”這個術語非常重要。
That’s why the C, O, concursive operation,
我們需要瞭解這個術語,
it’s an important term to know, really,
因為它能夠幫助我們理解接下來兩周我們要講的“聖經的默示”。
because it helps you understand biblical inspiration when we get further in the next two weeks.
華腓德說,“在‘同時合作’中,
B.B. Warfield said, “In concursive operation,” yeah,
我們通過人的行動獲得了上帝的真理。
“Divine truth is attained through the action of the human powers,
但是,這些人不是自己在行動,
acting not by themselves, however, but under the prevailing assistance,
而是在聖靈無處不在的協助、監督、帶領和掌控下行動。”
superintendence, direction and control of the Divine Spirit.”
因此,換句話說,得到特殊啟示的先知並不是速記員,
So in other words, the prophets, the writers to whom this comes, they’re not like stenographers
他們不是機械地將他們聽到的詞語記下來,
who just type up mechanically what the word is that’s coming to them,
而是全身心地參與到其中。
but they’re involved themselves.
我們後面講彼得後書1章19至21節時會講到這一點,
And we’ll get to that later when we get to 2 Peter 1:19 to 21,
彼得在這裡提到了“感動”(希腊語“pheromenoi”),
when it talks about “pheromenoi”, they were “moved”
即這些聖經作者們被聖靈所“感動”,
as they were carried along by the Spirit of God, the writers.
他們就像一個漂在水面上的軟木塞,隨著水的波動而動,
It’s like a cork bobbing on the waters, together with the water,
聖經的作者們就是隨著聖靈在動。
together with the Holy Spirit.
彼得完全可以這樣寫,“你們看到了嗎,上帝讓我所經歷的一切,
“See, all my experiences,” Peter could say,
都是為了讓我寫出符合聖靈心意的文字。
“are so designed that I would write exactly what the Holy Spirit wanted me to write.
聖靈既在我心裡動工,也通過我來作工。”
He worked in me and through me.”
這就是為什麼,聖經作者全都是信徒。
That’s why none of the writers in the Bible, not a single one is an unbeliever.
聖靈精心地在他們每一個人身上動工。
They’re all wrought upon by the spirit of God.
他們在聖靈的感動下,帶著各自獨特的經歷,
And they are moved to write what they wrote
寫下了他們所寫的內容。
with their exact set of experiences.
而這也是唯一一個能解釋
That’s the only way to explain why,
為什麼聖經作者的寫作風格如此不同的合理原因。
how you can, the difference between different writers.
比如大家都知道,保羅的希腊語寫作水平比彼得要高很多。
Paul writes with a much more, you know that, a much more educated Greek than Peter does.
這是因為彼得是漁夫。
Peter’s a fisherman.
有些人會這樣來解釋這種不同,
So you don’t explain it away and say,
他們說,“你看,聖經並不是上帝默示的,
“You see the word of God is not inspired, because,
因為彼得的寫作水平顯然比保羅低,
because Peter is more simple than Paul,
所以,這些不過就是人的話語罷了。”
and therefore, these are just human words.”
我們的回應是,“你錯了。
“No,” you say,
彼得的經歷與性格是上帝為他量身打造的。
“God designed Peter to be exactly who Peter was,
聖靈感動(希腊語‘pheromenoi’)的就是這位獨一無二的彼得,
so that the Holy Spirit could move him like cork upon the water,
讓他像水上漂浮的軟木塞一樣,一字不漏的寫下上帝的話語。”
pheromenoi, to write the very word of God.
正因為如此,彼得在該亞法的院中經歷了一次跌倒,
So he had to fall in the hall of Caiaphas,
雖然那次跌倒性質惡劣,但是他學到了寶貴的一課,
as bad as that was, so that he learned to know that
讓他寫出了彼得前書開篇的那句話,
we’re kept by the power of faith, that’s where he begins his Epistle,
我們是“因信蒙上帝能力保守的人,
we are kept by the power of faith
必能得著所預備、到末世要顯現的救恩。”
unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
聖靈使用彼得的親身經歷,讓他在聖經中寫下上帝的真理,
That’s an experiential reality for Peter that the Holy Spirit now uses this to present His,
即上帝會藉著祂賜下的信心來保守祂的聖徒。
the inscripturated truth of the perseverance of God through faith in His saints.
這實在是太美好了!
That’s beautiful.
在某種程度上,聖靈也是這樣帶領傳道人的。
Now we have that at a certain level. We don’t have it
這並不是說傳道人說的話是無誤的。
in the sense in the level of infallibility. And by the way,
順便說一下,聖經作者本身也不是完全無誤的。
neither did the writers. The writers of the Bible weren’t always infallible.
他們唯有在聖靈默示下、寫聖經書卷時才是完全無誤的。
It was just when they were writing these Bible books under the divine inspiration of Holy Spirit.
但在某種程度上,聖靈也是這樣帶領傳道人的。
But we have it in a certain degree,
我跟大家分享一下我對這點的看法,
and I’m gonna share a thought with you
我相信會幫助大家更好地理解這一點。
that I think will help you grasp this.
也許將來有一天,你要去牧養你的第一間教會了,
Maybe when you go to your first church someday,
你說(我希望你到時能這樣說),“上帝為我所計劃的這一切,
you’re going to say, I hope you can say, “God has designed
就是我所經歷的這一切,都是為了讓我能夠服侍這間教會。
all my experiences in life, so that I can serve this church.
這真是不可思議!
It’s amazing!
我這個小牧人,剛好適合牧養這群羊,
I, as an under-shepherd, just fit these sheep,
而這群羊,也剛好適合我這個牧人。”
and these sheep just seem to be fitting for me as a shepherd.”
這就好比一個人結婚的時候,他(或她)說,
Sort of like, when you get married, you say,
“這個世界上再也沒有比這個人更好的、更適合我的人了。
“There’s no one else in the world, such a good woman for me”, or “such a good man.
我們就是絕配。真的很奇妙!
I say, we are just fit together. It’s wonderful.
我們各自所經歷的一切似乎可以完美地交織在一起,
All her experiences, all my experiences seem to coalesce
所以這個人就是上帝為我預備的人。”
and this is the woman for me.”
當然,你並沒有與你牧養的教會結婚,
Well, you are not physically married to your church, of course,
但是牧人與他的羊之間,有著一種極其緊密的關係。
but there is a connection that is very intimate between shepherd and sheep.
那麼十年後,你又接到了另一間教會的呼召,
Now, 10 years down the road, you get a call from another church.
你猜怎麼著?上帝明確要你去服侍這間呼召你的教會。
And guess what? God calls you powerfully to go to that church.
現在該怎麼辦?
So now what?
突然,當你仔細查看整個大局時,你驚嘆地發現:
Well, all of a sudden, you look at the whole situation, and you just marvel.
回頭看來,是上帝完美地安排了你所經歷的一切,
All your experiences, plus the 10 years you had in the first church,
包括你在第一間教會服侍的這十年,
are now all seem to be designed as a perfect match
上帝親自動工、親自配合,
that God has worked, orchestrated everything in your life,
讓你成為這間教會最合適的牧師人選,他們也是最適合你的羊。
so you are just the right pastor for this particular church and they the right sheep for you.
我們的整個生命就是這樣,上帝的帶領如滾滾浪濤,一波又一波。
And your whole life is like that, one wave after another.
我們總是會想… … 至少我在25歲時就是這樣想的,
You think always, well, I mean, that’s what I thought, I was twenty-five years old,
我當時以為,自己一輩子都會待在愛荷華州的蘇城,
I thought I was gonna be in Sioux City, Iowa, for the rest of my life.
因為蘇城的那間教會是我的“初戀”。
I mean, this is just what, you know, my first love, this church.
但結果並非如此。
No,
在上帝的計劃中,我後來去了新澤西州的富蘭克林湖,
God had Franklin Lakes in store, then God had Grand Rapids in store, then God had the seminary in store.
之後又來到大溪城,後來又建立了這間神學院。
then God had Grand Rapids in store, then God had the seminary in store.
所以,事情就一件件地這樣發生了。
And so one thing leads to another,
現在,上帝又預備在神學院里設立一個博士項目,
now God has a PhD program in store for this school.
這是十年前的我根本不敢想象的。
I never dreamed of that 10 years ago,
但上帝就這樣讓事情一件件、承前啟後地發生了。
but God builds one thing after another.
如果當時那個25歲的我想建立一個博士項目,
Could I have started a PhD program when I was twenty five?
這完全是痴人說夢。
Absolutely ridiculous.
所以,上帝一點一點地打造我們的生命,
So He molds our lives
祂讓我們像水上漂浮的軟木塞一樣,
so that like a cork on the water,
隨著祂的引領,走向生命的下一個目的地。
He makes fitting our next step.
聖經作者所寫的聖經書卷是完全無誤的。
The Bible writers have that to an infallible degree, when they write the word of God.
這就是為什麼,雖然聖經作者都是人,
So that’s why the Bible writers are so human,
但是聖經是上帝的話語。
even as the Bible is so divine.
當我們更多地思想這一點時,
And the more you meditate on that,
我們就會更加地驚嘆於上帝的默示。
the more you marvel at inspiration.
好,第二點,可見的超自然啟示。
So, number two, supernatural visual revelation.
聖經中一共有三種可見的特殊啟示,
In the Bible, there are three visual means of revelation, special revelation.
它們分別是“上帝的顯現”、“異夢”、與“異象”。
They’re called theophanies, dreams and visions.
“上帝的顯現”顯然是指無形的主以有形的方式出現。
Theophany, of course, refers to a visible appearance of the invisible Lord.
創世紀12章7節說,“耶和華向亞伯蘭顯現”,
The Lord “appeared” to Abraham, Genesis 12:7,
上帝也向摩西、撒母耳、和所羅門顯現過。
to Moses, to Samuel, to Solomon.
有時候,聖經並沒有進一步解釋“顯現”到底是什麼意思,
Sometimes we have no explanation of what that word “appearance” means,
聖經只是說,上帝 “顯現”了。
He just appeared.
有時候,主會以使者的形象顯現。
Other times, the Lord appeared in the form of an angel.
還有的時候,聖經中至少有一處記載,
One time, at least,
創世紀第18章,主以人的樣式顯現了。
in a human form. Genesis 18.
有的時候,上帝還會以某個物體的形象出現,
And sometimes Divine theophanies are in something inanimate.
比如燃燒的荊棘、雲柱與火柱,又比如會幕和聖殿。
Like a burning bush, like a cloud, a fire, or just the tabernacle, and the temple.
當然,上帝的顯現中最為神秘的,
Now, one of the most mysterious forms of divine theophany, of course, is
莫過於這位“耶和華的使者”了。
God’s appearances as the Angel of the Lord.
他不是任意“一位天使”,而是“耶和華的使者”。
The Angel of the Lord, not just any angel.
“天使”的意思顯然是“使者”,就是說,
“Angel” of course means messenger, which implies
他們是受上帝差遣、為上帝傳遞旨意、執行上帝旨意的使者。
being sent by the Lord to communicate or to do His will.
但是這位代表上帝說話的使者,“耶和華的使者”,
But the one sent to speak for God, who is the Angel,
表明祂就是上帝。
implies that he is God.
赫爾曼·巴文克對聖經中關於”耶和華的使者“的教導進行了總結,
Herman Bavinck summarizes the biblical teaching of the Angel of the Lord by saying,
他說,“祂既不是一個獨立象徵、也不是被造的天使,
“He is not an independent symbol nor a created angel,
而是上帝將祂真實的自己啟示出來,是上帝的顯現。
but a true personal revelation, and an appearance of God,
他與天使截然不同。”
distinct from the angels.”
巴文克接著說,但是這位“耶和華的使者”,
And still one with God “in name, in power,
與上帝“在名義、能力、救贖、賜福、敬拜與尊榮上”同等。
in redemption and blessing, in adoration and honor.”
巴文克還列舉了許多提到”耶和華的使者“顯現的經文,
And he has a whole bunch of scripture proof texts,
來證明他的論點,
looking at all these angelic appearances.
我們就不再進一步更詳細地討論這些了,
So it seems best, without going into a lot more detail,
當然,你們可以在這一點上更深地進行查考與探究。
there’s a lot more study you can do on this, of course,
但從一切論證來看,對”耶和華的使者“的最好理解,似乎是:
it seems best to understand this Divine Angel of the Lord
他是聖父派來的道成肉身前的耶穌。
as a manifestation of the pre-incarnate Jesus, sent by the Father.
以人形顯現的“耶和華的使者”,也是道成肉身前的耶穌。
The Angel of the Lord, also, is a pre-incarnate expression of Jesus
我們有時還會在聖經中讀到,例如民數記22章23節,
when he appears in human form, at times we read of him as
這位“耶和華的使者”手持一把刀或者一個杖。
having a sword or a staff in his hand, Numbers22:23.
接下來,異夢與異象,是兩種顯明超自然現實的可見形式。
Dreams and visions are visual representations of supernatural realities.
上帝直接向祂的啟示對象顯明異夢和異象,
Dreams and visions are visual representations of supernatural realities
直接讓他們看到這兩種超自然現實。
that God impressed directly on the mind of the recipient.
大多數時候,當然不是所有時候,但大多數時候,
And usually, not always, but usually,
上帝都會用言語啟示的方式來解夢或者解釋異象。
God also interpreted that dream or vision through verbal revelations.
所以這種啟示方式實際上還結合了言語啟示。
So it’s a combination of visual and verbal.
人們沒有意識到,其實聖經中有很多關於異夢的記載。
And the Bible actually mentions those dreams more than you think.
異夢顯然是指,人在睡覺時、在半夢半醒的狀態下看見的異象,
Dreams, of course, is when you sleep in visions, when you’re sort of in a semi trance,
但是這個人其實是清醒的。
you’re awake, though.
這是異夢與異象唯一的不同。
it’s the only difference there.
僅在創世紀這一捲書中,我們就讀到了,
But you’ve got dreams coming to Abimelech,
亞比米勒、雅各、拉班、約瑟、法老的官長、以及法老自己,
to Jacob, to Laban, to Joseph, to Pharaoh’s officials, Pharaoh himself.
都做過異夢。
That’s all just in Genesis.
假先知也常常聲稱自己得到了上帝所賜的異夢,得到了啟示,
False prophets would often make claims to revelatory dreams
想用這種方法來讓自己說的預言顯得更加可信。
to try to give more reality to their prophetical office.
但是,上帝的確會在夢中向人賜下啟示。
But God did grant revelatory dreams
祂向一個米甸人(士師記第7章)、
to a Midianite, Judges 7,
所羅門(列王記上第5章)、
to Solomon, 1 Kings 5,
尼布甲尼撒、和但以理都賜過啟示的異夢;
Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel,
而新約中的約瑟、東方的博士、以及比拉多的妻子也都做過異夢。
and the New Testament, Joseph, the wiseman, Pilate’s wife.
相比之下,異象通常是在人醒著的時候出現的,
So visions, in contrast to dreams, generally took place
就是民數記24章中所說的人“眼睛睜開”的狀態下。
with your “eyes open”, Numbers 24,
所以看見異象的人所見到的,是超自然的異象,
so that the person saw supernatural realities
不是正在他身邊發生的事情。
not immediately present with him.
聖經中也有好幾處關於異象的記載,
And this too, you read several cases in the Bible,
如亞伯拉罕、雅各、巴蘭、撒母耳、還有眾先知,
to Abraham, to Jacob, Ballam, Samuel,
他們都見過異象。
and various prophets.
而新約中的撒迦利亞、哥尼流、彼得、保羅、
In the New Testament, Zacharias, Cornelius, Peter, Paul
當然還有約翰(整本啟示錄),他們都見到了異象。
and of course, John, in the whole Book of Revelation,
對了,我今天早上剛剛收到了我的新書,
which, by the way, my 600 page book
是一本關於啟示錄的600多頁的書。
on Revelation arrived this morning,
這是給我的一份很好的感恩節禮物(兩天后是美國感恩節)。
so that was a nice Thanksgiving present for me.
啟示錄這本書,實在是太精彩了!
What a book it is,
這是一本充滿異象的書!太神奇了!
what a book of visions! It’s amazing.
人在見到異象時,是處於一種出神、迷幻(英文是trance)的狀態,
So visions were associated with being in a trance,
而“迷幻”這個詞,還可以指一個人在恐懼時精神恍惚的狀態、
a word that can also be used
以及一個人驚訝時的狀態。
for fear and amazement.
這就是為什麼大多數在異象中看見耶和華的人,
That’s why when most people got visions of the Lord,
都俯伏倒在祂面前,如同死人。
they fell at his feet as one dead.
當一個人見到真正的異象時,
It’s a traumatic thing to have a true visionary experience
他身體中所有的感官都暫時冰封,唯獨頭腦依舊清醒,
that supersedes the impressions of the senses,
我們可以試想一下,這該是一種多麼難受的感覺!
and yet does not suspend the operation of the mind.
有時候,特殊啟示的這幾種方式也有交叉重疊的地方。
Now, sometimes these visual special revelations overlap, don’t they?
上帝可以在異夢中顯現,
Theophanies can be given through dreams,
如列王記上3章5節,耶和華在夢中顯現。
the Lord appeared in a dream. 1 Kings 3:5.
在掃羅去大馬士革的路上,基督顯現了,
Christ’s appearance to Saul on the road to Damascus
這既是上帝榮耀的顯現,也是一種異象。
was a manifestation of Divine glory, but it was also a vision.
有時候,聖經也將異夢描述為異象,
And sometimes dreams seem to be accounted as visions.
如但以理書第2章、第4章、和第7章。
Daniel 2, Daniel 4, and Daniel 7.
所有的“上帝顯現”、“異夢”、和“異象”,
So there’s a unifying factor behind all these theophanies
都有一個共同的特點:
and dreams and visions, in that they are temporary encounters,
它們都是與超自然事物的一種人眼可見的、短暫的相交。
temporary encounters with the supernatural, in a manner that is visible to the mind.
我們要查考的第三點,是上帝護理中的超自然啟示。
Thirdly, you then have the supernatural, providential revelation.
特殊啟示的第三種方式,上帝的護理。
A third form of special revelation, providential revelation.
要註意,我們在講特殊啟示時所說的“上帝的護理”,
Now, by providential, when we refer to revelation in terms of specialness,
指的是那些因著上帝滿有主權的奇妙作為而發生的歷史事件。
that’s something that takes place through God’s amazing sovereign actions in history.
我們顯然會一下子想到神跡奇事。
We think, of course, of miracles,
上帝說,我行神跡,是為了讓人“知道我是耶和華”。
so that people, God says, I work miracles so that people “shall know that I am the Lord.”
例如埃及的十災那一部分,出埃及記第7章。
Think of the ten plagues, for instance, in that section, Exodus 7.
所以,上帝藉著先知、基督、使徒來展示祂奇妙的大能,
So God demonstrates His wondrous power through the prophets, through Christ,
以證實祂自己的話語。
through the apostles, to confirm His own words.
因此,我們再一次看到,
So you see, again, how words, verbal, spoken,
這些言語啟示是上帝超自然啟示的基礎,也是神跡奇事的基礎。
are the basis of supernatural revelation, and also these providences,
上帝所行的神跡奇事,是為了證實祂的話語。
they are sent to confirm the words.
耶穌行神跡,是為了證明他所說的話是真理。
Jesus did miracles to prove that the words he was speaking were truth.
因此,上帝所行的事與祂的話語是緊密相連的,
So God’s actions are closely connected to His words,
這兩者都是在向人顯明上帝。
and both reveal Him.
巴文克說,“上帝的話語即作為,上帝的作為即話語。
Bavinck said, “God’s word is an act, and his activity speech.
祂的話語與作為,無論在創造中、還是在護理中,都形影不離。
Word and deed accompany each other, both in creation and recreation.
在通常情況下,上帝的話語會先出現,
Usually the word comes first,
有時是應許,有時是警告,
as a promise and a threat,
但從本質上來說,上帝的話語里包含著祂的作為。
but in principle it already contains within itself a deed.
上帝的話語決不徒然返回,
God’s Word does not return to Him empty,
它一定會在歷史中實現上帝的旨意。”
but it accomplishes what He wants in terms of deeds.”
但是,上帝護理中的啟示也可以普通自然地發生。
Now, providential revelation can also take place through ordinary, natural processes.
有時候,上帝會在自然中有一些引人矚目的作為,
Sometimes God can just do remarkable things in nature,
人會目睹這些事,會解讀這些事,
and you can see it, you can explain it, but
但它們其實是上帝向我們說話的途徑。
God is speaking through them.
有時候,上帝會讓大祭司用烏陵和土明來顯明祂的旨意,
Sometimes He’s, revealing His will through the high priest use of
也不知道烏陵和土明究竟是什麼。
the Urim and the Thummim, whatever they were.
順便說一下,60歲以前千萬不要在講道中講烏陵和土明。
And by the way, don’t preach on the Urim and Thummim until you’re at least 60 years old.
我40多歲的時候講過一次,那真是一個教訓慘痛的經歷。
I tried it when I was about 40 and I flopped terribly.
講完後,我在講道稿的首頁寫了幾個字:“再也不要講了。”
And I put on the top of my sermon, “never do again”.
還有的時候,上帝會讓祂指定的一些頭領掣簽。
And the casting of lots, the casting of lots by Divinely appointed leaders.
這些超自然啟示的方式中,上帝沒有使用神跡,
These means of revelation were supernatural not in a display of miraculous power,
而是在協調日常生活事件中賜下祂的啟示。
but in the coordination of ordinary events.
比如,簽抽中了約拿。
A lot fell upon Jonah.
雖然掣簽本身是一件平常的事,
It’s an ordinary event,
但是上帝引導著整個摯簽過程,要抽中約拿來傳遞上帝的信息。
but God superintended it, so that it pointed to Jonah to communicate divine information.
這是掣簽的目的。
That’s the purpose.
最後第四點,道成肉身的超自然啟示。
And finally, fourthy, supernatural incarnational revelation.
言語啟示是特殊啟示的基礎。
Verbal revelation is the basis for a special revelation.
擁有神人二性、通過道成肉身來啟示的耶穌基督,
Jesus Christ revealed as the God-man incarnational revelation
是啟示的巔峰。
is the consummate mode of revelation.
實際上,基督道成肉身的一生,都是上帝的啟示。
In fact, all of Christ’s incarnate life is divine revelation.
因為他是上帝的兒子。
For he’s a Son of God.
他是那活潑的真理。
He’s the living Truth.
只有他能說,“我是道路、真理和生命。”
He can say, I am the Way, I am the Truth and the Life.
除他以外,沒有人有資格說這句話。
No one else can say that.
加爾文說,“在基督以前,我們只能看到微弱的光亮,”
Calvin said, ever “since Christ, the Son of Righteousness, has shown,
但在“公義之子基督的到來之後,
while before him, there was only dim light,
我們如今有了上帝真理完全的光照。”
we now have the perfect radiance of divine Truth.”
因此,上帝所有其他啟示的方法
So in the incarnate Savior,
都在這位道成肉身的救主身上到達了頂點。
all other modes of divine revelation reach their richest fulfillment.
基督說的每一個字,都是上帝的話。
Christ’s every word is the word of God.
只有他,是完全無誤的。
He’s the only one that’s always infallible.
他通過每一個愛的舉動、每一個超凡的神跡顯明瞭上帝。
And he revealed God with every act of love, every extraordinary miracle.
他自己就是世人能見到的、最偉大的“上帝的顯現”,
He himself is the greatest theophany the world has ever known.
儘管一路從加利利到耶路撒冷,他都身披謙卑,虛己而行。
Even though he clothed himself with humility as he walked through Galilee in Jerusalem.
華腓德說,“與上帝在道成肉身中的顯現相比”,
Warfield said, “The theophanies” in Scripture
聖經中其他的“上帝顯現,不過是浮光掠影。”
“are but faint shadows in comparison with His manifestation of God in the flesh.”
傳統觀點一般認為,
Christ’s transfiguration
基督在彼得、雅各、約翰面前變了模樣、與摩西和以利亞交談,
with Moses and Elijah before the apostles Peter, James and John
即馬太福音17章所記載的登山變相,是一個異象。
was considered a vision in Matthew 17.
但是基督第二次來時的盛況,將會超越所有神跡奇事與異象。
But his second coming will transcend all miracles and all visions,
與那將要降臨到這個墮落世界的超自然的榮耀相比,
and show them to be but mere sparkles of the supernatural glory
這些神跡與異象,不過是一星半點的火花罷了。
that will dawn upon our fallen world.
好,我還有最後一點要與大家探討。
All right, then there’s one more area to take up with you.
但是我們先稍作休息,
But let’s take a quick break here
然後再來查考我們的最後一點:
before we look at the last area,
特殊啟示的個人性、命題性內涵。
“The personal, propositional content of special revelation.”
好,我們現在來看一看“特殊啟示的個人性、命題性內涵”。
Let’s look now at the personal, propositional content of special revelation.
我們之前已經提過,上帝在特殊啟示中顯明瞭祂自己。
So in special revelation, we said, the triune God reveals himself.
祂說話,祂行事,
He speaks, he acts, so that
都是為了讓“你們知道我是耶和華你們的上帝。”
“ye shall know that I am the Lord, your God.”
因此,自始至終,上帝都是啟示祂自己的那一位,
So always God himself revealing himself,
而基督,就是上帝所有特殊啟示的核心。
in Christ stands at the center of all special revelation.
因此,特殊啟示能夠讓上帝的子民與祂形成親密無間的關係,
So special revelation brings God’s people into the closest relation
超越世上任何其他受造物與上帝的關係。
that a creature can have to his creator in this world.
而這其實就是我們生命的意義,對嗎?
And that really is the aim of our lives, isn’t it?
認識上帝和上帝所差來的耶穌基督,因為這就是永生。
To know God and Jesus Christ whom he has sent, because this is life eternal.
耶利米書9章23節至24節說,
Jeremiah 9:23, 24, “Thus saith the LORD, let not the wise man glory in his wisdom,
“耶和華如此說:‘智慧人不要因他的智慧誇口,
neither let the mighty man glory in his might, let not the rich man glory in his riches:
勇士不要因他的勇力誇口,財主不要因他的財物誇口。
but let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth me,
誇口的卻因他有聰明,認識我是耶和華,
that I am the LORD which exercise righteousness, lovingkindness, judgment in the earth,”
又知道我喜悅在世上施行慈愛、公平和公義,以此誇口。’
so on, “for in these things do I delight,
這是耶和華說的。”
saith the Lord.”
巴刻說,“啟示是上帝的作為,
J. I. Packer said, “As God’s act,
祂藉著啟示顯明祂自己,讓我們能夠經歷祂、真正地認識祂,
revelation is the personal self-disclosure whereby He brings us actively and experientially
以此明白祂是我們的上帝,是我們的救主。”
to know Him as our own God and Savior.”
所以,通過特殊啟示,我們得以遇見上帝。
So through special revelation, we meet God
因此,特殊啟示極具關係性、親密性、和經歷性。
and it is profoundly relational, profoundly personal, profoundly experiential.
但是,我們不能因為特殊啟示的關係性、親密性和經歷性,
However, it is misleading to take this personal, experiential, relational quality
就忽略或者否認它的命題性真理內容。
of special revelation and to set it over against its propositional content.
如果我們忽略或否定了特殊啟示的內容,
When we do that, we’re saying it’s as if
我們就好像在說,認識上帝只是一種感覺,與知識無關。
the knowledge of God were no knowledge at all, but only a feeling.
這顯然是不對的。
Well, that’s wrong.
我們所說的“命題性的內容”,指的是話語;
Now by a “proposition” in this context, we’re referring to words,
命題性內容所宣告的,是我們具有真理性的信仰。
proposition is words that make a claim to our belief that is true.
所以,當我們以真理的教導為基礎
So a personal encounter
來認識上帝、並與祂形成親密的個人關係時,
that leads to a personal relationship based on true beliefs
我們對上帝的認識便超越了真理的教導本身。
is something more than true beliefs.
但這並不代表真理的教導是虛假的。
But it doesn’t make the true beliefs false.
事實是,超越真理本身的認識是以真理的教導為基礎的。
Actually, it builds on the true beliefs.
這就好像威廉默斯·阿·佈雷克說過的一個古老的諺語:
It’s the old adage that Wilhelmus a Brakel said,
上帝所賜的重生的種子,栽種於頭腦知識的土壤之中。
this seed of divine regeneration is planted in the soil of head knowledge.
我們的信仰只有以上帝的話語為基礎,它才是真的。
So what you believe based on the word of God may be true,
但頭腦知識終究只是土壤,它不足以讓我們得到永生。
that’s the soil, that’s not enough for eternity.
頭腦知識一定要變成心靈知識。
You need the head knowledge to be made heart knowledge.
但是,這並不否定我們的頭腦知識的真理性,
But the head knowledge is not untrue
所以我們一定不能輕視這些知識,
and you must not despise it,
一定不能蔑視、貶低教導性的真理本身。
you must never look down on educational truth in itself disparagingly.
我們需要真理。
We need truth.
我們對上帝的救恩性、經歷性、個人性的認識,
Saving, experiential, relational knowledge of God
是基於真理,基於命題性的真理。
is based on truth, propositional truth.
例如我們剛剛讀過的這節經文,耶利米書9章24節,
So, for example, when we just looked at this text, Jeremie 9:24
它講的就是人一生的目標:擁有對上帝的個人性、關係性的認識。
about the aim of life being to know God with a personal relational knowledge.
我們從這節經文里,能總結出幾個關於上帝的真理。
The same text said these things that are true about God.
第一,經文說,上帝是主;
Number one, it said He’s Lord;
第二,經文說,上帝帶著愛、正義與公義在地上行事。
number two, it said He acts with love, and justice and righteousness in the earth.
第三,經文說,上帝喜悅愛、正義、和公義。
Number three, it said He delights in these things.
還有第四個真理:上帝向人談到愛、正義和公義,
And Number four, another propositional truth is that he speaks these things
祂要把這些事情教導給人。
and tells us all of these things.
這就是這節經文中關於上帝的四個真理。
So here’s four propositions about God.
整本聖經中充滿了這樣的真理,而這些真理就是上帝的話語。
And the whole Bible is full of such propositions which claim to be the Word of God.
因此,啟示中有知識,上帝把這些真理白白地賜給我們,
So revelation communicates knowledge, the things that are freely given to us of God
就是讓我們可以認識它們,並傳講它們。
so that we can know and speak about them.
卡爾·亨利這樣說,
Carl Henry puts it this way,
“聖經所描述的‘上帝的啟示’,
“The Bible depicts God’s very revelation
是人可以認識的有意義的客觀啟示。
as meaningful, objectively intelligible disclosure.
所以,我們所說的‘命題性真理的啟示’,
So we mean by propositional revelation
是指上帝用認知真理(即人頭腦中認識的真理)的表達形式,”
that God supernaturally communicates His revelation to chosen spokesman
“將祂的啟示超自然地賜給祂指定的代言人。
in the express form of cognitive truth,”
然後,這些得到上帝默示的先知與使徒,
truth that are true in the mind, “and that the inspired prophetic-apostolic proclamation
在聖經中用前後一致的人類語言,
reliably articulates these truths in sentences and words
真實可信地將上帝的真理傳講出來。”
that are not internally contradictory in the Bible.”
因此,實際上整本聖經都是命題性的真理。
So the whole Bible is really propositional truth.
但是,這並不代表,
Now, that does not mean
我們要將特殊啟示、將聖經簡化為一種科學。
that we reduce special revelation or reduce the Bible to a science.
聖經並不是一系列的命題性的真理,
The Bible’s not just a list of propositions,
它也不是一本神學教科書。
it’s not even just a theological textbook.
相反,聖經中有上帝默示的各類文體,
But there’s a wide variety of divinely inspired literature in the Bible,
有表達斥責的經文、有歌曲、還有詩歌。
ranging from rebukes to songs to poetry.
整本聖經的使命,
What the Bible as a whole is doing is
不單單是要用它的命題性真理來塑造我們的信仰,
it’s taking propositional truth, not just to shape our beliefs,
它更是要用這些真理,從個人、團體、以及經歷等各個方面,
but the goal is to shape our entire existence personally, corporately,
來塑造我們的整個生命。
experientially, every way.
聖經要塑造我們,
But that whole shaping process
讓我們按照上帝的心意思想,讓我們為著上帝的榮耀而活。
in which the Bible molds us to think God’s thoughts after him
而這整個塑造過程,都充滿了上帝教導的真理。
and live for His glory is pervaded by truth claims.
聖經中處處都是真理。
There’s truth claims everywhere.
若沒有這些真理,聖經就無法使人有效地與上帝建立關係,
And apart from those truth claims, the Bible would have no relational validity,
也沒有力量使人經歷上帝。
no experiential power.
我非常欣賞保羅·海姆說的,
I love what Paul Helm says here,
“如果人們認為,在他們面對一句
“There is no reason to think that if a sentence
闡述某個關於上帝或歷史的真理、含有真理價值的話時,
has a truth value and expresses a truth about God or history,
他們不需要作出任何回應,這種想法是很荒謬的。
then it cannot be regarded as something that demands a response.
相反,我們有充分的理由相信,如果說人們有義務
There is good reason to think that in many if not all cases,
必須要回應某句話,絕大多數時候,這句話中一定含有真值。
for a sentence to be ‘response-demanding,’ it must have truth-value in itself.”
你們明白他的意思嗎?
You get that?
比如,耶穌說,“我就是道路、真理和生命”。
So Jesus says I’m the Way, the Truth and the Life.
這句話中含有極大的真值。
That has tons of truth value about it.
他就是道路,生命的道路,救贖的道路。
He’s the Way, way of life, way of salvation.
他就是真理,他是真理本身。
He’s the Truth, par excellence.
他也是生命本身,若沒有他,就只有死亡。
He’s life itself, without him, it’s death.
無數的真值。
Lots of truth value.
那麼面對這樣的真值,我們需要作出回應。
Now, that truth value demands a response.
他是你的道路嗎?他是你的真理嗎?他是你的生命嗎?
Is he your Way? Is he your Truth? Is he your Life?
你能否從自己的親身經歷中肯定這幾點?
Do you experientially realize these things?
其實我們在講道的時候,就在做這兩件事,對不對?
So in preaching, you do both, don’t you?
我們既在向我們的會眾宣講真理,
You present to your people propositional truth value,
但同時,我們也要求他們要做出回應。
but you also demand a response.
所以我想說的是,福音是以上帝啟示中的命題性內容為基礎的,
So the gospel itself, I’m saying to you, hinges upon the propositional content of revelation,
因為上帝這樣啟示我們:“好消息!
for that content says, “Good news!
耶穌基督照聖經所說,來到世界上,為罪人受苦、受死。
Jesus Christ came to suffer and die for sinners.
他被埋葬,第三天從死里複活。”
He was buried and rose again the third day, according to the Scriptures.”
但是,一旦我們顛覆真理中這些歷史真值,
If we overthrow the historical value of truth claims,
會產生怎樣的後果呢?
guess what we do?
我們就推翻了聖經的權威性。
We take away the authority of scripture.
舉個例子,如果我們認為亞當不是一個真正的歷史人物,
For example, if Adam is not historical,
聖經中的六天也不是六天,而是時間段,
the six days are not six days, they are periods of timing.
我們在沒有任何依據的情況下,
And we revisit certain parts of Scripture
在歷史資料、聖經文本、聖經原文中都沒有找到依據的情況下,
and change the genre of that Scripture to something else to fit our own ideas,
擅自重審聖經中的某些內容,
when there’s no ground in the historical data,
並按照我們自己的想法修改它們的體裁與類型,
in the actual words, in the original language for doing so,
那麼,我們實際在做的,
we then change the truth claims
就是篡改聖經的真理,使之迎合我們自己的意思。
to fit what we want them to say.
如果我們這樣做,
And when we do that,
我們就失去了聖經使人與上帝連接的價值。
we lose the relational value as well.
因此,如果我們丟棄了我們的歷史性信仰,丟棄了真理,
So if we overthrow the historical faith, the truth claim,
那麼我們的盼望也不過是空中樓閣而已。
then our hopes are mere castles in the air.
正如保羅所說,我們的信便是徒然,我們仍在罪里。
Our faith is vain, says Paul, and we are yet in our sins.
但好消息是,福音不僅建立了真理的命題、真理的信息,
The good news is, the gospel, not only establishes truth claims, truth information,
它還以這些真理為基礎,讓人與上帝連接。
but it also creates relationship based on those truth claims.
因此,福音帶來的是和平的信息,
So it’s a message of peace
它摧毀了謊言,摧毀了上帝與我們之間的隔閡,
tears down untruth, tears down walls between God and us,
它藉著耶穌基督的寶血,把我們帶到上帝的面前。
and it brings us near to God through the blood of Jesus Christ.
因此,那種將頭腦知識與心靈知識對立起來、
So the idea of head knowledge versus heart knowledge
將命題性真理與經歷對立起來的教導,是錯誤的。
or truth claim versus experience is a heresy.
“命題性真理”和“我們與上帝的連接”之間的關係,
Truth claims and relational knowledge
不是二者只可取其一,而是二者缺一不可。
are not “either… or…”, they’re “both… and…”.
我們必須兩個都有。
We need them both.
命題性真理是我們與上帝連接的基礎。
And the relational knowledge is built on the truth claims.
所以,上帝的啟示中含有命題性真理,
So revelation includes propositional truth,
這種真理將啟示的言語形式與其他幾種形式
which makes the verbal mode of revelation
(可見的、上帝護理的、以及道成肉身的)融合在了一起。
integral to its visual, providential, and incarnational modes.
這幾種形式是緊密連結在一起的。
So they’re all bound together.
這就是為什麼,
That’s why
人們可以隨意解讀那些沒有不帶解釋的象徵性異象。
symbolic visions without any interpretation would mean anything.
不帶解釋的異象不過是無稽之談。
They are nonsense.
記得有一次,我受邀去蘇格蘭,在那裡探訪了兩位八十多歲的老人。
When I was invited in Scotland to hear two old men in their 80s
他們跟我聊起原來蘇格蘭的一段屬靈復興的歷史,
talk about the old revival in Scotland,
實在是太不可思議了。
which is just amazing.
我拿出電腦,他們一邊說,我就一邊飛快地記錄他們說的每句話,
I get out my laptop, I was taking notes of everything they were saying
我打字的速度幾乎與他們的語速同速。
and typing as fast as they were talking.
其中一位老人就坐在我旁邊,他告訴我,
The guy was sitting right next to me, and
他跟我講起當時人們認罪悔改的情形,
he’s telling me about their conviction of sin and how
他說在凌晨一點的路易斯島的大街上,
you could walk the streets of the island of Lewis at that time, and one o’clock in the morning,
人們還能聽到有人歌唱,有人為他們的罪哭泣,
you could hear people singing, you could hear all the people weeping over their sin,
有人為他們在基督里所得的救贖而歡呼。
you could hear people rejoicing that they’d found deliverance in Christ.
實在是一番無比神奇的景象。
Just a phenomenal experience.
聽他說這些的時候,我覺得自己渾身都在起雞皮疙瘩。
And my chills are going up and down my back as I was listening to him.
這太不可思議了!
This is amazing!
我要是能親眼見證一次這樣的屬靈復興,就太好了!
Oh wouldn’t it be wonderful to see such a revival!
在他正講著的時候,他突然提到,
And then he says, right in the middle of it all,
“對了,當時有三個人看到了一個異象,
he says, “Yes, and there were three people who had this vision,
異象中有一艘停泊在陸地上的大船。
they saw a ship on dry land.
但時至今日,也沒有人知道這個異象的含義。
Until today, no one knows what it means, but it was
但是這確實是上帝賜的異象。”
it was a vision given by God.”
聽到這裡,我停下了打字,心裡納悶,
And I’m going like, I stopped typing.
什麼?這是怎麼回事?
What? What’s this all about? Where’s the truth claim of this?
這裡面有真理嗎?
You know, that’s what I’m thinking.
當然,我當時思考的時候並沒有用“命題性真理”這個詞,
I didn’t think the word “truth claim”, but you know,
但是我就是想,為什麼?有什麼依據嗎?
why? Where is this coming from?
所以,當他講完以後,我就問他……
So when he get all done and I asked him, I said…
在這裡插一句,在我們回顧歷史的時候,
You know, when you look back, you know,
我們在絕大多數的屬靈復興中都能看到很多上帝的作為,
most revivals in history have a lot of God in them,
但我們也會在它們中看到一些出自人自己的東西。
but they also have something of man in them.
撒旦為了達到牠的目的 – 減少屬靈復興的有效影響,
And there’s aberrations and there’s false things
竭盡全力地在屬靈復興中混入了扭曲和虛假的東西。
that Satan tries to mix in with it to delegitimize a revival.
所以當時我就問那位老人家,
I said, “What do you think of this revival
“您在回顧這次屬靈復興的時候,
when you look back?
是覺得這一切都是上帝的作為嗎?還是絕大多數是上帝的作為?
Do you think it was all of God, do you think it was mostly of God? Do you…
您怎麼看?”
What do you think?”
他就坐在我旁邊,聽完我的問題後,
And he was sitting right next to me
他的臉上露出了一個我永世難忘的表情。
and I’ll never forget the look he gave me.
那是一種充滿嘲諷、令人無地自容的表情,
It was a withering look.
好像在告訴我:你問了一個非常沒有分寸的問題!
It was like, that was a wrong question to ask.
他猛地轉過頭來,對我說,“這全部都是上帝的作為!”
He snapped his head at me and said, “It was all of God!”.
他的意思是,那個異象肯定也是出自上帝。
And the ship, the ship must have been of God.
但問題是,我實在無法認同這個船的異象,
But see, the ship doesn’t relate to me at all
因為它裡面沒有任何命題性的真理。
because there’s no truth claim underneath it.
對我而言,這個異象毫無意義。
So to me, that’s nonsense.
所以,我們作為傳道人,一定要幫助我們的會眾明白這一點:
So you need, as a preacher, to help your people understand
即他們一切感受、一切知識,
that all their feelings,
無論是與上帝之間的連接、還是他們的經歷,
all their relational knowledge, all their experiential knowledge,
都必須以命題性真理為基礎。
they must go back to truth claims.
這一切都必須建立在真理之上。
They must be built on truth.
如果它們不是建立於真理之上,那麼它們就毫無價值。
If it’s not built on truth, it’s got no value.
路德這樣說,如果我們無法用上帝的話語來解讀我們的經歷,
In fact, Luther said, if you can’t find your experience back in the Word of God,
那麼它就出自魔鬼,而不是出自主。
it’s from the devil, not from the Lord.
所以我們在牧會的時候,一定要把握好這一點。
So this is very important to grasp pastorally.
比如你們會如何處理這樣一件事呢?
I mean, how would you handle this situation?
假如在你的教會裡,有一位非常敬畏上帝的姐妹……
There’s a God fearing lady in your congregation.
這其實是在我身上發生過的一件真事。
This is a true story. It happened to me.
這位姐妹在靈里非常追求。
And she’s a seeking soul.
而從一切證據看來,我相信她是上帝的孩子。
I believe she’s a child of God from all evidence.
她生命中結出的果實可以證明這一點。
Her fruits convey that.
但是,她自小成長的環境,
But she was brought up in those circles where it was very, very hard,
讓人不太容易有得救的確據。
very hard to ever have any assurance of faith whatsoever.
鑒於這個原因,她總是在信仰的確信上躊躇不前。
So she’s always tossed about to and fro, to and fro.
所以,教會每一次領聖餐,她都會經歷很大的掙扎。
And every Lord’s Supper is just a huge struggle.
“我到底應不應該去領聖餐呢?”
“Shall I partake, shall I not partake?”
因為這樣的掙扎,她確實有幾次沒有來領聖餐。
So for two or three times, she didn’t partake.
然後有一個主日,她來領了聖餐,
And she came to me on a Monday morning
那天她特別的高興。
after she did partake
主日後的周一早上,她來找我,
and she was so happy. She said,
她對我說,“在我身上發生了一件特別神奇的事,
“You won’t believe what happened to me.
說出來你肯定不相信!
It’s just so, so wonderful.
我昨天早上起床後,
On Sunday morning, I get up.
其實還在掙扎要不要去領聖餐。
I still didn’t know whether I was gonna partake of the Lord’s Supper or not.
我在想,自己到底是不是信徒。
Just ‘am I a believer, am I not? And I just looked out
想的時候,我望出窗外,正好看見鄰居家的煙囪正冒著煙。
the front window and I saw that the neighbour’s chimney smoking.
於是我就跪下來禱告說,‘哦,主啊!如果我應該去領主餐,
And I went down on my knees and I just said, ‘Oh, Lord, if I’m to partake of the Lord’s Supper,
如果我確實是你的孩子,那麼,就請你向我顯明,
if I’m really a child of God, please show me that
請你讓我一會兒起身時,
when I get up from my knees,
看見那個煙囪不再冒煙。’”
that the smoke will no longer be coming out of the chimney.'”
她禱告完站起來,發現煙囪真的沒有冒煙了。
And she got up and the smoke was gone.
“周必克牧師,主向我顯明瞭,我是應該來領聖餐的!”
“Reverend Beeke, the Lord showed me I belong at the Lord’s Supper.”
如果是你們,會如何作答呢?我當時是這樣回答的。
How would you respond? Uh, yeah.
我當時是這樣回答的。
I want to say, sweetheart, but I didn’t say that.
我對她說,“我的朋友,其實我更希望聽到你說,
I said, “My friend, I was actually hoping that you would say to me
你來領聖餐,單單是因為上帝的話語。
that you just came on grounds that were based just on the Word of God alone,
你來領聖餐,是因為你是一個迷失的罪人,
that you are a lost sinner,
是因為你要倚賴救主,
and you threw yourself upon the Savior,
因為他應許會接納所有來到他面前、相信他的可憐的罪人。”
and that he promise to receive those who come to him as poor sinners trust in him”.
我說,“其實,這樣的認信,比起你剛纔說的,
I said, “You know, that actually would make more impression on me
會讓我有更深刻的印象。
than what you received.
因為你要知道,所有的一切都需要回歸聖經。”
Because you see, everything has to go back to the Word of God.”.
所以我就跟她解釋這一點,
So I explained it to her.
但我不知道她有沒有聽懂我說的話,
I’m not sure if she comprehended what I said
因為她的確很喜歡研究異象、異夢之類的事情。
because she was very much into visions, dreams and things.
剛纔舉的這個例子,也跟她特別關註異象、異夢有關。
And so this was in keeping [with her preoccupation with dreams and such].
我記得還有一次,她說了一個關於月亮的異象,
One time she had something with the moon too,
具體整件事情是怎樣的,我有點忘記了,
I forget the whole story, but
好像是如果月亮以某種形象出現的話,
the moon came out in a certain way,
就表明那是上帝賜的異象。
and you know, that was a sign from God.
這是不對的。
No.
只有命題性真理才是真正的得救的信心的基礎,
Propositional truth is fundamental for true saving faith;
也只有真理,才是一個人忍耐試煉和試探的基礎。
fundamental, also, if you’re going to endure trials and temptations.
我把我們這節課要強調的內容,總結成了下麵這句話:
The point we’re making here, and I’ll just summarize it with this statement that
一個盲目的基督教,一個不以命題性真理為根基的基督教,
a mindless Christianity, when we don’t build on propositional truth,
終將變成一個懦弱的基督教。
will eventually produce a spineless Christianity.
而一個盲目又懦弱的基督教,終將變成一個沒有基督的基督教。
And a mindless and spineless Christianity will eventually lead to a Christ-less Christianity. Because
因為人出於罪性,總是想以基督以外的事物為基礎。
our nature is to build on something else beside Christ.
如果我們不明白這一點,
And when we don’t understand
不明白聖經中所寫的一切都在指向耶穌,
that everything in the Bible points to Jesus,
那麼,我們就容易步入歧途。
we’re prone to go the wrong way.
最後,我想重申我在最開始說的話,
And so all of special revelation, I end where I began,
一切特殊啟示,實際上最終都要回到道成肉身、回到耶穌基督身上。
all of special revelation actually ends up going back to the incarnation unto Jesus Christ.
因為他是道路、真理、與生命。
He’s that Way. He’s the Truth. He’s the Life.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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