系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第12講 上帝啟示的神學基礎

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

當我們問自己”我們為什麼要從事神學研究“時,
When we raise the question “Why do we do theology?”
我們的基本答案是”上帝已經說話“。
Our basic answer was “God has spoken.”
而正因為上帝已經說話,上帝已經向我們啟示了祂自己,
And because God has spoken, God has revealed Himself.
因此整本聖經都在告訴我們一個現實,
So the reality of divine revelation,
即上帝向我們啟示了、與我們交通了
divine communication pervades
這也是整本聖經的根基。
and undergirds the whole Bible.
如果我們還記得,聖經里的上帝在本質上是無形的,
And this fact is all the more important when we remember
那我們就能意識到,“上帝向我們說話”的這一事實意義重大。
that the God of the Bible is invisible in His essence.
既然我們無法看見上帝,
So since we cannot see God,
那麼,如果我們想要認識祂,我們就必須要聽祂的話語。
we must hear Him if we are to know Him. And so the more than eight hundred times
所以,既然聖經中有八百多處地方提到了“耶和華說”,
that we read in the Bible “saith the Lord”, those eight hundred times give us great assurance
我們就能夠確信,這位無形的上帝已經通過啟示來讓我們認識祂。
that the invisible God has made Himself known through revelation.
所以,我們首先要做的,
And so what we want to do then is first
是在舊約、新約聖經中查考表示“上帝啟示”的術語,
look at the biblical terminology of divine revelation in Old and New Testament
然後提出在“上帝啟示”這一教義上符合聖經的基本觀點。
and present the basic biblical perspective on divine revelation.
我們這節課的最後應該能講到上帝通過自然賜下的普遍啟示,
And then by the end of this class, we should be into general revelation through nature,
估計下周我們也還是要繼續講這一部分。
and that will take us probably through next week’s class as well.
然後在本學期的最後三、四個星期中,
And then the last three, four weeks, we will spend looking at the doctrine of
我們要查考上帝通過聖經賜給我們的特殊啟示。
special revelation as it comes to us through the Holy Scriptures.
首先這第一個小時,我們要概括地講一下上帝的啟示。
So first then, about an hour of lecture, I would say, on divine revelation in general.
上帝出現了,上帝說話了,上帝啟示了。
God appears, God speaks, God reveals.
上帝祂自己是這個信息傳達活動的主體。
God is the subject of the communicative act.
聖經中就是常常這樣描繪上帝的。
And the Bible often portraits Him and such.
舊約聖經中有大量的關於啟示的術語。
Old Testament terminology for revelation is extensive.
首先,上帝的啟示有時候表現為上帝對人的顯現,
In the first place, divine revelation sometimes involves a theophany,
或者說是上帝的榮耀對人的顯現。
which is a manifestation of God’s glory to people.
因此,我們在聖經中看到了“耶和華顯現”這樣的經文,
And so we have the phrase, Genesis 12:7,
比如創世紀12章第7節,以及許多其他地方。
for example, but many other places,
“耶和華顯現”中的“顯現”一詞用的是
“the LORD appeared,” “the LORD appeared,”
“看見”(希伯來語是raah)這一動詞的被動形式。
using the passive form of the verb “to see”, “raah”.
“先知”一詞也可以被譯為“先見”(希伯來語是roeh),
A “prophet” could also be a “seer”, “roeh”, that is one
指的是一個看到主的超自然顯現或啟示的人。
who has seen a supernatural appearance or revelation of the Lord.
人們有時候稱預言為“異象”(希伯來語是khazon),
Prophecy is sometimes called a “vision”, “khazon”,
這是從另一個詞“看見”(希伯來語是khazah)演化而來,
derived from another verb “to see”, “khazah”,
而“看見”還可以演化為另一個術語,有時譯作“先見”。
which provides another term that is sometimes translated “seer”.
關鍵是,上帝的顯現常常不是僅僅為了顯現而已,
So the point of this is that divine appearances often do not stand alone,
上帝的顯現通常表明瞭上帝要宣佈祂的聖言。
but generally introduce divine speech.
比如撒母耳記上第3章第21節,“耶和華又在示羅顯現,
An example of that is 1 Samuel 3:21, “And the Lord appeared again in Shiloh:
因為耶和華將自己的話默示撒母耳,撒母耳就把這話傳遍以色列地.”
for the Lord revealed himself to Samuel in Shiloh by the word of the Lord.”
希伯來聖經常常會用形容人類語言的詞彙
Now the Hebrew Bible often reports God’s communications with terminology
來描繪上帝與人的交通。
that is commonly used of human speech.
因此,我們讀到了“amar”這個詞,意思是“說”,
So we have the term “amar”, which means “to say”,
這個詞在舊約中就出現了五千多次。
which appears 5,000 times in the Old Testament alone.
而“耶和華如此說(amar)”這一短語出現了四百多次。
And the phrase “thus saith the LORD”, “thus ‘amar’ the LORD,” occurs more than 400 times.
它指的就是“上帝莊重又威嚴的聖言”,是啟示的信息。
And it designates “the solemn and authoritative message of God,” a message of revelation.
它傳達的信息通常有兩種,一種是審判,一種是愛和盼望。
Most often, a message of either a judgment or of love and hope.
然後還有一個動詞是“講”(希伯來語是diber),
Then there is the verb “to speak”, “diber”,
它在聖經中一共出現了一千一百多次,
which is used more than 11,00 times,
它的名詞形式“debar”出現了一千四百多次。
and the noun “debar”, more than 14,00 times.
所以,聖經讓我們看到,
So there’s no question in the Bible
上帝毫無疑問地能與人進行有意義的交流,
about God’s ability to communicate meaningfully with men,
祂甚至可以與年幼的撒母耳說話,
or even with children, in language that we can understand,
表明上帝可以用孩童能明白的語言與他們交流。
as God’s words to young Samuel illustrate.
上帝能夠在舊約中,通過說話與語言與祂的子民交通,
Now this ability of God through this Old Testament language to communicate by saying,
而這也是他們的喜樂與信心。
by speaking, by His words, is the joy and the confidence of His people.
因為藉著啟示,上帝能夠讓人們認識祂。
Because God is able to make Himself known through revelation.
我們可以從詩篇中的語言讀到,
Make His ways known, make His covenant known,
上帝使人認識祂的道路、祂的聖約,還有祂的救恩。
make His salvation known, these are all phrases taken from the psalms.
通過這些,上帝便使人認識了祂自己。
His ways known, His covenant known, His salvation known, therefore making Himself known.
舊約語言中還有許多衍生詞也代表上帝的啟示,
And there’s a lot of offshoots as well that we could go to Old Testament language
如果我們一一查看,可能需要花很多時間,
and spend a lot of time with it
所以我在這裡就用英文跟大家簡單地介紹一下。
but let me just give it to you in English.
主可以“教訓”祂的子民,這是啟示;
The Lord can “teach” people, that’s revelation;
祂可以“引導”祂的人民,這是啟示;
He can “lead” people, that’s revelation;
祂還可以用祂的真理“引領”或“教訓”祂的子民。
and He can “instruct” people in His truth.
這幾個在詩篇25篇中都有出現。
All of those, by the way, you can find in Psalm 25.
而希伯來詞“torah”(意為“律法”或“指示”)所指的啟示
And so the word “torah” when it’s used in terms of “instructing”, which refers to revelation,
是上帝對祂子民的教導。
coming from God as a teaching God,
一位學者說,這個詞單單在希伯來聖經中就出現了219次。
that particular usage of “torah” occurs 219 times, one scholar says, in the Hebrew Bible alone.
然後,我們可以看到,
Then you get all these other words that are similar words that abound in Psalm 119,
詩篇119篇充滿了各種各樣表示啟示的近義詞,
you know them, every single verse except, what is it, two verses?
除幾節經文以外,幾乎每句經文中都有一個表示啟示的詞.
The other 174 have one of these words of revelation in every single verse.
無論是“律法”,是“律例”,還是“審判”、“法度”、
Be it “law”, be it “statute”, be it “judgment”, “testimony”,
“訓詞”、“命令”,這些都代表著上帝的啟示。
“precept”, “commandment”, they are all God’s revelation.
所以我們看到,這敬虔之人在這篇詩篇里不住地祈求,
And so the godly man repeatedly prays in the psalm,
實際上,他一共祈求了六次,“求你將你的律例教訓我”。
in fact, he prays six times in this psalm, “teach me thy statutes.”
所有這些表示啟示的術語和詞彙都在強調,
So all of this terminology of revelation emphasizes
上帝有至高無上的主權,祂要讓人認識祂自己。
God’s sovereignty in making Himself known.
其實上帝不必一定要這樣做。
He didn’t have to do this.
我們才是要依賴祂的人,我們需要祂的啟示才能夠認識祂。
And our dependency upon Him to know Him, and upon His revelation to know Him.
同樣,我們常常也在新約聖經中讀到一些
Now in the New Testament, the Greek terms for human speech
描述人類語言的希腊語詞彙,它們也指代上帝與人的交通。
to describe God’s communication with men also are very common.
希腊詞語“說”(laleō)在新約聖經中一共出現了近三百次.
The word “laleō”, “to speak” is used almost 300 times in the New Testament.
一位學者說,
And the verb is “characteristic”, one scholar says,
“主耶穌就是用‘這個動詞’來指稱他自己啟示的特征的”。
“of the way in which Jesus himself refers to his own revelation.”
這一點在約翰福音中體現得最為明顯,
Particularly in the Gospel of John,
主耶穌在約翰福音中不斷重覆地說著“我已將這些事告訴你們”.
where he keeps saying “These things have I spoken unto you”.
這個短語在約翰福音中出現了多次,首次出現是在14章25節。
Many places in John, John 14:25 is one of the first ones.
同樣,基督也在他對使徒應許會有從上帝而來的幫助時,
And again, Christ uses it in his promise of divine assistance
使用了這個動詞,他說,
to the apostles. He says,
“因為不是你們自己說(laleō)的,
“For it is not ye that speak, ‘laleō’,
乃是你們父的靈在你們裡頭說(laleō)的”。
but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh, ‘laleō’, in you.”
這個動詞甚至在希伯來書1章1至2節中出現了兩次,
And this term appears in a foundational text about divine revelation,
這兩節經文是有關上帝啟示的經典經文。
Hebrews 1:1-2, two times again.
“神既在古時藉著眾先知多次多方地曉諭(laleō)列祖,
“God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake, ‘laleō’, in time past
就在這末世藉著他兒子曉諭(laleō)我們;
unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken, ‘laleō’, unto us by his Son,
又早已立他為承受萬有的,也曾藉著他創造諸世界。”
whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds.”
新約聖經中還有另一個常用的表示“說”的動詞“legō”,
Also very common in the New Testament are the verb “to say”, “legō”,
以及它的名詞形式“logos”,常譯為“話語”。
and the related noun “logos”, usually translated “word”.
這個動詞“legō”出現在七十士譯本中,
So the verb generally translates the Hebrew word “amar”
它所對應的希伯來語詞彙是“amar”。
in the Septuagint and it appears
“legō”在新約聖經中一共出現了兩千三百多次。
more than 23,00 times in the New Testament.
而“legō”的名詞形式“logos”所對應的希伯來語詞彙
And the noun renders “debar” and other Hebrew terms
是“debar”和一些其他的術語。
in the Septuagint more than
“logos”在新約聖經中一共出現了三百多次。
新約聖經中還有一些別的術語。
Now the New Testament also uses other terminology,
例如,有一個被譯為“道”的希腊語詞“rhēma”,
there’s another term for “word”, “rhēma”,
它和話語(logos)一樣,也是人們口頭溝通中常用的詞彙,
which, like “logos”, is a common term for a verbal communication,
比如,賜給我們的“上帝的道”,羅馬書10章17節,等等.
“the word of the Lord” comes to us, etc., Romans 10:17.
新約中還有一些詞,
And then there’s words in the New Testament much like
表達的意思與舊約中的”教訓“、”賜予知識“一樣。
the Old Testament words for “teach”, words for “giving knowledge”,
還有詞表達的意思是上帝向人“指明”或“闡明”未知的現實,
and words for God’s “showing” or “exhibiting” unknown realities
以使人明白這些現實,比如約翰福音5章20節。
so that they can be known, John 5:20.
新約中還有一個很有意思的動詞“apokaluptō”,
And there’s also a really interesting word
它的意思是“揭露”,
for the verb “to reveal”, “apokaluptō”,
而它的同源名詞就是“啟示”(“apokalupsis”)。
and its cognate noun “revelation”, “apokalupsis”,
這些詞都是聖經在描述上帝與人交通時所採用的關鍵詞彙。
and these are important elements in the vocabulary of divine communication.
它們的字面意思是”揭開“或者”使……露出來“。
They literally mean “to uncover”, or “to make bare”.
我們可以這樣來理解:有時候上帝用這樣的方式來顯明祂自己,
So if you think about it this way, that God sometimes speaks this way of Himself,
就好像祂露出祂的手臂給我們看。
that He makes bare His arms.
如果我捲起袖子,露出手臂,
If I roll up my sleeve, I make bare my arm,
你們就能看到我手臂真正的的樣子。
you can see my real arm.
上帝並沒有手臂,但是我想表達的是,
Well, God doesn’t have a real arm, but when He reveals Himself,
祂向我們顯明祂自己,祂讓我們知道祂是誰。
He shows who He is, that’s the point.
我們通過祂的兒子來認識祂,通過“道”的啟示來認識上帝。
And you understand who He is through His Son, through His revelation of Him in the Word.
新約聖經也常常使用另一個關鍵詞彙
Then the word “manifested” is “phaneroō” is often used
“顯出來”或者“展現”(phaneroō)來表示上帝的啟示。
as another key word to express revelation.
在這裡,上帝至高無上的主權樂章再次奏響。
And once again all throughout the New Testament, therefore, the note of divine sovereignty is sounded.
我們從馬太福音11章25節和27節中讀到,
We are told that God hides or reveals knowledge
上帝按照祂自己的意願來選擇隱藏或顯明知識。
according to His will, Matthew 11:25 and 27.
不只是在馬太福音11章,我們也可以多次在聖經的別處讀到,
And we are told repeatedly, not only here in Matthew 11,
人是無法通過自己明白上帝啟示中的真理的。
that man cannot attain the truths of revelation by himself.
他們必須得從上帝那裡獲得真理的啟示。
God must reveal them to him.
除了以上這些,新約聖經中還有另一類專註於末世的詞彙,
Now there’s another category to the whole doctrine of revelation
也是關於這整個啟示的教義的。
through New Testament terminology that’s eschatological.
新約中的啟示有時候帶著一種末世論的含義,
Sometimes revelation appears in eschatological sense
因為當基督再來時,現在暫時不可知的現實都會實現。
in the New Testament for presently unseen realities will appear at Christ’s return.
這是“apocalyptic”(末世、天啟的)一詞的希腊語詞源,
And so that’s why the word developed from the Greek word “apocalyptic”,
這個詞常被用於諺語或者文學作品中,宣告從上帝而來的,
used for sayings or literature claiming divine insight into the end of this age
對這個時代的終結、上帝國度的到來的認識。
and the arrival of the kingdom of God, when the invisible becomes visible.
上帝確實向我們啟示了這一點。
And it’s revealed.
我們有時會稱上帝的到來為祂的“顯現”,
His coming is also sometimes called his “appearing”,
它的詞源就是我們現在所說的“上帝的顯現”(epiphany),
coming from the word we now say his “epiphany”,
祂的“出現”,祂的“到來”,祂要來了。
his “appearing”, his “coming”, he’s on his way.
而這個詞有它自己的詞根,意為“用光照亮”。
And that term has its root word, a word that means “to shine with light”.
所以,當我們顯現某事物時,可能也暗指它以前是黑暗的。
So when you reveal something, it also can have the connotation, that it was dark before.
比如我們可以說,半個小時以前,
And you would say it was dark in this room
這間教室里是一片黑暗的,然後有人開了燈,它就變亮了。
before you entered it half an hour ago, someone turned on that light and it became light.
同樣的,在耶穌里,黑暗變成了光明。
And so, in Jesus, darkness has turned to light.
而當基督在他人人可見的威嚴中降臨時,
And when he comes in his open majesty,
上帝會在輝煌的榮光中顯明祂自己和祂的旨意。
God will reveal Himself in His splendid brightness.
因此,雖然有解讀過度的風險,但我覺得從某種意義上來說,
So in a sense, although you can stretch this too far, I suppose, but in a sense,
所有的啟示都是與末世相關的,它所指的是上帝的降臨,
all revelation is eschatological light, it’s God coming, and piercing darkness,
是光明刺穿這片我們自己創造出來的黑暗。
self-made darkness that we’ve made, with light.
上帝帶著那更高、更榮耀的光芒,帶著祂永恆的現實,
Breaking into our world, our sinful world, our dark world, in a higher,
進入了我們這個罪惡與黑暗的世界,為了讓我們能看到真理。
more glorious way of light, way of eternal reality, so that we see the truth.
為此,我們敬拜祂。
And we worship him.
總而言之,舊約、新約聖經中用來表達上帝與人交通的語言和詞彙
So to summarize then, the terminology of divine communication, or divine revelation
主要圍繞著三個主要思想:
in the Old and New Testaments revolve around three major ideas: first, the idea
第一,上帝以人類可接受、可理解、以及可向他人傳遞的方式
of a verbal message from God, a verbal message from God, in a form that human beings can receive,
來口頭傳達了祂的信息。
and can not only receive, but also can understand and can repeat to others,
這是第一點。
so that’s first.
與啟示相關的這些詞彙,都具有這個特點,
The words associated with revelation
即上帝以人類可接受、可理解、以及可向他人傳遞的方式
have the idea of a verbal message from God
來口頭傳達了祂的信息。
in a form that human beings can receive, understand, and repeat.
第二,上帝滿有恩典地向人類啟示了那本是隱藏的、屬神的真理.
Second, the idea of a gracious revelation of hidden, divine truth.
這些真理本是隱藏的,它們是屬神的真理,是我們不能靠自己發現的。
The idea of a gracious revelation of hidden, divine truth, which we cannot discover on our own.
第三,上帝的啟示包含的不僅是口頭信息,也不僅是顯明隱藏的真理,
And then third, revelation involves not only this verbal message, and this hidden truth made known,
它還指上帝永恆的榮耀進入了我們普通、平淡、並有罪的生命。
but also the idea of an intrusion of eternal glory into our ordinary, mundane, sinful existence.
這是上帝永恆榮耀的降臨。
An intrusion of eternal glory.
因此,如果我們記住這三點,
So if you remember those three concepts,
即從舊約、新約聖經中描述上帝啟示的語言中所概括出的這三點,
you’ll have formulated in your mind already the basics of what revelation is,
我們就可以在自己心中構建出關於啟示的基本知識。
just from the terminology that the Old and New Testaments use to describe this idea.
好,接下來我們要講聖經中關於上帝啟示的基本觀點。
All right, let’s talk then about the idea,the perspective,the biblical perspective on divine revelation.
赫爾曼·巴文克寫道,“關於啟示的真正概念只能源自啟示本身”.
Herman Bavinck wrote, “A true concept of revelation can be derived only from revelation itself.”
當然,不信主的人會說這是循環論證。
And of course, the non-Christian will call that circular reasoning.
但是我們的回應是,
But we respond to that
我們一定得以上帝的啟示為起點,因為沒有比這更高的權威了。
that we have no better authority from which to start.
所以,我們要以兒童學習語言的方式來探討啟示這個話題。
So we approach the topic of revelation the way that children would approach the learning of a language.
兒童的語言習得,不是通過自己對語言的獨立分析,
We don’t do it with an independent analysis of linguistics,
而是通過聽父母說話,並以信任和順服的模仿來回應。
but by listening to our parents speak and responding with trust and with obedient imitation.
一個人若想自然地學習語言,這是唯一有效的方法。
And that’s the way to learn a language naturally.
任何其他方法都不會完全有效。
Any other approach would at least be partially dysfunctional.
因此,我們要讀聖經,要從整體上學習啟示的教義,
So we go to Scripture, and we learn about the doctrine of revelation as a whole,
要從創世紀第1章開始。
and we begin at Genesis 1.
因為正如巴文克所說,
Because as Bavinck said,
“上帝的第一個啟示是創造,這是所有其他啟示的開始與基礎。
“The creation is the first revelation of God, the beginning and the foundation
一個合乎聖經的啟示觀,取決於一個合乎聖經的創造論。”
of all subsequent revelation. The biblical concept of revelation is rooted in creation.”
大家可能都註意到了,聖經並沒有以證明上帝存在的論據為開篇.
So the Bible, you’ve noticed, does not open with an argument to prove God’s existence.
它只是宣佈,”起初,上帝創造天地“。
It simply declares, “In the beginning God, created the heavens and the earth”.
令人驚奇的是,在整本聖經的第一章,
Isn’t it fascinating that already in the first chapter of the Bible,
我們十次讀到了一個短語:”上帝說”。
the phrase is repeated ten times, “God said”.
上帝說,要有光,於是就有了光。等等。
God said let there be light, and there was light, etc.
這是一句驚人的、卻十分清楚的宣言:
What a startlingly clear assertion
這個世界的創造主是那位向人說話的上帝,
that the Creator of the world is the God who speaks,
是那位啟示祂自己的上帝。
the God who reveals Himself.
啟示讓我們可以推定有一位上帝,啟示也明確宣告了祂的存在。
So revelation presumes God, but it also proclaims God.
啟示尤其表明,這位至高無上的上帝獨自掌權,
And in particular, revelation proclaims one sovereign God
祂的權柄無可限量,也無人可匹敵。
who reigns without limitation and without competition.
換句話說,上帝在聖經里向人啟示,
In other words, in the Bible,
祂是無人能與之相匹敵的上帝,因為根本就沒有別神。
God reveals Himself as a God who has no competition at all because there are no other gods,
所以,那整個”世界各地到處都有地方神靈“的說法,
so the whole concept of little local deities everywhere
不過是人為捏造的謊言而已。
is just man-made fabrication.
創世紀第1章已經設立了一個舞臺讓我們明白,
Genesis 1 already sets the stage for us
我們的上帝,聖經里的這位上帝,對人啟示的上帝,
that our God, the God of the Bible, the God of revelation
祂與一切多神論的觀點都是相對立的。
is the antithesis of all polytheism.
無人能與上帝匹敵。
He has no competitors.
祂不受時間的限制,創世紀1章1節。
He is not limited by time, Genesis 1:1.
祂的權力沒有極限,創世紀1章3節。
He is not limited in power, Genesis 1:3.
他是一切滿溢而出的福分與良善的源泉,
He is the overflowing fountain of all blessing and all good,
創世紀1章22節,28節,31節。
Genesis 1:22, 28, 31.
祂是擁有絕對權威的萬有的主宰,
He acts with absolute authority as the Owner of all things,
創世紀1章5節,8節,還有10節。
Genesis 1:5, 8, and 10.
祂是按照自己標準、自己判斷來評價一切事物之善惡的審判官,
And He acts as the Judge who assesses, in His own standard, His own judgement, all things,
創世紀1章4節,10節,12節,18節,21節, 25節,31節。
Genesis 1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25, 31. You know,
上帝在創世紀中評估著一切,”這是好的,這是甚好的”。
it’s good, it’s very good, He’s assessing.
因此,上帝不是自然界中一股看不見的力量。
So God is not a blind force in nature,
祂在聖經的第一頁就向我們啟示了祂自己,祂是一個有位格的存在,
but on the first page of the Bible, He reveals Himself as a personal being
祂行事明智有條理,祂與自己所創造的一切,
Who acts with wise order and Who relates to the very things He creates,
特別是祂的創造之冠 – 人,都有著個人的、親密的關係。
particularly man, the crown of His creation,
創世紀1章26至30節。
verses 26 through 30.
所以,創世紀第1章便奠定了整本聖經的基調,
And thus Genesis 1 sets the tone for the entire Bible
即永生上帝對祂自己的啟示。
as the self-disclosure of the living God.
上帝,希伯來語是”Elohim“。
The God “Elohim”.
無怪乎”Elohim“一詞在聖經的前31節中一共出現了35 次,
That’s no accident that the word for God, the Almighty, the Supreme, “Elohim”,
這個詞表示的就是上帝,就是那全能者、至尊者。
is used 35 times in the first 31 verses of God’s Word,
因此,卡爾·亨利說,
which led Carl Henry to say,
“啟示是上帝揭開自己的面紗,是祂自願顯明自己的行為。”
“Revelation is God’s unmasking of himself, his voluntary act of self-disclosure.
亨利繼續說道,“所以,上帝從隱藏中走了出來,
Thus God,” this is still Henry, “Thus God steps out of his hiddenness to disclose
祂向我們揭示了本是隱秘與未知的知識。”
what would otherwise remain secret and unknown.”
理解卡爾·亨利的這句話很關鍵,因為這其實就是啟示的中心。
And that’s important to grasp, that quote, because that’s really at the heart of revelation.
如果上帝沒有啟示祂自己,那麼,所有一切重要的真理,
If God did not reveal Himself, see, all these important truths,
特別是與我們的救恩相關的真理,都將仍然是隱秘未知的。
particularly truth of our salvation will remain secret and unknown.
例如,如果上帝沒有在聖經中啟示三位一體,
So you’ll never learn, if God did not reveal the Trinity, for example,
那麼我們永遠也不可能知道上帝是三位一體的上帝。
in the Bible, you’ll never learn that God is Three in One.
我們就算跑去站在一座大山面前,也明白不了這樣的真理。
You’ll never learn that standing in front of a mountain,
這是我們從普遍啟示中學不到的東西。
even from general revelation you won’t learn that.
所以,上帝的啟示並非是碎片式的,
So divine revelation is not fragmented,
而是以“獨一的真上帝”為它的中心焦點,
but it’s unified by its central focus
這位上帝是一位啟示自己的上帝。
upon the one true God, who reveals Himself.
創世紀第1章還讓我們看到,這位造物主與祂的受造物截然不同。
Now already in Genesis 1, we also learn that the Creator
這也是我們在這門課的第一部分中探討過的。
as we saw in the first half of the course is distinct from His creation.
而在創世紀第1章中到處顯明的,
And that clear distinction between God and creation in Genesis 1,
即上帝與受造物之間的明確區別,是反對泛神論的最有力的辯證.
which is everywhere implied, is the strongest polemic possible against pantheism.
上帝在聖經的開篇就很清楚地表明瞭,
God makes it abundantly clear on the opening page of the Bible
這個世界並非是從上帝本身的存在延伸或發散而來的,
that the world did not emerge or emanate from its own being
也不是來自所謂的眾神之間的戰爭。
or from some conflict between a bunch of gods,
而啟示,指的並不是受造物對自己神性意識的覺醒,
and so revelation is not an activity of creation becoming aware of its own divinity,
不是某種新時代的運動,也不是人類的意識神化的某種屬靈進化,
not some new age movement, not some spiritual evolution of man’s consciousness into divinity,
而是造物主憑藉著自己的主權,與祂的受造物進行的一種交通。
but it’s an act of sovereign communication from Creator to creature.
正是這樣的啟示觀,
And it is this view of revelation already in Genesis 1
將合乎聖經的基督教與現代主義神學區別開來。
that distinguishes biblical Christianity from theological modernism.
因此,上帝是創世紀第1章中的那位偉大的主體,
So God is the great agent, the great agent of Genesis 1,
是祂不間斷地在作為、不間斷地在說話,也是祂不間斷地在啟示。
the One constantly acting, the One constantly speaking, the One constantly revealing.
創造是上帝的作工,它完全倚賴於上帝自願的自我啟示。
Creation is His work, it depends completely on His voluntary act of self-revelation.
弗朗西斯·圖倫這樣寫道,
Francis Turretin wrote,
“我們只能藉著上帝賜下的光,帶著得救的信心去認識與敬拜祂,
“God can be savingly known and worshipped only by his light,
就好像我們只能藉著太陽自己的光看到太陽一樣。”
just as the sun makes itself known to us only by its own light.”
因此,約翰內斯·荷列比烏說,
And so Johannes Wollebius said,“The principle
“神學存在的根源是上帝;神學的內容源自上帝的話語。”
of the being of theology is God; the principle by which it is known is by the word of God.”
上帝創造,是為了讓人類可以因此而認識祂。
So God designs creation so that mankind would know Him.
所以,上帝的創造之工在祂造人時便達到了高潮,
And therefore the progress of God’s creative work reaches its climax
造人也是上帝創造之工的最後一件作品。
in the creation of man, which is the last of God’s works.
人是按照上帝的形象所造,他作為上帝的僕人,
Created in God’s image, man bears the noble calling
領受著一個崇高的呼召,即以王的身份去統治其他受造物,
of ruling creation as God’s servant-king,
創世紀1章第26至28節。
Genesis 1:26-28.
因此,人與上帝之間的關係
And therefore relating to God
便是一個兒子與他的創造主天父之間的關係。
as a son to his father Creator.
這個形象就意味著,
And so this image implies that
上帝所創造的人有能力、也有意願要領受上帝的啟示,
God created man with a capacity and inclination to receive God’s revelation
以便他可以效法上帝並實現上帝的旨意。
so as to imitate Him and to implement His will.
因此,人在創世紀第3章中想要去爭取的獨立與自主,
So independence and autonomy, which of course man fought for in Genesis 3
也是讓人最終墮落的所謂的獨立與自主,
and by which we fell, independence and autonomy
它們事實上是與上帝的形象、與真知識相背離的。
are anti-image approaches to knowledge
它們對人性永遠都有著毀滅性的傷害,
and they are self-destructive, always self-destructive,
無論是在創世紀第3章的時候,還是在當今世界。
not just in Genesis 3, to human nature, still today.
上帝本可以對祂的創造之冠(人)棄之不顧,
And God could have just left the crown of His creation, us, man,
任由我們在自己的悖逆與墮落中沉淪,並最終永遠失喪,
to wallow in our own rebellion and fall, and to be cast out forever,
就像祂處置墮落的天使那樣。
like He did with the fallen angels.
但是,上帝的啟示並沒有隻停留在創世紀第1章,
But divine revelation is more than Genesis 1,
它現在有了救贖性的目的。
divine revelation now has a redemptive purpose.
從創世紀第3章開始,我們聽到了好消息,
From Genesis 3 onward, we hear about it,
即人,這墮落的、被定罪的上帝的形象,能夠得到恢復與更新。
the renewal of God’s corrupt and condemned image on earth.
所以,當我們開始理解上帝啟示的這一教義的重要性,
And so when we begin to grasp the magnitude of this doctrine of divine revelation
即上帝向擁有祂形象的人啟示祂自己的這一教義的重要性時,
that God reveals Himself to His image bearers, we are beginning already to see,
我們能夠看到,創世紀第1章至第3章呈現出了一種三重模式。
in Genesis 1 through 3, a threefold pattern emerging.
首先是自然創造,上帝在自然創造中向人啟示祂自己。
You’ve got natural creation. God reveals Himself there.
然後是言語交流,很顯然,上帝用言語的方式向人啟示了祂自己。
You’ve got verbal communication, God certainly reveals Himself there.
最後是我們在創世紀第3章中所讀到的,
And then you’ve got, beginning with Genesis 3, the recreation,
上帝按祂自己的形象來新造墮落的人類。
the revelation about how God recreates fallen man in His image.
而這個模式,即這個自然創造、言語交流、新造的三重模式,
And this pattern, this pattern of natural creation, verbal communication,
便是大衛在詩篇19篇中所採用的結構。
recreation, this threefold pattern
大衛寫這篇詩篇,是為了歌頌上帝的啟示,
structures David’s celebration of divine revelation in Psalm 19,
我剛纔已經為你們讀了好幾節。
which I read a good part of for you.
這篇詩篇有兩個主要部分。
So this psalm consists of two main parts.
第1節至第6節是贊美上帝的創造。
A hymn to God for His creation, verses 1 through 6.
然後第7節至14節是一種默想,就好像默想上帝話語的一首智慧詩。
And then a sort of meditation, a kind of like a wisdom poetry upon the Word of God, 7 through 14.
約翰·加爾文在給這篇詩篇寫註釋時說,“這首詩有兩個部分。
Calvin in his comments on Psalm 19 says, “This psalm consists of two parts,
大衛在第一部分中頌贊上帝在創造中展現出的榮耀,
in the first of which David celebrates the glory of God as manifested in his works;
在第二部分中高舉與贊美與上帝有關的知識,
and the second part exalts and magnifies the knowledge of God
這樣的知識在上帝的話語中展現得更加清晰。”
which shines forth more clearly in his word.”
但其實,詩篇19篇的第二部分,
But the second part of Psalm 19
即第10節至第14節,還包含著第三個層次的含義,
also involves a third dimension, it’s verses 10 through 14.
即一顆已被上帝更新的心對上帝話語所作出的回應。
It’s a response to the Word from a renewed heart.
加爾文這樣說,
Calvin puts it this way, it’s the life-giving influence
上帝的話語是帶著“基督的靈”賜人生命的影響力在工作。
of “the Spirit of Christ” upon the special revelation of God’s Word.
因此,在參考了詩篇19篇此類的經文後,
So taking texts like Psalm 19,
一些改教先父們用這種三重模式的結構,發展出了一種敘述方式,
some of our reformed forefathers have developed what we could call
我們稱之為“對上帝啟示的改革宗、經歷式的表達”。
a reformed experiential statement of divine revelation that follows this threefold pattern.
遵循這種三重模式的、對上帝啟示的改革宗、經歷式的表達。
Reformed experiential statement of divine revelation that follows this threefold pattern.
一個很典型的例子就是改革宗神學家沃爾夫岡·穆斯庫魯斯。
A good example here is the reformed theologian Wolfgang Musculus.
沃爾夫岡的拼寫是“Wolfgang”,然後他的姓是穆斯庫魯斯。
“Wolfgang” sound like a “wolf” and a “gang” brought together,
他是生於1497年,卒於1563年的一位神學家。
and “Musculus”, a theologian, his dates are 1497-1563,
所以他和加爾文是同時代的人,比加爾文稍稍大一點。
so he’s very contemporary with Calvin, a bit older than him.
但是人們應該更多去瞭解穆斯庫魯斯,這位改革宗神學家。
But Musculus is a reformed theologian who deserves to be much better known than he is.
他說,“上帝用三種方式讓人認識祂自己”:
And that he says this, “there are three ways whereby God doth open himself
第一,藉著“祂的創造”的“普遍”啟示,
to the knowledge of man”: first, “general” revelation by “his works”,
我們通常稱之為“普遍啟示”或者“自然啟示”;
that’s what we normally call a “general revelation” or “natural revelation”;
第二,藉著“祂自己的話語”的“特殊”啟示,
second, “special” revelation by “his own speech”,
當然穆斯庫魯斯在這裡指的,
and he’s referring here, of course,
是記載在聖經里的話語,我們稱之為“特殊啟示”;
to His speech recorded in Scripture, so we call that “special revelation”;
然後第三(註意這一點),藉著聖靈在人靈魂里奇妙隱秘的作工。
and third, and notice this, by the secret work of the Spirit in the soul.
所以,穆斯庫魯斯是這樣定義普遍啟示的,
So you’ve got general revelation, which Musculus defines
“上帝將它放在各國各民的眼前,
as being “set forth to all people of all nations,
因而沒有人有藉口稱自己不認識上帝。”
so that no man can excuse himself for not knowing God.”
他其實就是在重申保羅在羅馬書1章中所說的話。
He is just reiterating Romans 1 Pauline language.
第二,穆斯庫魯斯繼續說,
Second, God has revealed Himself, and this is Musculus again,
上帝已經“藉著言語和說話”啟示了祂自己,
quoting him, “by word and speaking, even from the beginning of the world
“從世界之始一直到新約時代”。
until the days of the New Testament”.
這就是特殊啟示,因為上帝首先將之啟示給了以色列,
This is special revelation because “it happened not so to every nation,”
“別國祂都沒有這樣待過”。
but first to Israel, and then afterward, after the coming of Christ,
直到基督來後,這個特殊啟示才通過舊約、新約被傳至各國各民。
it is being preached to all the nations through the Old and New Testaments.
但是第三,穆斯庫魯斯接著說,
But third, Musculus said, referring
“聖靈”只把“隱秘的啟示”賜給上帝的“選民”,
to the “secret revelation of the Holy Spirit” granted only to the “elect,”
讓他們擁有“對上帝最確定的認識”,讓他們能“感受、經歷上帝”.
they have “a most certain knowledge of God in their inner man,
穆斯庫魯斯將這樣的啟示稱為“內在啟示”。
feeling and tasting of him,” he calls this an inner revelation.
但是,他立即加上一句,這種“內在啟示”
He hastened to add, however, that this inner revelation
並沒有在上帝的普遍啟示和特殊啟示上添加任何新的內容,
does not bring additional content to God’s general and special revelation,
因為上帝在新約完結後沒有再啟示任何新的教義。
for God has revealed no new doctrines since the completion of the New Testament.
但是聖靈的“內在作工”是值得分別出來單獨考慮的,
But it’s worthy of separate consideration
因為它伴隨著上帝話語的傳講來光照人的內心。
because the inner work of the Spirit accompanies the preaching of the Word
而我們也必須要省察自己,看我們是否有這種內在啟示。
to illuminate the heart, and we must examine ourselves
其實,內在啟示指的就是
whether we have this inner revelation,
我們從心底明白了上帝自然啟示和特殊啟示的內容,
which is really the content of natural and special revelation
我們的生命也體現出我們對它們的認識。
brought home to our heart, to our lives.
然後穆斯庫魯斯得出了結論,
And Musculus then concludes and says,
他說,這樣的內在啟示能夠使人熱切地思想上帝的作為,
what this inner revelation does is it makes people fervent to consider the revelation
並集中註意力去真正聆聽上帝用祂的話語對他們說話。
and the works of God, and to lift up their ears to truly hear God speak in His Word.
好,我想花十分鐘左右的時間來給你們簡單介紹一下這三點,
Alright, so what I want to do now is I want to spend a 10-minute or so just introducing
就是大綱中B部分的第2、3、4點。
all three of these things to you, you could see them in the outline, B2, 3 and 4.
就是普遍啟示,特殊啟示和內在啟示。
General revelation, special revelation, inner revelation,
有問題的同學,可以在我講完這幾點以後來提問。
and then I will open up for questions.
好,普遍啟示。
So, general revelation.
正如我們在創世紀第1章中所看到的一樣,
As we saw in Genesis 1, God’s creation testifies
上帝的創造證實了祂的永恆、大能、智慧、良善與權柄。
to His eternity, His power, His wisdom, His goodness, His authority.
佈雷克說,
Brakel says,
“上帝的形象本身就包含著他與生俱來的對上帝的認識,
“The image of God contains within itself both the natural knowledge
同時,還包含著道德性。”
of God and morality.”
換句話說,上帝按照祂自己的形象造人,
In other words, God created man in His image,
這就意味著,人在自己的本性中是能夠找到上帝的某種啟示的。
which implies as a revelation of God found within man’s own nature.
亞當在他周圍看到、聽到、嘗到、聞到和感受到的一切,
All around Adam, he saw and heard and tasted and smelled and felt revelations
都向他啟示著,他的創造主是偉大又良善的。
of his Creator’s greatness and goodness.
順便提一下,
Now David, and I am going to use,
我要使用的是之前講過的大衛在詩篇19篇中所使用的三重模式,
by the way, these three points, this whole paradigm I have introduced of psalm 19
即詩篇19篇中那幾個強調上帝啟示的不同方面的部分。
the different sections of psalm 19 underscoring revelation.
大衛在詩篇19篇中默想了上帝普遍啟示的這一真理。
David reflects upon this truth of general revelation in psalm 19.
這首詩是以贊美上帝的創造開始,大衛在第1節至6節中這樣說,
He begins his hymn on creation, verses 1 through 6, with these words,
“諸天述說神的榮耀,穹蒼傳揚他的手段”。
“The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork”.
他在第一節中所使用的這些詞彙,比如“諸天”、“穹蒼”,
And the references to “heavens,” “firmament”,
指的就是抬頭在天上可見的天空,還有“日”與“夜”,
“firmament” of the visible heavens that is, and “day” and “night”,
都與創世紀第1章中描述創造的部分遙相呼應。
all of this language in verse 1 is an obvious allusion to the creation narrative of Genesis 1.
大衛將這些天體擬人化,
So David is personifying the celestial objects
好像它們自己就是向人“宣告”上帝是誰的傳道人一般。
as if they themselves were preachers that “declare” to man who God is.
因此,對我們而言,那每日升起的太陽就像一位傳道人一般。
So the sun is a preacher to you, everyday when you see the sun rise.
而那夜空中的月亮也像是一位傳道人。
The moon is a preacher to you at night.
它們不能向我們傳講關於救恩的知識,
Not a preacher that brings you salvation,
但是它們可以教導我們,讓我們瞭解上帝許多榮耀的屬性。
but a preacher that does teach you about many of the glorious attributes of God.
雖然天空、太陽、月亮和星宿並沒有嘴巴,
And though the skies, the sun, the moon, and the stars have no mouths,
但是大衛在第2節中說,它們可以“發出言語”,
David says, they yet have “speech”, verse 2,
又在第3節中說,它們可以“傳出知識”。
and they have a “voice”, verse 3.
就好像它們在向我們宣告,
It’s like they are declaring to us,
夜空中的星星在朝我們吶喊:上帝真偉大!
the stars at night are shouting out to us: God is great!
上周我剛去北卡羅來納州
I was, this past week, in
參加了“國家(全家敬拜)教會中心”的活動。
NCFIC, and in North Carolina. And
可能你們中有人不知道這一點,
Kevin Swanson was a very, very,
凱文·史雲生是一位非常戲劇化的傳道人。
if you don’t know this, a very dramatic preacher.
他講道時,會在整個講道臺上走來走去。
I mean he is all over the stage when he preaches.
上周,他正好在講上帝的偉大,
And so he is talking about this greatness of God
講上帝是如此的卓越、崇高、令人敬畏。
and how God is so big and so great and so awesome,
史雲生在講的時候張開雙臂,在整個講道臺上來回走動。
and he’s just like throwing out his arms and he’s going all over the stage
他說,“如果世界上最偉大的畫家要畫一幅這麼大的畫,
and he said, you know the greatest artist can only, you know, if he paints a painting this big
他不僅要花費數日的時間,還要一筆一筆地勾勒。
and it takes him days, and every little brush stroke,
等他終於畫完了、顏料幹了,這是一幅非常美麗的風景畫,
and then once he gets it all and the oil dries and it’s just a beautiful scenery, but
但是它只是小小的一幅畫而已。
it’s just a little tiny thing.
並且,我們再也不能改變這幅畫了,它的內容已經是固定的了。
And you can’t change it, it’s there, it’s fixed.
就是一個景色。
It’s just one scenery.
然後可能有另一個畫家,他用盡一生的時間,
And then you get an artist who may spend a whole lifetime
畫出了一幅全景畫,可能和這一面牆一樣大。
and he does a panorama, you know, of the length of this wall,
他用了一生的時間,最後畫出了一幅自然中的景色。”
and he paints one scene in nature, and it takes him a whole lifetime.
然後史雲生說,“我住在科羅拉多州,
And then he says, I live in Colorado and I look out my window, and I see this mountain ranges just as far
當我從窗戶眺望出去,看到這條山脈往左往右無盡地延伸。
as I can for the left, and as deep as I can, mountain ranges all the way to the right as far as I can.
這樣的景色,這樣的山脈,
This huge huge thing, ten billions times greater
比任何人窮盡一生所創作的畫作都要偉大無數倍。
than what a man can do in a whole lifetime, and then God comes along
更奇妙的是,上帝每隔十分鐘就會改換山脈的景色,改換畫面.
and every ten minutes, he’s going like this, every ten minutes he’s changing the scenery,
我看到,現在是一幅畫,之後就變了一幅畫,然後又變了一幅畫。
changing the painting, here comes another painting, then another painting,
多麼偉大的上帝!”
then another, what an awesome God!
你們知道嗎,史雲生就是這樣講道的。
You know, this is the way he is talking. And
然後聽道的人就歡呼起來,因為他講的是如此的真實。
the crowds just broke out in cheering, because he made it so real.
上帝所做的實在是非凡的驚人。
But how God can do this is just phenomenal.
史雲生接著說,
You see, in ten minutes,
“你們知道嗎,上帝在十分鐘以內就可以讓暴風雨席卷整個山谷.
He can sweep through the valley, he said, and bring a rain storm.
然後太陽又出來了。
And then the sun can break through, and
大自然中的這一切都在向我們吶喊著,要我們看到上帝的榮耀。”
then all these aspects of nature are shouting at us the glory of God.
因此,雖然普遍啟示不能讓人明白救恩,
So even though general revelation can not bring a salvation,
但是它能強有力地向人證實上帝的真理。
general revelation is a powerful witness to the truth of God.
作為信徒,當我們看到太陽那熾烈的色彩,
And when you are a believer, and you see the blazing colors of the sun,
我們就能明白大衛在詩篇19篇第5和第6節中所說的,
you understand what David says in verses 5 and 6,
在太陽火焰般的色彩中,我們看到上帝的喜樂就像一位“新郎”,
in the blazing colors of the sun, he’s saying, we see the happiness of God like a “bridegroom,”
我們看到上帝的大能就像一位“勇士”,我們也看到上帝的臨在,
the power of God like “a strong man,” and the presence of God,
因為“沒有一物被隱藏不得”太陽“的熱氣”。
for “there is nothing hidden from the heat” of the sun.
所以,如果說上帝的創造就像一個傳道人,
So if creation is like a preacher, David is saying, God
那麼上帝一定為它們設計了一種人類能夠明白的語言。
has designed it to have a voice, that mankind can understand.
而我們作為基督徒,當然能夠明白得更為透徹,
And if you are a Christian, of course you understand it much better,
那麼對於我們而言,這就更加令我們驚嘆。
and it’s all the more amazing to you.
當然,在現實中,
Now that does not take away from the fact, of course,
有一些人好像比另一些人在這方面的感受更為強烈。
that it seems that some human beings have more impression of this than others.
有一些甚至是還沒有信主的人,當他們身處於大自然中的時候,
Some even unsaved people have tremendous impressions
這一切都會給他們留下非常深刻的印象。
when they stand in nature.
但是另一些人好像就沒有這麼深刻的印象。
Others have less.
上帝的子民中一些人會比另一些人在這方面的感受更加強烈。
Some of God’s people have more impressions than others of God’s people.
人是非常多元化的。
There’s a variety in the human race.
但是大衛想表達的意思是,每個人都能夠看到其中的一些。
But what David is saying is that everyone sees something of this.
因為它們是如此地清晰、明顯。
It’s just so, so in your face.
你走出家門,
You step out the door,
看到陽光照耀在美麗的雲層上,或者陽光穿透雲層照射下來。
and the sun is shining in this beautiful great clouds, perhaps the sun is breaking through
我們的內心中是有某種感覺的,對不對?
and there’s just a sense in you, isn’t there?
那種感覺就是,這位上帝真偉大。我們確實能夠感受到。
This great God, this great God, you just feel it.
我自認為自己在這方面的感受還不錯,
And I think I have a pretty good sense of it,
但是我妻子對此的感受比我更加強烈。
I think my wife has a better sense of this.
她感受到的觸動比我更大。
I mean, she’s more moved than I am.
我也會被自然、被美麗的風景所觸動,
I am moved by nature, I am moved by beautiful sights,
但是她比我更加受感動。
she’s more moved than I am.
但是這是不是就意味著她是一位比我更虔誠的基督徒呢?
Does that make her a more godly Christian than me?
不,我們不能下這樣的結論。
You know, no, don’t go down that road.
在“上帝的啟示進入人心”這一方面,
There’s difference of emphasis in different believers
不同的信徒身上會體現出不同的側重,我們需要尊重這樣的不同。
in bringing in to the inner man the revelation of God, and we need to respect that.
但是我們要知道,大衛想要表達的是,
But you see, what David is saying is,
上帝像一位“新郎”一樣地來到我們身邊,
God’s coming to us like a bridegroom,
上帝帶著祂的言語來到我們身邊。
God’s coming to us with a voice.
祂來到我們所有人的身邊。所以,正如加爾文所說,
He’s coming to all of us, so as we look around us,
當我們環顧四周時,“這個世界是一個展現上帝榮耀的舞臺”。
this world, as John Calvin put it, is the theater of God’s glory.
加爾文這樣寫道,
“This magnificent theater,” Calvin writes,
“這個由天地構成的宏偉劇場,充充足足地裝載著無數的奇跡。”
“of heaven and earth, crammed,” I love that word, “crammed full with innumerable miracles.”
加爾文接著說,上帝在自然中的啟示
And Calvin goes on to say, that this revelation in nature
不僅包括創世紀1章所記載的創造的這一歷史性事件,
consists not merely of the historic act of creation in Genesis 1,
即大衛在詩篇19篇所指的。
I mean that is what David is referring to in psalm 19,
普遍啟示還包含著更多的內容,
but there’s more involved,
因為上帝確實創造了,只是我們自己沒有見證上帝創造的過程。
because God did create, and we just don’t directly observe that creation.
但是我們可以從創造本身看到,
But in creation itself,
上帝定意在歷史中要用祂的護理來維護和管理創造。
He also determine to preserve and control creation by His providence throughout history,
因此,幾千年後的今天,即使是在這個墮落的世界中,
so now thousands of years later, this nature, even in this fallen world,
自然界仍然是一個向我們展現上帝榮耀的大舞臺。
still shouts, still is a theater of God’s glory to us.
我特別喜歡巴文克所說的這句話,
And so I love these words by Bavinck,
“當我們把創造、維護與管理三者放在一起時,
“Creating, sustaining, and governing altogether
就有了一整個強大的、延續不斷的上帝的啟示。”
form one single mighty ongoing revelation of God.”
上帝創造一切,上帝維護一切,上帝管理一切。
God creating, God sustaining, God governing, everything.
這一切形成了一個巨大的、強有力的、延續不斷的上帝的啟示。
Together it’s like all one huge huge mighty ongoing revelation of God.
我們稱之為“自然啟示”。
Now we call this “natural revelation”, natural revelation.
因為這一啟示藉著上帝的普遍作工而存在。
Because it occurs through God’s ordinary works.
所以,我們不能因為這個術語而誤以為上帝的啟示是普通的,
So don’t let that terminology confuse you, God’s natural revelation
因為上帝的自然啟示在許多方面也是超自然的、充滿奇跡的。
is of course supernatural and miraculous in so many ways,
說它是自然啟示,是因為它適用於世界上的每一個人,
but it’s natural because it’s appropriated by every human being on earth,
是因為我們通過人正常的感官,即我們的視覺、聽覺、味覺和觸覺,
and it’s appropriated by ordinary human senses, by your sight, by your hearing,
以及通過人類正常的理性,都能夠明白這一啟示。
by your tasting, by your touching, and by ordinary human reasoning as well.
我一直是這樣看的,其實我們應該很容易就相信上帝是造物主,
You know, I mean, it doesn’t, I always look at it this way,
只要我們好好想一想,就能明白。
it doesn’t take anything to believe that God is a Creator, I mean, just start reasoning,
而要真正相信進化論,這其實才是困難的。
it really takes a stretch to believe in evolution.
這才是匪夷所思的。去相信沒有人創造出這一切?
That is what’s bizarre. I mean, nobody made all this?
去相信你我只是這廣大創造中的一個極其微小的偶然存在?
And you are just one little tiny tiny little puny spec of this vast vast creation?
我也不知道這樣說合不合適,
You know, today, it’s almost with science,
如果你們覺得我說的不合適,你們可以省略掉這一點。
I don’t know if I am weird in saying this, and you can dispense with it
我要說的就是,在我看來,上帝好像在與今天的科學家們開玩笑。
if you think it’s weird, but it’s almost to me like God has a sense of humor with scientist.
因為他們發現的東西越多,比如他們又發現了新的十億顆恆星,
Because the more they discover, you know, now they discover, you know, ten more billion stars out there,
他們就讓自己本就極其微小的頭腦變得更加微小。
the more they discover, the smaller they make their own puny little minds to be.
難道真的要相信,所有這一切、我們稱之為地球的這一切,
And all of this comes from some little Nebulin in the bottom of the ocean
是非常偶然地源於大洋海底的某種極其微小的蛋白質,
of just one little teeny tiny little spec of the thing, less than a piece of dust
即一個比灰塵還微小的東西?
on a balance of God’s creation, we call earth?
這實在是荒謬至極!
Come on, that is unbelievable.
如果有人認為,沒有人創造諸天之上的群星,
You can’t tell me that it’s reasonable to say that
這一切就這樣偶然發生了,這實在是異想天開。
nobody made the stars of the heavens, that just happened.
有的恆星的大小是地球的五百萬倍;
And one star can be five million times as large as this earth, and that the content of certain stars
據科學家考察,有的恆星質量極大,上面的東西極其濃縮,
as far as we know, as far as science can determine, that a little bolter this big
巴掌大的一塊地方就和芝加哥的西爾斯大廈一樣重。
in the size of a man’s hand, can weigh as much as the Sears Tower building in Chicago,
這些重達數十億、數百億磅的恆星,
because it’s so condensed in weight. And these stars,
加上太空中的所有其他物體,就這樣不掉落地懸浮於太空之中,
which are then billions and zillions and whatever else is out there, pounds
難道我們應該相信這一切都是偶然發生的?
are suspended in space without falling, and this is all just happening in chance?
真是荒唐之言。
That’s unbelievable. So
因此,藉著我們的常識,藉著我們的一般理性,
it’s so much easier, just by common reasoning,
我們很容易就能知道,一定有一位造物主。
to know that there must be a Creator.
所以,我們從創造中認識到上帝“為人而設計”了這個世界,
And so from creation, we learn that God has “adapted” this world “to man as man”
祂“以自然現象為媒介”,向我們傳達一個信息,即祂是上帝。
and communicates to us “through the media of natural phenomena,” that He is God.
道格拉斯·凱利在這一點上作出了進一步的精彩闡釋,
So Douglas Kelly has a nice statement which he brings these terms
他把“自然”、“超自然”等術語結合在了一起,說,
“natural” and “supernatural” together, he says this,
“當我們用‘自然’這一個術語時,
“The term ‘natural’ points to the realm
指的是我們對上帝認識所存在的地方,即創造與良知,
where that knowledge is found, namingly creation and conscience,
但是這種’人無法抵擋的知識’的來源一定是‘超自然’的,
but the source of that obligatory knowledge is definitely ‘supernatural’,
是從這位選擇以這樣的方法‘揭示’祂自己的上帝而來。”
that is, it comes from the God who chooses to ‘unveil’ Himself.”
好,現在讓我簡略地介紹一下特殊啟示這一概念。
Now let me give a few words also to introduce the concept of special revelation.
上帝創造了一個美妙的世界,
So God brings the first man
並將祂創造的第一個男人和第一個女人帶入了這一世界,
and the first woman into this amazing world
然後在創造完成以後,祂與他們進行了超自然的交流。
and He communicates with them supernaturally after creation is completed.
聖經在創世紀1章28節中再一次提到了“上帝說”,
Again He uses the expression “And God said”, verse 28,
但與之前不同的是,在上帝創造了人以後,
however, He adds His words, “And God said to them”,
聖經記載的是,“上帝對他們說”。
“to them” after He creates them.
因此,上帝這時候不是在對所有受造物講話,
So now it’s just not God’s speaking out in general to creation,
而是在與人交通,與祂的創造之冠講話。
but it’s God’s speaking to individuals, to the crown of His creation.
上帝這時候不是通過自然,
Revealing Himself through speech,
而是通過言語來向人啟示祂自己,來向亞當和夏娃說話。
not just through nature now, but through speech to man, Adam and Eve.
然後上帝賜福給亞當與夏娃,
And then God gives the blessing to Adam and Eve of having the right
賜他們以權柄和責任來統治世界。
and the responsibility to rule the earth.
這一點是不是很有意思?
So isn’t it interesting that
即在聖經的記載中,上帝在造人之後對他做出的第一個行動,
God’s first act towards man recorded in the Bible after He creates him
是用言語向他啟示”關係與服侍”的內容。
is a verbal revelation for relationship and service.
據聖經記載,上帝在造人之後對他做出的第一個行動是言語的啟示,
God’s first act towards man recorded in the Bible, after He creates him, is verbal revelation,
而非僅僅是自然啟示。
not just natural revelation,
上帝向人啟示,人與上帝和其他受造物之間的關係,
speech for relationship, to have a relationship between God
也向他啟示人應盡的服侍。
and him and creation, and for service.
然後,緊接著下一章,即創世紀第2章,
And then at the very next chapter,
我們又讀到了上帝的話語,“ 耶和華神吩咐亞當”,
we again encounter divine speech, “and the LORD God commanded the man” that
說,他可以隨意吃園中各樣樹上的果子,
he might eat of any of the trees,
但是有一棵樹上的果子他不可以吃,否則就要承受死亡的痛苦。
except the one tree, upon pain of death,
這些你們都熟悉。
you know that.
上帝栽種了生命樹,上帝也栽種了分辨善惡的樹。
Tree of life is set up and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil is set up.
然後,上帝以一種超自然的方式向亞當顯現,
And God appears to Adam in a supernatural manner,
將他安置到伊甸園中,並與他交流關於動物的事情,
transports him to the garden and communicates with him about the animals,
這是創世紀2章15節、18節和19節。
verses 15, 18 and 19.
上帝用亞當的肋骨造了女人,
He forms the woman from Adam’s rib,
這也是另一個展現上帝超自然的、奇跡的啟示的例子。
another example of revelation by supernatural miraculous activity.
然後,上帝將女人帶到男人的面前,讓他們有連接。
And He brings the woman to the man, so that they can have relationship.
然後悲劇就發生了,對不對?
And then a tragedy happens, right?
亞當和夏娃違背了上帝的命令。
Adam and Eve violate God’s command,
當時,令人感到驚訝的是,令撒旦感到驚訝的是,
but the astonishing thing is, surprise, surprise to Satan,
上帝以超自然的方式向亞當與夏娃顯現,
is that God comes in manifesting Himself supernaturally to Adam and Eve,
祂結束與他們剛建立不久的約,祂要求他們解釋所發生的事情,
and breaks up the new found covenant between them, calls them to account,
祂也宣佈了對撒當的審判,
speaks a word of judgment to the tempter, but then gives the word of hope to mankind
但是祂卻說出了給人類盼望的話語,說女人的後裔會戰勝蛇的後裔。
and says the seed of the woman shall once prevail over the seed of the serpent.
然後,上帝向罪人宣判,
And then does sentence the sinner
他們今生會有愁苦,最終也會悲慘地死去。
to the miseries of this life, and to the sad termination in death.
所以,上帝所宣佈的,既有懲罰、既有審判,也有福音的盼望。
So there is punishment, there is judgment as well as gospel hope.
所以,通過我們對創世紀1章至3章所做的非常簡短的概述,
So this brief survey, a very brief survey it was of Genesis 1 through 3 demonstrates that,
我們可以看到,正如普遍啟示可以被稱為自然啟示,
just as general revelation may be called natural revelation,
上帝通過言語而賜下的特殊啟示也可以被稱為超自然啟示。
so special revelation in the form of speech may be called supernatural revelation.
而這一超自然啟示在上帝與人之間的關係中起著十分特殊的作用。
And that supernatural revelation plays a special role in God’s relationship to mankind.
我很欣賞道格拉斯·凱利所說的,
I like Douglas Kelly here again, he says, “Special or supernatural revelation
“對人而言,特殊啟示,或超自然啟示……從一開始就必不可少。
was necessary from man’s beginning, because man’s finite nature
人因自身的局限,無法對萬事中能使上帝喜悅的事有充分的認識;
could not of itself grasp the full understanding necessary to please God in all things,
再加上亞當的墮落對他自己及其後代的思想
but it became even more necessary because of the negative effects
都產生了非常負面的影響,這一點就變得更加緊要。”
of the fall of Adam and what that has had on the minds of all his descendants.”
數百年來,教會已經認識到了上帝啟示的這兩種模式之間的區別,
So this distinction between natural revelation and supernatural revelation as two modes
即自然啟示與超自然啟示之間的區別,
of divine disclosure has been recognized by the church for many many centuries,
改教家們也尤其強調這一點.
particularly accented by the reformers.
例如,16世紀的弗朗西斯庫斯·尤尼烏斯對這一點有清晰的認識,
Franciscus Junius, for example, in the sixteenth century is very clear here,
約翰內斯·坡里安德爾也是如此,
so is Johannes Polyander, he provides this helpful summary
他在新譯的《更純粹神學概要》中提出了一個很有幫助的總結,
in the new translation of the Synopsis of a Purer Theology, he says this,
他這樣說,“上帝的啟示可以分為自然啟示和超自然啟示。
“Revelation can be divided into natural and supernatural revelation.
無論這種啟示是內在的、是寫在所有人心上的,
We call natural revelation what is either internal,
還是外在的、藉著觀察上帝的創造而來的,
written upon the hearts of all people, or external,
我們都將之稱為自然啟示。
through the contemplation of the things God has created.
而我們將真理的聖靈直接賜給先知與使徒的那些信息,
We call supernatural revelation what the prophets and apostles have obtained
稱為超自然啟示。
by the direct agency of the Spirit of truth
上帝這樣做,是為了讓祂的教會瞭解真實的超自然啟示。”
in order to unfold its genuine form to the Church of God,”
這些信息也就是現在記錄於聖經中的這些內容。
which is now deposited in the Scriptures.
因此,大衛在詩篇19篇中首先贊美了上帝的啟示,
So David, after celebrating the revelation of God in his works in Psalm 19,
然後從第7到9節,他將註意力轉向了上帝話語的屬性
turns his attention to the attributes and benefits of God’s Word
以及它帶給人的益處。
in verses 7 through 9.
他講到了“耶和華的律法”,“法度”,“訓詞”,“命令”,
Speaking of “the law of the LORD”, “testimony,” “statutes,” “commandment,”
還講到了“耶和華的道理”和“耶和華的典章”。
“fear of the LORD,” “judgements of the LORD.”
大衛在詩中提到聖經的特質和屬性,強調上帝的話語是全備的,
And the qualities he here refers and attributes to the Holy Scriptures
是確定的、正直的、清潔的、潔凈的、真實的和公義的。
emphasize that the Word of God is perfect, sure, right, clean, pure, true and righteous.
這就是大衛在第7節至第9節中所說的。
That’s what he says, verses 7 through 9.
如果我們將7至9節與1至6節進行比較,
Now if you compare 7 though 9 with 1 through 6,
我們會發現1至6節的普遍啟示顯明瞭造物主的真實與威嚴,
you notice that general revelation in 1 through 6 communicates the reality and majesty
而特殊啟示顯明的更多的是祂的道德品質,
of the Creator, but special revelation brings to light His moral qualities,
祂的信實與公義,也顯明瞭祂對我們生命的神聖旨意。
qualities of faithfulness and righteousness, and reveals His holy will for our lives.
然後大衛繼續,
And David then goes on
將上帝的話語與內在啟示帶給人的經歷式益處緊密地聯繫起來。
and closely associates God’s Word with the experiential benefits of inner revelation.
他沒有將它們與第1節至第6節的自然啟示聯繫起來,
He doesn’t tie those to nature, verses 1 through 6,
而是將它們與聖經,即上帝的特殊啟示聯繫在了一起。
but he ties them to Scripture, to the special revelation.
他在詩中談到了“蘇醒”、“使人有智慧”、“快活人心”等等。
He speaks of “converting,” “making wise,” “rejoicing,” in this psalm.
而這是他在談自然啟示的時候不會用到的詞彙。
And there is no such list after natural revelation.
加爾文說,“上帝本願意讓人通過舉目仰望天地而歸向他,
Calvin said, “Since God in vain calls all peoples to himself
但是既然此舉徒勞無益,
by the contemplation of heaven and earth,
這”,指上帝的聖言,“就是上帝教導兒女的學校”,
this, God’s holy Word, is the very school of God’s children”
上帝的聖言能賜給他們所需的得救的益處。
that can give them the saving benefits they need.
因此,無論從哪一個方面來說,上帝的話語、上帝的特殊啟示
So at every point, God’s Word, God’s special revelation,
都是解決我們在亞當中悲慘墮落的這一問題的答案。
is the answer to our tragic fall in Adam.
而上帝正是通過祂的話語,
And it’s through God’s Word now,
與祂的子民建立了一個親密的約的關係。
that God therefore forges a covenant relationship of intimacy with His people.
聖經從最開始,即創世紀第2章和3章,就提到了這個約的關係,
And so the Bible early on speaks about this covenant relationship, even in Genesis 2 and 3.
我們在創世紀中看到,表示上帝的詞彙
The terminology for God is moved over
從“上帝”(Elohim)變為了“耶和華”(YHWH),
from “Elohim” to “YHWH”,
它表明上帝是一位信實守約的上帝。
the covenant keeping name of God,
耶和華是一個名字,與上帝和人之間的約的關係有關,
the personal name associated with His covenantal relationship
先是祂與以色列國的約的關係,後來便是祂與祂所有子民的約的關係。
with Israel as a nation, and later with all His people.
同樣,詩篇19篇在第一部分講述上帝創造時
And similarly, Psalm 19 speaks of God, “El”,
用的是”上帝“(El),
in its first section on God’s creation,
但是在它的第二部分,即描述上帝話語的這6節經文中,
but at the start of the second section on God’s Word,
對上帝的稱呼一直是”耶和華“這個名字。
through which we get a personal relationship with God in these
我們正是通過上帝的話語,才得以與祂建立了個人的親密關係。
因此,我們從這裡(以及整本聖經)便可以知道,
And so what that teaches us and that’s common throughout all of the Scriptures,
上帝無論在何處提到祂與祂子民之間的親密的約的關係時,
is that wherever God speaking about intimate covenant relationship with His people,
幾乎毫無例外的,祂都會使用”耶和華“這個名字。
almost exclusively, the word “YHWH” is used, which means that
這意味著特殊啟示與我們和上帝之間親密的約的關係密不可分。
special revelation is really inseparable from an intimate covenant relationship.
羅伯特·羅沃克這樣說:
Robert Rollock says this,
“上帝所說的一切總是與某種約有關;
“All the word of God appertains to some covenant;
因為若沒有約,上帝就不會對人說話。“
for God speaks nothing to man outside of His covenant.”
因此,這就提醒了我們,上帝的話語全是關於祂自己的,
So this reminds us that God’s Word is all about Him,
關於祂的榮耀,就是祂在耶穌基督里作我們救贖主和君王的榮耀。
about His glory as Redeemer and King of His people, and that it all flows to us
因為耶穌基督,上帝與我們之間的約是絕對真實的。
through Jesus Christ, by whom that covenant can be true and real.
所以,當我們的屬靈生命處於很健康的狀態時,
And so the response that we have to that special revelation
我們將我們對上帝的特殊啟示做出的回應稱為內在啟示。
when things are well in our soul, is what we call internal, or inner revelation.
再次提醒一下,內在啟示不會給我們帶來額外的啟示,
Again, not extra content, but particularly the content of special revelation
它指的是特殊啟示(也加上普遍啟示)在我們靈魂中的應用。
and general revelation too, applied to our souls.
因此,上帝藉著祂的話語對我們說話,
So the voice of God, coming to us through His Word,
在重生的罪人心中喚起聖潔的回應,讓我們因此靠著信心而活。
evokes a holy echo in the heart of regenerated sinners, and we live therefore by faith.
幾乎可以說,我們感受到的是一種雙重的超自然啟示。
And we have a sense of, well, you might almost call it a double supernatural revelation.
一個是聖經本身的超自然啟示,
Supernatural revelation in the Bible itself
還有一個是特殊啟示在我們靈魂中激蕩起的回應。
and then that echoed in our souls
我們因此而相信特殊啟示,在內心裡接受它,
so that we believe it and receive it inwardly
我們也知道上帝的恩典在我們自己心中的這種主觀性的作工。
and know that subjective work of grace in our own hearts.
詹姆斯·加勒特這樣寫道,“啟示在基督教中有它獨特的含義,
James Garrett puts it this way, “Revelation, in the distinctive Christian sense,
它指的不只是上帝讓我們可以認識祂,
is not merely God’s making available information about himself
它還指一種個人性的、與上帝有關的啟示,
but also involves the personal unveiling of God that transforms us
它能改變信徒,使他們與上帝和好。”
and reconciles the believing recipient of the revelation.”
所以,在詩篇19篇的最後一部分中,
And so in the last part of psalm 19, David focuses particularly upon the
大衛特別關註上帝話語與聖靈帶給人的屬靈體驗。
spiritual exercises which God’s Word and Spirit produce in a person.
大衛用四種方式對此進行了描述。
And he describes that in four ways.
他說,首先,信徒喜愛上帝的話語。
He says, first the believer loves the Word.
第10節,他認為上帝的話語比“金子、極多的精金”更為寶貴,
Verse 10, he treasures it more “than gold, yea, than much fine gold,”
他視之“比蜜甘甜”。
he delights in it as “sweeter than honey”.
第二,信徒作為上帝的”僕人“,聽上帝的話語。
And second, the believer listens to the Word as God’s “servant.”
第11節,他珍視上帝的話語,將之視為賜給人規勸的寶貴資源,
Verse 11, cherishing it as a valuable source of warning
並將它視為一個領人獲得“大賞”的值得信賴的嚮導。
and following it as a trustworthy guide, which leads to a “great reward.”
接著,大衛也談到,我們要以禱告來回應,
And in response to that is prayer to praise God and seek His face,
要贊美上帝、尋求上帝的面容。
and David speaks of that as well.
第三,信徒禱告,因為他尋求從上帝而來的救恩。
The third, the believer prays because he looks for saving grace from God.
他承認自己的罪惡深不可測。
He confesses the inscrutable depth of his sins.
“誰能知道自己的錯失呢?”
“Who can understand his errors?”
“願你赦免我隱而未現的過錯”,第12節。
“cleanse thou me from hidden faults,” verse 12.
同時,他還尋求上帝賜下恩典使他成聖。
And he seeks grace for sanctification.
“求你攔阻僕人,不犯任意妄為的罪”等等,第13節。
“Keep back thy servant from presumptuous sins,” etc., verse 13.
然後第四,信徒禱告,是因為他渴望使上帝的喜悅。
And then fourth, the believer prays because he longs to please God.
第14節,“願我口中的言語、心裡的意念在你面前蒙悅納。”
Verse 14a,“Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight.”
因此,當聖靈將超自然的啟示刻在一個人的靈魂中時,
So the supernatural revelation, when imprinted upon the soul by the Holy Spirit,
它會超自然地使這個人向上帝迴轉,
produces a supernatural reorientation of the whole person towards God
使他開始靠著上帝的恩典、為著上帝的榮耀和喜悅而活。
to live by his grace for his glory and for his pleasure.
總而言之,
Well, in summary then,
上帝通過兩種方式來賜給我們客觀的啟示:普遍啟示和特殊啟示。
what we have is two objective divine revelations, general and special,
順便說一下,《比利時信條》中的第二條很好地概括了這兩點.
which by the way, is summarised very well by the Belgic Confession of Faith,
這是《比利時信條》中最廣為人知的一條,特別是其中這幾句話:
which Article two is one of its most famous articles and particularly these few lines.
“我們認識上帝有兩種方式”,
“We know God by two means,”
這是《比利時信條》中很有名的一句話,
this is very famous of the Belgic Confession,
“第一種方式就是藉著宇宙的創造、保存和管理來認識上帝。”
“first, by the creation, preservation, and government of the universe;
當然,他們提到了羅馬書第1章,“正如使徒保羅所說的那樣(羅 1:20),
which is before our eyes as a most elegant book, wherein all creatures, great and small,
宇宙的創造、保存和管理在我們面前正如一本絕妙的書籍。
are as so many characters leading us to contemplate the invisible things of God,
一切受造之物,無論大小,都如許 多字符,
namely,” and of course, they go to Romans 1,
引領我們思想上帝那看不見的屬性,就是衪永在的大能和神性。
“His eternal power and divinity, as the apostle Paul saith.
這些東西足以使人確信上帝的存在,使他們無可推諉。
All which things are sufficient to convince men, and leave them without excuse.” Romans 1:20.
其次,上帝藉著衪的聖言使我們更加清楚、完全地認識衪自身。
“Secondly, God makes Himself more clearly and more fully known to us
這就是說,我們今生凡是為了衪的榮耀和我們的救恩所必需的一切,
by His holy and divine Word; that is to say, as far as is necessary for us to know
都已經盡在其中。”
in this life, to His glory and to our salvation.”
我認為,這段文字之所以在改革宗著作中這樣地廣為人知,
I think one reason why this paragraph became so famous in reformed literature
是因為它用“兩本書”來做比喻。
is the imagery here of two books.
啟示就像兩本書一樣。
Revelation’s like two books.
一本是自然之書,另一本是聖經。這是非常生動的比喻。
One is the book of nature, and the other is the book of Scripture, and it’s very graphic.
這種對比非常有智慧。
And just a really neat comparison.
然後我們可以看到,上帝通過聖靈的內在啟示,
And then you see, God takes these two objects of divine revelations and through the inner
用兩種啟示的真理光照我們,特別是祂話語中所傳達的救恩真理。
revelation of the Holy Spirit, He shines upon us, particularly savingly through His Word.
當然,自然啟示也能為這樣的真理提供支持。
And that is then buttressed by natural revelation to be sure,
但是當我們談到啟示時,
but the critical question for us
我們應該問自己的、至關重要的問題是:
when it comes to revelation, therefore, is this,
我是如何回應上帝的啟示的?
how have I responded to God’s revelation.
我是否熱愛上帝的話語?詩篇19篇。
Do I love God’s Word? Psalm 19.
我是否將上帝的話語視為上帝的聲音,並因此而聆聽?
Do I listen to it as the voice of God?
詩篇19篇。
Psalm 19.
我是否用禱告回應上帝,祈求上帝賜下使人稱義與成聖的恩典?
Do I echo it back in my prayers for justifying and sanctifying grace?
詩篇19篇。
Psalm 19.
我是否渴望使上帝喜悅?
Do I long to please God?
詩篇19篇。
Psalm 19.
基督賜給了我超自然的話語,我是否有在他裡面的信心?
Do I have faith in Christ who gives me this supernatural Word?
我們的靈魂中必須要有對上帝超自然啟示的回應。
So there must be an echo of the supernatural revelation in our souls.
我們既可以稱之為“內在啟示”,也可以稱之為“內在應用”,
And you can call that “inner revelation”, and you can call that “inner application”,
還可以用其他不同的術語。但我們需要謹記,
I mean, you can use all different words for it, just remember,
當我們說“內在啟示”時,我們指的不是上帝有額外的啟示。
when you use the word “inner revelation”, there’s no additional content.
“內在啟示”指的只是上帝的話語被應用到了我們的靈魂里,
It’s just the content of the Word applied to the soul,
改變著我們。
transforming you.
但是它就好像一種內在的啟示一樣,
But it’s like a revelation inwardly,
因為它是真實的,它有著啟示所擁有的一切特征。
because you see it, it is real, it becomes true, and all the qualities of revelation are there,
但是它是通過我們稱為聖經的這本書降臨到我們心中來的。
but it comes to you through this wonderful Book we call the Holy Bible.

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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