系統神學緒論(周必克) - 第08講 我們為何要從事神學研究(上)

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本課程是2020清教徒改革宗神學院的序幕講座

第六大點是,我們為什麼從事神學研究?
Six is why do we do theology?
而這一大點的內容分為了兩個部分。
And it’s divided into two sections.
第一個部分,也是我們現在要查考的,
The first section, which we look at right now is
是“反對神學的常見理由”。
common objections against theology.Common objections against theology.
這一部分里有九個小點,每個小點都是以一個詞來總結的。
And there are nine sub points here, all one word long each.
所以,要把這個大綱抄到你們的筆記里應該比較容易。
So it won’t be hard for you to import that outline.
我想先查考反對意見,
That’s why I want to do first common objections
因為這樣我們就可以先處理人們對研究神學的負面看法。
so we are gonna deal with the negative first,
然後在第二部分,我們想查考的是研究神學的原因。
and then in the second half of this hour, we want to look at the reason for theology.
這就是第六大點的第二部分,從事神學研究的原因。
That’s part B of number six, the reason for theology.
這裡探討的便是積極的一面。
And present the positive.
在這個時代,“我們為什麼要研究神學”的問題對我們緊追不捨。
The question of why we do theology presses hard against us in our present age,
因為人們提出了許多的反對意見。
because there are so many objections against it.
系統神學的書並不是這個世界上最暢銷的書。
Systematic theology is not exactly on a New York Times best selling list.
雖然我們自己十分熱愛神學,
And though we love theology ourselves,
但是我們必須面對現實、必須明白
we have to be realistic and understand
許多人對神學完全沒有任何興趣,
that many people are just thoroughly turned off by theology,
不僅如此,他們還堅決反對神學研究,
in fact, have serious objections against it,
總是試圖用其他東西來代替神學。
and always are trying to replace it with something else,
因此,他們提出的每一個對神學研究的反對意見,
and have objections therefore, to
都是為了要提出另一條代替神學的道路。
bring them to emphasize another road to go.
我將會和你們一起查看這九個反對神學研究的意見,
So every one of these nine objections I’m about to give you and I also want to argue this,
我會從每一個意見中提煉出一個需要我們留意的思想,
each one of these nine objections I’m gonna give you one thought from that objection
來提醒我們自己,避免我們自己在神學研究時誤入歧途。
that we need to pay attention to, so that we don’t go in the wrong direction with our theology.
因此,我們可以向批評我們的人學習,我們甚至可以向敵人學習。
So we can learn from our detractors, we can learn from our enemies even.
其實吧,這些人也不全是我們的敵人。
Well, those people aren’t just all our enemies.
換句話說,我們可以從那些向我們提出反對意見的人學習,
But in other words, we can learn from those who raise objections,
雖然我們不同意這些反對意見。
even though we reject the objection itself.
第一個反對意見是經驗主義。
The first is empiricism.
經驗主義的主張是,只有那些我們能看見、能聽見、
You see, empiricism says we can only know what we see,
能摸到、能品嘗和能聞到的東西才是可知的。
hear, touch, taste, or smell.
因此,從經驗主義者的角度看,
So the empiricist perspective, only those things
只有那些能被物理科學衡量的事物才能夠讓我們認識現實。
that can be measured by the physical sciences can contribute to our understanding of reality.
卡爾·亨利寫道:“科學經驗主義號稱自己對整個外部世界
Carl Henry wrote, “Arrogating to itself sovereign sway over the whole of external reality,
都擁有至高無上的主導力。
and thus implying omnicompetence to disclose its hidden secrets
因此,科學經驗主義認為,自己在解析外部世界的隱藏秘密
and to define whatever may be said about it,
與定義一切與外部世界有關的事物上無所不能。
scientific empiricism has been hailed
人們稱贊科學經驗主義能去除神話色彩,
as the great demythologizer whose reliable way
說它用真實可信的認知方式撕開了所有過去傳說與神話的假面具,
of knowing unmasks all the legends and myths of the past
並以真知識取而代之。”
in order to substitute for them authentic knowledge.”
這句話有點長,但亨利想表達的是,
That’s a full sentence, but what Henry is saying is,
據科學經驗主義的觀點,神學不過就是宗教觀點和個人信仰,
according to scientific empiricism, theology is just mere religious opinion and private belief.
它並非一種公共知識,甚至也不配得擁有任何形式的權威,
Not a public form of knowledge, not even worthy of any kind of authority.
它不是一種權威性的教導。
No authoritative teaching.
面對經驗主義這一反對意見,我們有三種回應方式。
Well, we respond to empiricism in three ways. First,
首先,我們需要證明經驗主義荒謬的矛盾之處。
we aim to show its foolish inconsistency.
這種“我們只能知曉被科學證明的事物”的說法
The statement that we can only know that which is proven scientifically itself
本身就無法在科學實驗室中被證實;
cannot itself be proven in a scientific laboratory.
這隻是一種哲學主張。
It is a philosophical speculation.
其次,經驗主義對物理科學的認識頗為簡單幼稚。
Second, empiricism is naive about the physical sciences,
物理科學所做的,不僅僅是分析數據,
which do not merely analyze data,
而是如約翰·傅瑞姆所指出的那樣,
but as John Frame points out,
物理科學會以主流理論為依據來解釋這些數據,
interpret it according to the prevailing theories of the day,
但是盛行的主流理論不過是基於假說與傳統,
which in turn are based upon assumptions and traditions
並且常常隨著時間的推移而發生巨大的改變。
that change dramatically over time.
因此,經驗主義建立了一個新的神話,來供奉一個新的偶像,
So empiricism sets up a new mythology, enshrined around the idol
這個偶像就是據說是絕對客觀的“無誤的科學界”。
of the infallible scientific community which supposedly acts with total objectivity.
你知道嗎,這實在令人咋舌,人很自然地就特別相信科學,
You know, it’s amazing how we just naturally,
甚至我們這些相信聖經的保守改革宗基督徒,也不例外。
even as conservative reformed Christians who believe the Bible, we just naturally trust science so much.
難道不是嗎?我們以為科學是永遠正確的,永遠真實的。
Don’t we? We think it’s always right, it’s always true.
但是你們知道嗎,在我的牧會經歷中,曾遇見過多次這樣的情況,
But you know as a pastor, I have dealt with so many people
就是在會眾身體出問題的時候,科學出錯了。
with so many physical problems in so many situations where science is wrong.
醫生藉著科學,無法查出這個人患的是什麼疾病,
And they couldn’t figure out what the disease was,
或者他們查出疾病後,卻誤判它為另一種疾病。
or they figured out, they mislabeled it.
就在上個星期,我見了兩個從巴西來的弟兄。
Even just this past week, I had two men come to me in Brazil,
他們在巴西時曾見過一些非常有名的醫生,
both of whom the doctors told them, very reputable doctors,
而醫生們斷言他們兩個人這輩子都無法生育後代。
you will never have children.
但是,一個弟兄有八個孩子,另一個弟兄有四個孩子。
Well, one has eight, and one has four.
其中一位弟兄說,“醫生跟我說,
And the one man told me, and he said, in terms of my sperm count, the doctors weren’t able to find any,
我患有無精症,所以我絕對不可能生育孩子。
so the doctors said there’s not a chance under the moon that you could have a child.
所以,當我妻子懷孕時,我一度懷疑孩子不是我的。
So when my wife got pregnant, I started to ask her some questions.
但是你知道嗎,那孩子生下來跟我長得一模一樣。
But you know, the baby just looked like me, and
這就是一個奇跡。”
it was just a miracle. You know?
之後他們又生了三個孩子,沒有人知道是怎麼回事。
And then they had three more kids, and I don’t know how it happened.
然後他說,“在我們生了第二個孩子後,
And then he said, after we had the second child,
我的醫生十分地困惑,所以他想再對我進行一下檢查。
the doctors were just so befuddled, that he wanted to test me again.
而檢查結果是我並沒有無精症。”
And my sperm count was fine.
醫生說,‘好吧,這是第二個奇跡。’
And the doctor said, well, that’s another miracle.
我也不知道這是怎麼發生的。”
I don’t understand how that happened.
所以我想說的是,讓我們盡可能地利用科學,
So you know, I mean, let’s use science as we can,
因為我們從科學中能學習到很多知識,
they’ve got a lot of knowledge to pass on to us,
我們也要為所有的醫學進步而心懷感激,
we are grateful for all the medical advances,
但是請記住,科學並不是上帝。
but let’s remember, science is not God.
在我牧會過程中,一位會眾給我上了一堂極好的課。
You know, pastorally, I had one of the greatest lessons a parishioner ever gave me,
我可能也在別的課上提過這件事,
I may have mentioned this in another class.
但是這件事特別適合在這裡講。
But it fits in here perfectly well.
當時,我去醫院看望一位姐妹。醫生們無法診斷出她的病情。
I was visiting a lady in the hospital, and they couldn’t diagnose her case.
當時她特別艱難,特別痛,我從她的臉上就能看到她有多痛苦。
And it was very difficult, and she had a lot of pain, and I could just see the pain on her face.
我帶著她一起讀了聖經、一起做了祈禱,
And I read the Bible with her, and I prayed with her,
我也對她說了一些勉勵的話。
and I gave her some counsel,
當我準備離開的時候,我握著她的手,
and as I went to leave, I just shook her hand
對她說,“我真的很抱歉,我不能為你做什麼。“
and I said, I am so sorry, I just wish that I could do more for you.
她卻說,“牧師,我必須要責備您。您為我所做的,
And she said, pastor, I must rebuke you, you’ve just done
比這家醫院里任何一位醫生能為我做的,都要更多。
more for me than any physician in this hospital could do for me.
因為您藉著禱告把我舉到了上帝的施恩寶座前。”
Because you’ve lifted me up to the throne of heaven.
要知道,生命不僅僅是對一些事物作出的數學、科學推論。
You know, life is not just about mathematical scientific conclusions about things.
我們遠比這些複雜得多。
We’re much more complicated than that.
我們作為人,有屬靈的層面,我們需要上帝的權威聖言。
We have a spiritual dimension to us, and we need the Word of God to come to us with authority.
第三,經驗主義無法應對一個事實,
Thirdly, empiricism fails to grapple with the fact
即我們知識結構中的大部分都來自個人交通。
that much of what we know derives from personal communication.
我們從他人那裡獲得的認識便是如此。不是嗎?
This is true of knowledge we learn from people, right?
我上周在巴西和一位弟兄奧古斯都·尼哥底母相處的時間很多,
Augustus Nicodemus, I was with him a lot this last week in Brazil,
我發現自己越來越欣賞他。
I came to appreciate him much more than I ever did before.
我以前常常聽到別人稱贊他,
I heard so many good things about him,
我自己以前也認識他、和他相處過,
I was a friend of his before, I spent some time with him before,
幾年前我們還一起在翻譯上有過合作,我一直都很欣賞他。
we’ve translated in another occasion years ago, I really always liked him,
但是我以往對他的瞭解程度從來沒有達到今天的這種高度。
but I never got to know him the way I know him now.
如果人們不停地向我提到他、跟我交流關於他的各種事情,
And you could have told me all kinds of things about him,
我可能會越來越尊敬他,但是僅在一周之內,
and my respect for him will go up and up and up, but in one week,
我對他的尊敬可以說達到了“突飛猛進”的狀態,這是為什麼?
my respect for him went way up, why?
因為我與他有了人與人之間的個人交流,
Because personal communication,
而這正是經驗主義無法帶給我們的的東西。
and that’s what empiricism doesn’t give you.
至於上帝,雖然我們看不見祂、也無法測度祂的高深,
But as to God, though we cannot see the invisible and we cannot measure the infinite,
但是祂已經藉著祂的兒子在聖經中與我們交通,
through His Son He communicates with us in the Word,
於是我們便可以認識祂。
and we get to know Him, get to know Him.
這實在是不可思議。
It’s so incredible, so incredible.
認識上帝,是我們的現實。
And knowing Him, you see, is reality.
它成為了我們生命里最真實的一件事。
It becomes the most real thing in our lives.
約翰·傅瑞姆說:“上帝在聖經中對人的講話是真實的,
John Frame said, “God’s speech to man is real speech.
就像一個人與另一個人交談一樣真實。
It is very much in His Word like one person speaking to another.
上帝講話,是為了讓我們能夠明白祂的話,
God speaks so that we can understand Him
並對之給與應有的回應。”
and respond appropriately.”
那麼,我們從經驗主義者提出的反對中能學到什麼呢?
So what do we learn from the empiricist objection?
我們可以學到,神學一定不能變成一種只有抽象概念的操練。
We learn that theology must not become an exercise in abstract ideas.
上帝的道在人類歷史中來到了我們的身邊,
But that God’s Word comes to us in human history,
進入了我們人類的生命中,
into our human lives,
作為一個實實在在的、道成肉身的人,
indeed as a human incarnated,
人們真的看見了他、聽見了他、並觸摸了他,
who’s seen and heard, and touched,
人們將他釘上了十字架。但是,他會再次降臨。
and crucified, and will come again.
第二個反對意見,實用主義。
Objection number two, pragmatism.
實用主義認為,世界上唯一重要的事情便是成功。
Pragmatism says the only thing that matters is success.
在我們這一職業中,
Success, in this case of course in our profession,
這當然指的就是通過傳福音而成功地建立一個教會。
of building a church, especially through evangelism.
因此,只要一個方法是有效的,那它就很重要。
So whatever works is important,
對於其他的方面,我們不需要教義、不需要神學,我們只要務實。
and for the rest, well, you know, we don’t need doctrine, we don’t need theology, we just need to be pragmatic.
無論什麼方法,只要能讓人去教會、只要能發展教會,
Whatever gets people to church and grows the church,
那就是好方法。
that’s what counts.
因此,神學就是浪費時間。
Well, theology then is a waste of time.
相反,教會的帶領者們應該致力於研究的,是人類社會行為學,
Instead, church leaders ought to study human social behavior,
這樣就可以充分地掌握擴大教會規模的方法和技巧。
to master techniques to increase the size of their churches.
所以,實用主義其實是經驗主義在基督教神學中的一種毀滅性的
So pragmatism is a devastating application of empiricism to Christian theology,
應用,因為它重視的只是可測量的成果、可見的成效。
for it only values measurable, visible results.
而這就是實用主義的悲劇。
And that’s a tragic of pragmatism.
按照實用主義的觀點,一個人應該如何解讀所發生的事情,
So how do you interpret things,
如何解釋自己的經歷?
how do you interpret your own experiences?
上一周,我很榮幸地在巴西作了七次講話,我的妻子講了六次。
Okay this past week, I was privileged to speak seven times, my wife six times in Brazil.
我的講話裡面,前六次還行,有幾次的情況要比其他的好一些。
And the first six times went okay, some better than others for me.
但是在第七次講話的時候,我感覺好像耶和華就在那裡一樣。
But the seventh time, it’s like the Lord is right there.
當時奧古斯都在為我做翻譯,他的感受和我是一樣的,
And Augustus was actually translating for me, and he felt the same thing I felt,
我們感到自己就好像是被上帝的大能籠罩著。
we felt clothed with power from on high.
講話結束後,我的妻子來找我,
And my wife came up to me afterward,
你們知道她對我說的第一句話是什麼嗎?
you know what the first thing she said to me was?
她說,“今晚一定有人悔改信主了。”
She said someone was converted tonight.
科學在乎的,實用主義在乎的,是那裡去了多少人,對不對?
Science would say, pragmatism would say, you know, how many people were there, right?
但我的妻子說,“今晚一定有人悔改信主了。
But she says, someone was converted here tonight.
主就在我們中間。”
The Lord was in our midst.
要知道,我們不能夠在教會裡僅僅考慮實用主義的事情,
You see, we are not just pragmatic in the church.
我們無法衡量這些結果。
You can’t measure results.
那位上周主日在巴西戈亞尼亞悔改信主的人,
I may never hear about the person,
也可能是兩個人,還可能是十個人,
or the two people, or the ten people
我可能永遠也沒有機會知道他們是誰,
that were converted last Sunday evening in Goiânia, Brazil,
但是我相信是在上帝的恩典之下,
but I believe that the power of the Word
上帝之道的大能從講道臺上噴薄而出。
that came from that pulpit by the grace of God.
要知道,我們作為傳道人,
And as a preacher, you know,
很清楚什麼時候我們不是在用自己裡面的能力講道,
you know when you speak with power that’s not inherent in you,
如果這樣的情況在一年之內有個兩三次,我們就該充滿感恩。
and if it happens two, three, four times a year, you are grateful.
雖然我們也可能經常在講道中的某一小個部分感受到上帝的大能,
I mean maybe little chunks of sermons,
但是如果整場講道都是這樣,充滿了上帝的大能,
but when it happens pretty much the whole sermon long,
我們就能夠知道,是主行在我們的前面,
you know the Lord’s just running ahead of you,
我們只是在儘力地趕上主的帶領,我們感受到了祂的大能,
and you’re just trying to keep up with Him, and you feel the power,
為我們翻譯的朋友也感受到了這一大能,
and your friend translating for you feels the same power,
而當我們舉目觀看臺下的會眾時,我們看見他們在哭泣,
and you look out in the congregation, and you see people just weeping
因為他們也感受到了上帝聖言的力量。
because they sense the power of the word of God.
這是我們無法測量的,我們不能說,
You can’t measure that, you can’t say,
讓我們用實用主義來看待這件事情。
well, let’s be pragmatic about this.
我們不能,
No, this is something better,
因為這是遠比實用主義更好、更崇高、更深刻、更美妙的東西。
something higher, something deeper, something far more wonderful.
因此,面對實用主義者提出的反對意見,我們的回應是,
So we answer the pragmatic objection by recognizing that
聖靈所使用的純正的神學和憐憫的神學對傳福音至關重要,
sound theology and warm theology applied by the Spirit is essential to evangelism
對建立教會也是至關重要。
and is essential to the real building of the church.
所以,是的,教會必須要警惕,不可傳揚虛假的、受咒詛的福音,
So yes, the church must guard against false accursed gospel
加拉太教會的人就是受到了此類福音的影響。
as what infected the Galatians.
保羅告誡我們,這是另一種福音,我們必須要謹防,
We must guard against another Gospel as Paul puts it,
而許多教會常常宣講的其實是另一個基督。
or another Jesus that’s being preached so often in many churches,
是的,我們確實需要建立教會。
and we must build up the church, yes.
但不是以實用主義的態度,
But then not pragmatically,
而是秉著以弗所書4章13節至16節的精神,
but in the spirit of Ephesians 4:13 through 16,
就是保羅所說的,“直等到我們眾人在真道上同歸於一……
“till we all come in the unity of the faith”, you know how Paul expresses that,
不再做小孩子……飄來飄去”。
“no more our children, tossed to and fro”,
我們不能急功近利,需要藉著純正的教義來建造教會。
but through sound doctrine, slowly building up the church.
而這一點對信徒屬靈生命的成長也至關緊要。
That’s crucial for spiritual growth.
當然,基督教不單單是研究神學,
Now of course there’s more to Christianity than theology,
基督徒的生命也不是只有神學研究,
there’s more to the Christian life than theology,
但是真神學一定總是能應用到基督徒的實際生活中的。
but true theology is always designed for Christian practical living.
那麼,我們從實用主義中能學到什麼?
And so what did we learn from pragmatism?
實用主義提醒我們,要謹防在研究神學時脫離實際應用。
Well, pragmatism warns us against considering theological truth apart from its practical use.
這是一個很好的提醒,因為我們不應該做“象牙塔”式的神學家,
That’s a good warning, we don’t want to become “ivory tower” theologians.
而是要查考聖經是如何或直接、或含蓄地
But we want to trace how the Bible applies, explicitly, implicitly,
將其教義應用於人們的實際生活和傳福音的事工之中的。
its doctrines to practical life and to missions.
例如,”基督為信徒代禱“的這一教義,
So take the doctrine of intercession of Christ,
我可以說,基督在上帝的右邊為他的子民代禱,
I can say to you, Christ is interceding for his people at the right hand of heaven,
這真是一個美好的教義,大家也都贊成我的說法。
and this is a wonderful doctrine and you would agree with me.
但是,如果我對你們說,要知道,根據希伯來書7章25節,
But if I say to you, you know, Christ’s intercession in heaven
基督在天上是一刻不停歇地在為他的子民代禱,
is moment by moment according to Hebrews 7:25,
你們可曾想過,這對你們的生活意味著什麼?
have you ever thought about what that means for you life?
在這過去的每一分每一秒,
That every tick of the clock,
他都在天父上帝的右手邊紀念你們,為你們代禱。
he’s remembering you at the right hand of the Father?
在紀念你,在紀念你,在紀念你。
Remembering you, remembering you, remembering you.
當你面對難題、無計可施之時,
Even when you come to the wit’s end of your own problems,
當你在禱告中不知所措時,他都在紀念你。
and the wit’s end of your own prayers, he’s remembering you.
當我們如此應用這一教義時,它的意義就變得深刻很多,對不對?
That’s a lot more meaningful, wasn’t it?
因為我是將這一教義直接應用到了你的生活中。
Cause I’m applying it to you.
第三個反對意見,普世主義。有問題嗎?
Objection number three, ecumenism. Yeah.
學生:我理解您所提出的論點的緣由。
Student: I understand this one by reference
但是從另一方面來說,有一些教會,雖然它們確實在教導福音,
but on the other hand, you think it’s our actions against some churches that clearly are teaching theology
但是他們的人數在五到十年之內只從15人漲到了25人,
but two years we find them, in five years or ten years, they grow from being 15 to 25,
而這些增加的人其實就是他們會眾的子女。
just having their children added to their number.
而這是因為這些教會根本就不在乎有沒有新人加入,
Because some churches, they don’t care for increase at all,
他們甚至都不在乎教會裡人數的增加,他們走入了另一個極端。
they don’t care even for increase, they go to the other extreme.
周必克教授:對,其實這是一種虛假形式的實用主義。
Beeke: right, that’s a false kind of pragmatism
因為他們一方面想要堅持實用主義,
because they want to be pragmatic
另一方面又不想教會裡出現問題。
and they don’t want troubles in their church,
由於想要逃避問題,
they don’t want problems,
他們就不願踏出自己的安樂窩、不願努力去接納別人。
they don’t want to grapple with trying to accommodate people from their nice little cozy setting.
這是一種很扭曲的觀點,但其實它同樣也是實用主義。
It’s a distorted view, but it’s also pragmatic.
但是我想要傳達的意思是,真神學一定總是註重於傳福音的。
But the point I am making is that true theology is always evangelistic.
但是,單單說“我們教會裡人越來越多了”,
But it’s not evangelistic just to say
單單隻是教會人數的增加,這並不代表這間教會是註重於傳福音的。
we got more people in church. Just to say the numbers have increased.
只有將福音帶給人們的教會,才是真正在傳福音的教會。
But it’s truly evangelistic reaching out with the Gospel to people.
學生:但是如果一間教會是健康的教會,
Student: But a healthy church
它的人數應該是呈上升狀的,不是嗎?
should have its number increasing,
而它人數增加的原因不應該單單是因為會眾生養了更多的孩子。
and not because they are having more children.
周必克教授:對,一般來說是這樣的。
Beeke: right, that’s the norm, that’s the norm.
一間不傳福音的教會,將會變成一間僵化的教會。
The church that does not evangelize will fossilize.
所以,對,一般來說是這樣。
Yeah, that’s the norm.
但是,話雖這麼說,我們要明白,
But even as you say that, you know
有一些現實是我們需要面對與妥善處理的。
you need to deal realistically
比如,若有一位可憐的牧師,
with the poor pastor
他真的很努力地在發展他所牧養的教會,
who really is struggling to grow his church,
但是教會的人數就是不增長。
and a number of things have happened,
他的教會地處一個家庭社區,而那裡發生了很多事情,
and he’s in a family community,
所有人都離開了那座城市,
and all the people have left the city,
多年來他愈加勤勤懇懇地作工,
and the harder he works over the years,
但是他教會的人數卻始終都沒有增長。
the church isn’t growing.
他是這樣努力地在傳著福音,我們不應該讓他過度自責。
You don’t want to make him feel unduly guilty when he is struggling and wrestling to evangelize as well.
學生:我可不可以這樣說,
Student: So can I say
符合聖經的那種實用主義倚賴的是上帝的主權,
that the biblical pragmatism is the one which relies on God’s sovereignty
然後不符合聖經的那種實用主義採用的是人造的機制,
and then a bad pragmatism is the one that use human machinism like
比如衛理公會或者其他的那種試圖調動人們情緒的方法。
Wesley or those who try to raise feelings.
周必克教授:可以,這個觀點很好。
Beeke: yeah, good point.
我們有的時候確實需要對彼此說,
There is a sense in which you do have to look at each other
“我們需要務實一點”,這裡所說的是一種好的務實。
and say let’s be pragmatic about something or rather in a good way.
但是,作為一種“主義”的實用主義
But pragmatism, as an “-ism”,
從整體上說脫離了上帝的聖言,這一定不是可取的。
as a whole thing divorced from the Word of God, is always a bad thing.
普世教會主義認為,“教義使人分裂。
Ecumenism says doctrines divide.
因此,我們最好不要去碰觸大多數的教義。
So most doctrines are better left alone,
也許我們可以研究少數的一些大家都贊同的教義。
maybe you could be a little doctrinal with things that everybody agrees.
像《使徒信經》這樣的就可以了,其他的就不要研究了。
Apostles’ Creed might be okay, but not much more than that.
因此,從普世教會的角度來看,
So from the ecumenist perspective,
複雜的神學一定會破壞基督肢体的合一性。
intricate theology will always damage the unity of the body of Christ.
面對普世教會主義的這一反對意見,
Now we answer that objection
我們的回應是要向人們指出,
by pointing out that sound doctrine unties,
實際上一般來說,純正的教義會使人合一。
as a general rule, actually unites people.
就如以弗所書4章13節所說的,
As Ephesians 4:13 says,
我們通過爭取”在真道上同歸於一,
we build up the church by striving for “the unity of the faith,
和認識上帝的兒子“來建造教會。
and the knowledge of the Son of God.”
事實上,虛假的教義才使人分裂,純正的教義並不會使人分裂。
It’s actually false doctrine that divides people, not true doctrine.
保羅在使徒行傳20章30節中是這樣表述的,
Paul puts it that way in Acts 20:30,
“就是你們中間也必有人起來,說悖謬的話,要引誘門徒跟從他們.”
“Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them.”
因此,這類說辭,
So it insults the wisdom of God
即“我們最好避免談及上帝話語中所包含的那些教義,
to say that His Word contains teachings that we should best avoid,
因為我們不想教會分裂”,是對上帝智慧的羞辱。
because we don’t want to divide the church.
這是對上帝的羞辱。
That’s an insult to God.
因為上帝在提摩太前書3章16節中說了,
Because God has said, all Scripture is profitable
整本聖經於教訓、於應用都是有益的。
for teaching and application, 2 Timothy 3:16.
那麼,普世教會主義這一觀點對我們有什麼幫助和提醒呢?
So how does the ecumenical perspective help us, how does it help us?
普世教會主義提醒我們,
Well, it does warn us, I think,
我們決不能帶著製造不和與分裂的心態來研究神學,
that we must never do theology with a divisive spirit, putting
不要好像要把別人的觀點放在某種顯微鏡下,對其吹毛求疵。
other people’s beliefs under some kind of microscope and trying to separate every blade of grass into two.
有人就是這樣的。
You know how people are like that.
我知道有一個人,在過去的三年中變本加厲地攻擊我。
I’ve got a guy who’s just turned terribly terribly against me for the last three years. An’d
他在博客中、在電子郵件中,在他所有的平臺上攻擊我。
his blog, his email, everything is all against Beeke,
在他眼中,我就是一個敗壞的異端分子。
and I am just a terrible heretic.
這一切又是怎麼發生的呢?
And how did it all come about?
這一切的起因就是,他曾給我寫了一封信,
Well, because he wrote me a letter
問我是否認為羅馬天主教就是聖經里提到的那位敵基督。
and asked me the question, do I believe that Rome is the antichrist?
我當時給他的回答是,“我相信羅馬天主教是一個敵基督。
And my answer was this, I believe that the Rome is a anti-Christ,
並且,羅馬天主教很有可能就是聖經中提到的那位敵基督。
and that Rome may very well be the antichrist,
但是我從來沒有深入地研究過這個問題,
but I have never thoroughly studied the question
雖然我真的很想好好研究一下。”
as much as I would like to.
對他而言,這個答案就意味著,我反對《威斯敏斯特信仰告白》,
Well, that meant I was against Westminster Confession,
反對清教徒,我是披著羊皮的狼。
I was against the Puritans, I was a sheep in wolf’s clothing (correction: a wolf in sheep’s clothing),
你們知道嗎,他時至今日,仍然在毀謗我。
and you know, just blaspheme me, and still today, today.
他還煽動了一群人來毀謗我。上周才又在毀謗我。
I mean he just stirred up a whole bunch of people and then last week again,
這群吹毛求疵的人,他們的挑剔永無止境。
there’s just no end to these guys, these nit pickers who split every blade of grass into ten pieces.
只要我們不完全照他們的旨意行事,
And if you don’t do exactly what they say,
只要我們所持守的與他們所相信的有一絲一毫的出入,
believe exactly every detail the way they think,
那麼在他們眼中,我們就變成了人性敗壞、道德淪喪的人。
you are no good.
我沒有誇張,他們真的會認為我們”人性敗壞、道德淪喪“。
I mean, you are no good.
無論我們做什麼都是錯的。
Everything you do is wrong.
所以,我們自己一定要謹慎,避免產生這種製造分裂的心態。
Well, we must avoid that kind of divisive spirit,
在這一方面,普世教會主義確實能夠教給我們很多東西。
and in that sense, ecumenism has a lot to say to us.
保羅在提摩太前書2章24至25節這樣說道:
Paul puts it this way to 2 Timothy 2:24-25, “the servant of the Lord must not strive;
“主的僕人不可爭競,只要溫溫和和地待眾人,
but be gentle unto all men, apt to teach,
善於教導,存心忍耐, 用溫柔勸誡那抵擋的人。”
patient, in meekness instructing those that oppose.”
順便提一下,我上周在巴西講道時,
By the way, I actually had to preach on the antichrist
第一次講到了敵基督,這正好是他們分配給我的經文。
last week for the first time in my life, they gave me that text down in Brazil.
所以我終於得以深入地來研究敵基督的這個問題了。
So I finally did study it thoroughly, and I came to the same conclusion
在研究學習之後,我所得到的結論和我之前想的一樣。
I had supposed I would come to before I studied it thoroughly.
因此,我仍然認為,羅馬教皇是一個敵基督,
So I still maintain that the papacy is a anti-Christ,
很有可能就是聖經中提到的那位敵基督,
may very well be the antichrist,
而改教家和清教徒在此問題上的論證十分有力,也言之有理。
reformers and puritans are very powerful in their presentation and it makes a lot of sense.
可是,聖經說敵基督會在最後出現,
But the idea that the man of sin will come at the very end,
那麼,這是否表明,
is that a manifestation that
敵基督指的是整個敵基督教皇體系中像傀儡一樣的某一任教皇?
that will be an individual pope as a crowny element of the antichrist papacy line
還是另有其人?
or is it someone else?
我認為,沒有任何人可以給出一個肯定無疑的答案。
And that you see, I don’t think anybody can say definitively.
我們需要等候上帝最後來揭曉答案。
And so I am leaving that up to God’s unfolding.
但是我也不會說,不,教皇不是那位敵基督,
But I am not gonna say, no, the pope is not the antichrist,
羅馬教皇這一職位不是敵基督。
the papacy is not the antichrist,
因為那位敵基督確實很有可能
cause that man may well be
是繼承教皇位置的眾任教皇中的某一任。
one of the popes in this papal line of succession.
如果有人覺得,我要是這樣說,就是異端分子,
So if I am a heretic for that,
那就當我是異端分子吧。
that I am a heretic.
第四個反對意見,反智聖經主義。
Objection number four, anti-intellectual biblicism, anti-intellectual biblicism.
反智主義者說,學術型的神學院幾次三番地辜負了基督徒。
Academic seminaries have betrayed Christians again and again,
當然,他們說的確實是真的。
anti-intellectual biblicist will say, which is true of course.
但是,他們卻由此而下結論說,
But therefore they say, the conclusion is
我們不應該從事神學研究,因為神學十分危險。
we should not engage in theology, because theology is dangerous.
我們只需要閱讀和教導聖經就足矣,簡單明瞭。
You just got to read and teach the Bible, plain and simple.
他們認為,神學一定會讓人們走上通往異端的道路。
Theology is always the road to heresy.
所以這是反智主義對聖經的認識。
So this is an anti-intellectual embrace of the Bible.
那麼,我們要用另一個問題來反問反智聖經主義者:
And now the way to answer the anti-intellectual biblicist is to ask another question,
聖經教導的是什麼?
what does the Bible teach?
如果我們能夠鼓勵他們來回答這個問題,
And you see, if you can get them to answer that question,
我們就能夠幫助他們看到,若不以某種系統的方式來查考聖經,
you can then help them to conclude, it’s impossible to teach biblical truth
我們根本就無法教導聖經真理。
without reflecting upon the Bible in some kind of systematic fashion.
因此,基督不僅告訴我們要“查考聖經”,
Thus, Christ not only says, “search the Scriptures,”
還指出我們在這樣做的同時,
but indicated that we must do so
必須要明白整本聖經是給他作見證的,約翰福音5章39節。
knowing that the whole Bible testifies of him, John 5:39.
因此,神學雖然是知識性的學科,但它並非是對信仰的背棄,
So the intellectual discipline of theology is not infidelity,
而是順服於上帝的呼召,
but it’s obedience to the call of God,
也就是提摩太前書4章15節所說的,“要在此專心”。
which is 1 Timothy 4:15, “meditate upon these things.”
保羅說的這句話也同樣適用,“我們不願意弟兄們不知道”,
Or Paul’s words, “I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren,”
帖撒羅尼迦前書4章13節。
我們需要明白,事實上,無知才會產生異端。
You see, ignorance is actually the mother of heresy.
範泰爾說過,”人們有時候認為,
Van Til said, “It is sometimes contended that
傳道人只需讀懂他們的聖經即可,無需接受系統神學方面的訓練。
ministers need not be trained in systematic theology if only they know their Bibles.
可那些‘受過聖經訓練’、卻沒有受過系統神學訓練的傳道人,
But ‘Bible-trained’ instead of systematically trained preachers
卻常常傳講謬誤… …
frequently preach error.
系統神學能夠幫助傳道人傳講上帝全備的真理,
Systematics helps ministers to preach the whole counsel of God,
從而使上帝成為他們服侍的中心。”
and thus to make God central in their work.”
當然,我們同樣也能夠從反智主義中學到一些經驗教訓,
Of course, there’s something to learn from this spirit,
即神學院絕不能偏離他們的本源和根基,也就是聖經。
and what we learn from them is seminaries must not drift form their biblical moorings.
我們必須要謹慎地對待我們所教導的所有神學。
We must be careful with all the theology we teach.
神學院和神學家們都必須要按照保羅所勸勉的那樣來持續守望:
Schools and theologians must keep watch according to Paul’s own admonition,
“你要謹慎自己和自己的教訓,要在這些事上恆心,因為這樣行,
“Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine; and continue in them: for in doing this
又能救自己,又能救聽你的人”,提摩太前書4章16節。
thou shalt both save thyself, and them that hear thee,” 1 Timothy 4:16.
第五個反對意見是浪漫主義。
Objection number five is romanticism, romanticism.
浪漫主義者認為,“真正的敬虔與我們頭腦中的真理無關,
Real godliness, says romanticist, is not a matter of truths in the mind,
唯一重要的,”註意他們用的“唯一”這個詞,很關鍵,
but only, the word “only” is important here,
“唯一重要的是我們內心的感受”。
feelings in the heart.
從浪漫主義的觀點看,
In this point of view,
信仰中唯一重要的事情就是讓人們與上帝有個人的相交,
the only thing that matters is bringing people to personally encounter God
讓他們因此而愛上帝。
and love Him.
對於浪漫主義者而言,神學代表的就是毫無生命力的正統,
And so to the romantic, theology equals dead orthodoxy,
我們無需在此之上浪費時間。
we don’t have the time nor day for it.
浪漫主義對神學進行了重新的定義:
Romanticism redefines theology
神學不再是對上帝的研究,而是針對我們對上帝的感受的研究。
so as to be the study not of God, but the study of our feelings about God.
因此,神學實際上便是以人為中心了。
So it actually becomes man-centered.
施萊爾馬赫在這方面的認識就有嚴重的錯誤,
Schleiermacher, who has a real problem in this area,
他說,“基督教教義就是用言語描述基督教的宗教情感”。
said “Christian doctrines are accounts of the Christian religious affections set forth in speech.”
他的意思就是,基督教教義本身並不是真理,
Christian doctrines are not the truths in themselves, you see,
而是對基督教宗教情感的描述。
but they are the accounts of the Christian religious affections.
我們只需引用主耶穌在約翰福音8章31至32節中所說的話,
So we answer this objection by just quoting
就可以回應浪漫主義的反對意見。
Jesus’ words in John 8:31-32,
他說,“你們若常常遵守我的道,就真是我的門徒,
“If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed;
你們必曉得真理,真理必叫你們得以自由。”
and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.”
我們若誠心領受基督的話語,就會明白真理。
So faithful reception of Christ’s words results in knowing the truth.
當然,這會讓我們產生施萊爾馬赫說的那些感覺,
Now that will produce feelings of dependence,
即敬畏、喜樂和愛的感覺。
Schleiermacher would say, of awe, of joy, of love.
這是理所當然的,我們並非無情無感的屍體。
Yes, of course. We are not cold, unfeeling corpses,
但是我們需要明白,
but it’s possible, you see,
人們可能起初帶著這樣的情緒來回應上帝的話語,
to respond to the Word with much emotion,
但是這些情緒終會消失。
and then still fall away
人們到頭來才發現,這些情緒並不能長久,路加福音8章13節。
and prove to be nothing, Luke 8:13.
所以,當彼得認信自己對主耶穌基督的信心時,
So when Peter confesses his faith in the Lord Jesus Christ,
他宣告的並不是:主啊我相信你,
he did not merely say, Lord I believe in thee
因為你感動了我,觸動了我的宗教感情。
because you move my religious affections.
他說的是:“我們已經信了,又知道你是上帝的聖者。”
He said “We believe and are sure that thou art that Messiah, the Christ, the Son of the living God.”
我們要看到,是這樣的認信,
And you see that is what moved him
使彼得最終離開了打漁的工作,去跟隨基督。
to leave his fishing boat and his nets and to follow Christ.
是真理,而非其他的,使我們得以自由。
But it’s truth that sets us free.
因此,傅瑞姆這樣評價施萊爾馬赫:
So as Frame notes about Schleiermacher,
他所鼓吹的不過是主觀主義,並不是神學。
that he was promoting subjectivism rather than theology.
那麼,浪漫主義能夠教導我們一些什麼功課呢?
Now what does romanticism has to teach us,
浪漫主義教導我們,基督教絕不是冰冷無情的,
well, it should teach us that Christianity must never be emotionless,
我們所相信的不是一套冷酷無情的教義。
we don’t have any emotionless set of beliefs.
我們要感謝上帝,因為祂確實賜給了我們一套教義,
But thank God, we do have a set of beliefs,
而客觀真理是主觀認信的基石。
so the objective is the foundation of the subjective,
那進入人心的真神學是生生不息、極其關鍵的。
and true theology in the heart is living and vital.
第六個反對意見是不可知論。
Number six is agnosticism.
不可知論認為,人不可能真正對上帝有多少肯定的認識。
Agnosticism says, you know we can’t really know much for sure about God at all.
他們要麼說,因為上帝太偉大了;
He’s either too great
要麼說,上帝太遙遠了;或者其他的什麼原因。
or He’s too distant, or whatever they say.
但是,不可知論最終總是會陷入懷疑主義,難道不是嗎?
But agnosticism always results in skepticism, doesn’t it?
而從根本上來說,懷疑主義就是對一切知識的否認。
The denial, ultimately, of all knowledge.
溫和派的不可知論把人類對上帝能有的確切認識最小化。
Softer forms of agnosticism minimize how much we can know for certain about God,
它認為,任何試圖建立真理體系的嘗試不僅會一敗塗地,
and it holds that any attempt to build a system of truths not only fails,
還必然會曲解上帝的反合性,是對上帝的無限性的羞辱。
but necessarily distorts the paradoxes of God and dishonors His infinity.
因此,對於不可知論者來說,系統神學單看它的定義,
So to the agnostic, systematic theology, by its very definition,
就已經顯得十分傲慢了。
is arrogant.
我們對不可知論者的回應是,我們全心全意地相信上帝的聖言,
And we answer the agnostic by saying it is no arrogance to believe God’s Word with all our hearts,
這不是傲慢,事實上,順服上帝的聖言才是最大的謙卑。
but it’s actually the greatest humility to bow under it.
上帝愛那”因耶和華言語戰兢的人“。
To this man God will love, who trembles at His Word.
聖經並不是一片烏雲密佈的黑暗,
The Bible is not a cloud of darkness,
相反,聖經賜下光亮,給我們清晰的認識與深刻的領悟。
the Bible is a source of light, it brings clarity and insight.
大約六周前,我在飛機上與一位坐在我旁邊的猶太人交談。
You know I was talking to this man, this Jew on a plane next to me,
他就是一名不可知論者。
six weeks ago or so, and he was telling me that, by the end of the conversation,
在我們交談快結束的時候,他說,
he was an agnostic, but he was telling me by the end of the conversation
他真的非常希望自己也能像我一樣地去相信,
that he really wished he could believe the way I believed because it would make life so much easier for him,
因為如果他也有一套他接受並確信的信仰,他的生活會輕鬆很多。
to really have a set of beliefs that you can embrace and say are sure.
我對他說,“這並非不可能,
I said, well, you can have it,
這樣的信仰就在這本我們稱之為”聖經“的書中,
it’s in this book we call the Bible,
你來讀吧,來相信吧,如果你真的想要相信,這是可以實現的。”
just read it, believe it, if that’s really what you want, it’s available to you.
但是,大多數的不可知論者還是希望自己繼續做一名不可知論者。
But most agnostics want to remain agnostics.
聖經並不認可懷疑,也不認可猶豫,
You see, the Bible does not command doubt, the Bible does not command uncertainty,
它反覆宣稱的是”我們知道“,正如約翰一書所說的,對不對?
the Bible affirms “we know” again and again, 1 John, right?
這是一捲關於”信仰的確據“的書。
The book of assurance of faith.
“我們知道‘我們已經出死入生’”,
We know, we know we pass from death to life,
我們知道耶穌基督已經來了,他就是世界的救主。
we know that Jesus Christ has come and he is the Savior of the world.
但是,我們也可以從不可知論者那裡學到一些東西,
And yet we can learn something from the agnostic,
即我們在研究神學的時候,是有限的受造物,
we learn from the agnostic that we do theology as finite creatures
是上帝形象的承載者,我們不是上帝,
and image bearers of God, not as God Himself,
所以我們的神學中可能會出現謬誤。
so we may be wrong in some of our theology.
我們需要帶著謙卑認識到這一點。
We need to recognize that with humility.
我們的神學可以反映真理,但是它永遠無法盡展上帝的無限榮耀。
Our theology can be true, but never comprehensive of God’s infinite glory,
我們的神學是有限的。
it always has its limitations.
因此,我們不要把我們的神學當作偶像一般來敬拜。
So we never worship our theology.
事實上,對神學家而言,不可知論可以十分有效地讓我們謙卑。
Agnosticism, as a theologian, actually has this good effect of calling us to humility,
它讓我們明白,即便我們因為聖經的清楚教導,能確信一些真理,
that we realize even though what we do know is certain in many cases cause it’s clear in the Bible,
但是我們的神學中還有一些其他方面的認識是從聖經中引申出來的,
there are other areas of theology that are deductions from the Word
是沒有那些真理那樣確定的。
and they are not as certain,
我們需要繼續探討它們,繼續思想它們。
but we need to talk about them and think them through.
因此,我們需要在這些方面謙卑下來。
So we need to be humble about them.
第七個反對意見是進步主義。
Number seven, progressivism, progressivism.
進步主義稱,神學太過於僵化、太過於教條,
Progressivism argues that doctrine, theology is too rigid,
也太過於枯燥無味。
too dogmatic, too dry.
進步主義者認為,我們正行在一條通往真理的永無止境的旅途中,
Progressivism says we are really on a never-ending journey into truth,
因此我們永遠無法得出任何明確結論。
that never arrives at any definite conclusion.
幾周前,我也和另一個人在飛機上進行了交談。
I was talking to this person on a plane also, just a few weeks ago.
她說她是一名基督徒,於是我就問她,她相信基督教的什麼。
And she said she is a Christian, I began to ask her what she believed about Christianity.
她在回答時反覆提到,”我在一場旅途之中“。
And she kept saying this, well, I am on this journey, I am on this journey.
她不停地在提到”旅途“的事情,
And all kinds of journeying language was used,
我一直沒能真正明白她所相信的到底是什麼,
but I can never pin her down, what she believed,
只聽見她說自己在一場要通向某處的旅途之中。
but she was always on a journey, on a way somewhere.
神學進步主義認為神學是一種被某些傳統所束縛的東西,
But theological progressivism sees theology as bondage,
是一種阻止人們走上旅途的東西。
bondage to some tradition, not letting me journey.
神學進步主義所提出的,是一種宗教進化論,
It posits an evolutionary view of religion
即我們在不斷擺脫老舊模式的真理,並向更高層次的真理髮展著。
where we’re constantly shedding old forms of truth, constantly advancing to higher levels.
神學進步主義所說的,
Well, it doesn’t sound very much
與提摩太后書1章13節所說的並不太一樣,對不對?
like 2 Timothy 1:13, does it?
“你從我聽的那純正話語的規模,
“Hold fast the form of sound words,
要用在基督耶穌里的信心和愛心,常常守著。”
which you have heard of me, in faith and love which is in Christ Jesus.”
你們要記得,合乎聖經的神學中一定有非常保守的部分,
You know, there’s a deeply conservative element in biblical theology,
保羅不斷地提醒我們,我們的目標是持守使徒所教導的真理,
for it’s our aim, Paul keeps saying, to preserve apostolic truth,
而不是在此之上做任何的添加;
not add to it, not be on some imaginary journey
不是在上帝的超自然啟示上有所添加,
by adding to it supernatural revelation,
並以此踏上某種不真實的旅途;
but “earnestly contend for the faith
而是”要為從前一次交付聖徒的真道竭力地爭辯“,
that was once delivered unto the saints,”
猶大書1章3節。
Jude 3.
聖經中所記錄的改革不是某種進步主義的旅程,
Reformation is described, not as some progressive journey in the Bible,
而是回歸”古道“,耶利米書6章16節。
but as a return to “the old paths”, Jeremiah 6:16.
那麼,進步主義又可以教導我們一些什麼呢?
Now what does a progressive has to teach us? Well,
其實,進步主義的觀點中也包含著一些對我們有益處的真理,
there’s a little kernel of salutary truth here too,
就是:我們不能將我們的神學體系與上帝無誤的聖言混為一談,
and that’s this: we are not to confuse our systems of theology,
特別在我們並不瞭解所有的細節的情況之下。
especially not know all the detail, with the inerrant Word of God.
我們的神學必須始終臣服於上帝的話語。
We are always to subject our theology to the Word of God.
範泰爾寫道,“我們對信經的修改,會淡化聖經具體確切的教導,
Van Til wrote that “Creedal revision” that “tones down
使這種教導變得模糊與籠統。
the specific and exact teachings of Scripture to vague generalities”
所以,這樣的修改不僅毫無用處,實際上更是一種倒退。”
is “worse than useless; it is actually retrogressive.”
因此,我們真正需要的改革,
So a Reformation that builds on the orthodox creeds
是建立在過去的正統信條與福音派信仰告白之上的,
and evangelical confessions of the past,
而不是否認這些信條與信仰告白的。
and not one that disowns them, is really what we need.
接下來是第八個反對意見,理性主義。
And then number eight, rationalism.
理性主義稱,所有的真理都是從我們頭腦中的邏輯原則
All truth is reduced from logical principles
和自證真理中演變推導出來的。
and self-evident truths in our mind, says rationalism.
因此理性主義者說,“知識的基礎是我們自己的理性思考,
So our knowledge is based upon our own reasonable thinking, and therefore
所以我們並不相信那些我們無法完全理解的真理,
truths that we can’t fully comprehend like Trinity, like two natures of Christ in one Person,
如三位一體、基督的同一位格、神人二性、
like the incarnation, like substitutionary atonement,
道成肉身、基督的代贖,還有從死里複活。”
like resurrection from the dead,we don’t believe those, says the rationalist.
我們從三個方面來回應理性主義。
Well, we respond to that in three ways.
首先,我們要指出,
First, by noting that no one
沒有人能從理性原則中推導出他所擁有的所有知識,
can deduce all his knowledge from rational principles,
因為我們每個人都會信任自己所信之人的見證。
for we all rely upon the testimony of those we trust.
其次,我們可以採取的最合理的行動就是相信上帝所說的一切,
Second, the most rational action we can do is to believe all that God has said,
因為只有祂才是最高權威,約翰福音3章31節至33節。
for He is the highest authority, John 3:31 through 33.
第三,理性主義無法成立,因為歸根結底,它就是一種偶像崇拜。
And third, rationalism fails because ultimately it’s idolatrous.
我們是在將自己的推理能力視為一種偶像。
You make an idol of your own reasoning capabilities.
約翰·傅瑞姆說,“理性主義者想在上帝聖言之外尋求確定性。
Now John Frame said, “The rationalist seeks certainty outside of God’s Word.
他在自己的先天觀念和演繹推理中尋求最終的思想標準。
He seeks the ultimate criteria for thought within his own innate ideas and deductive reasoning.
用聖經上的話來說,理性主義者的訴求其實是在敬拜偶像,
In biblical terms, the rationalist’s quest is idolatrous
因為這是嘗試要將人類思想放到上帝的位置。”
because it is the attempt to deify human thought.”
一名真正的系統神學家能夠認識到,正因為上帝是上帝,
And see the true systematic theologian recognizes that since God is God,
“祂的智慧無法測度”,以賽亞書40章28節,
“there is no searching of his understanding,” Isaiah 40:28,
所以祂的思想超越我們的理性。
so that His thoughts transcend,
上帝的思想並非不合理,而是超越了我們的理性。
they are not unreasonable, but they transcend our reasoning.
但是,理性主義的反對意見的確可以對我們有所幫助,
However, the objection of rationalism does help us
謹防我們提出一些愚昧的神學觀點。
to guard against making foolish theological statements.
因為我們需要記得,神學雖然超越邏輯,卻並非不合邏輯。
Because we remember that theology, though it transcends logic, is never illogical.
例如,上帝決不能自相矛盾,民數記23章19節。
God, for example, cannot contradict Himself, Numbers 23:19.
因此,我們的神學也不應該陷入顯然的矛盾之中。
And therefore, our theology should not engage in palpable contradictions.
然後是第九個反對意見,相對主義。
And then number nine, relativism.
順便說一下,我相信你們還可以想到更多的反對意見,
And by the way, I am sure there’s a lot more things you could add to this list,
但是我們講的這九點,基本上已經可以涵蓋當下的大部分問題。
but by the time we get to nine things, we have enough to cover most of the most issues of the day.
相對主義認為,沒有絕對的真理。
Relativism says there is no absolute truth.
他們會說,“有多少人閱讀聖經,
The Bible, we are told, has as many meanings
就會產生多少種對聖經的解讀,甚至更多。
as there are people who read it, or maybe even more.
而我們無權將自己的意見強加於別人。”
And so we have no right to force our opinion on other people.
因此,相對主義者認為,神學的企圖是要壓迫別人、壓制他人;
The relativist, therefore, considers theology to be an attempt to oppress other people, box them up,
一個較為強硬的相對主義者甚至可能會說,神學是一種仇恨的作為。
an act of hatred, a strong relativist might say.
我們對這樣的反對意見的回應是,首先,相對主義是自相矛盾的。
Well, we respond to that by saying first of all, relativism also contradicts itself.
傅瑞姆說,“主觀主義者試圖讓別人相信他的觀點,
Frame says “The subjectivist tries to convince others of his view,
所以,他其實在承認:世界上有某種真理,
and thus he concedes that there is some truth
不僅他自己知道,別人也知道。
knowable to others beside himself.
他聲稱,自己客觀地知道世界上並沒有客觀的真理。
He claims to know objectively the truth that there is no objective truth,
這本就是一個不攻自破的論點。”
and that is a self-defeating argument.”
其次,聖經告訴我們,主是真理,主是愛,
Second, the Bible tells us that the Lord is truth and the Lord is love,
約翰福音14章第6節,約翰一書4章第8節。
John 14:6, 1 John 4:8.
因此,我們應該用愛心說誠實話,這並不矛盾。
It is therefore no contradiction to speak the truth in love.
聖經告訴我們,那些最愛我們的人會與我們說誠實話,
Those who love us best will tell us the truth,
即使真相會對我們造成某種傷害。
even if it wounds us, the Bible tells us.
第三,我們的確可以在上帝的話語中讀到絕對的真理。
And third, we do have access to absolute truth in the Word of God.
主耶穌說,他的道就是真理,
Jesus said, His Word is truth
而那些遵守他的道的人就必曉得真理。
and that to know the truth is to know His Word.
他因此而責備了撒都該人,對不對?
He rebuked the Sadducees, didn’t he?
“你們錯了,因為不明白聖經。”
“Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures.”
我們要麼就遵循上帝的話語,要麼就落入歧途。
Either we follow God’s Word or we fall into error.
儘管如此,我們仍要感謝相對主義者的觀點,他們在給我們提醒,
Nevertheless, we appreciate from the relativist’s view,
要謹防自己發表任何帶有壓迫性、或者表達仇恨的言論。
the warning against oppressive and hateful speech.
我們在與人交往的時候,一定要謹慎。
We need to be careful how we approach people.
即使是基督,即使他並不避諱傳講上帝的審判,
But even Christ, though he didn’t shrink from preaching divine judgment,
但是他仍舊充滿熱情與愛心地呼召不信的人到他那裡去,對不對?
he still warmly and lovingly called unbelievers to himself, didn’t he?
“凡勞苦擔重擔的人,可以到我這裡來,我就使你們得安息。”
“Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.”
好,這就是我要講的九個反對意見,
All right, so these are nine objections against theology
我也快速地試著回應了每一個反對意見。
which I have tried to answer very quickly.
但是我也知道,這不過是一個非常概略的綜述。
I realize that this is just like a bird’s eye overview. But
但是我認為我們需要瞭解這些負面的觀點,
I thought that it’s important that we understand the negatives there are
需要知道我們在研究系統神學時,會遇到這些反對意見。
facing against us when we want to do systematic theology

感謝清教徒改革宗神學院特別授權

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