《宗教改革五百週年紀念講座:歐洲的宗教改革如何改變台灣與全世界的社會》（印主烈 博士） - 1.改革是什麼？
“500th Anniversary Lecture: How the Reformation Influenced Taiwan” ( Part 1: What is Reformation? And What Led to the Reformation?) – Rev. Dr. Joel Linton
I am talking about the Reformation
in Europe 500 years ago
and then also how it influenced Taiwan.
I thought that I would start by explaining, “What is
I do not know what kind of connotation
this word has in Mandarin.
Sometimes it might sound
like a bad thing like revolution.
But actually, what it is talking about is
seeing how a society
has changed in bad ways
and then trying to help the society
come back to good ways
in whatever area it needs to be reformed.
This is what happened in Europe
five hundred years ago.
And it was a very huge thing.
You might think that religions are not so important.
In Taiwan there are so many religions.
But at that time, religious beliefs
caused huge wars in Europe.
But because there was reformation,
so many good things changed
in society and also in the Christian church.
Now you see in a circle are these letters.
You might think they are English,
but they are not English.
It is Latin. 是拉丁文
It is as if you are looking at Chinese Characters,
but you are reading classical Chinese.
But every single one of these phrases
has a very important meaning
for what happened 500 years ago.
So we will talk about that later.
Do you know who this person is?
Everyone knows him.
Do you know why he was called
Martin Luther King?
He was not born with that name.
His father went to Europe for a meeting
and found out about another man
named Martin Luther.
And he was so impressed with
that he changed his own name and the
name of his son to Martin Luther King.
This is Martin Luther. A big chubby man.
Martin Luther King, Jr. led a reformation
in American society in the 1960s.
Martin Luther also did
a different kind of reformation
five hundred years ago.
There is something he did especially on
October 31 of A.D. 1517 that is celebrated.
And it represents a social movement that
happened over several hundred years,
but everyone celebrates the social
movement specifically on that day.
So I want to give you the background of
why the social movement developed
and then later I will talk about what it was
and how it influenced Taiwan.
You know what that is, right?
This was 2000 years ago:
the Han Dynasty.
And Taiwan, you will notice,
was not part of the Han Dynasty.
At that time
it had all Austronesian people.
And a lot of scholars today
think it was the original homeland
of all the Austronesian people
You know about “Hawaii.”
They have a name for the place they
originally came from called Hawai’iki.
And that’s where the people came from.
So everyone thinks it is Taiwan now.
At the time of the Han Dynasty
and Hawai’iki in Asia,
there was another empire
in Europe and North Africa.
The Han Dynasty called this empire,
We call it the Roman Empire now.
You see the little green dot there.
Jesus was born in the Roman Empire
around 4 B.C.
People celebrate the birth of Jesus today
And next month we will have
another talk about Christmas.
When Jesus became an adult, he began to
preach in this area of the Roman Empire.
He did not just preach moral things.
He said something that was really
shocking to people at that time:
He preached that he is God,
the One who created the World,
that he was the One
who was there before anything existed.
And he claimed that he took on
human nature to represent mankind.
And he claimed that he was going to
take the punishment for the sins of the people
so people could have eternal life.
And he predicted that he would be executed.
And then he said that
he was going to rise from the dead.
This is what he said.
And he did get arrested.
And the Romans actually took him
and executed him.
At that time, this was the worst criminal punishment
for anybody to have, was this cross.
They would nail people to the cross
and let them hang their until they died.
It was terrible suffering.
But of course you notice,
if you see any Christian church,
they alway put the cross on it,
but that is to represent what happened
After he died he was buried
in tomb of stone, a cave.
His disciples reported that
after the third day he rose from the tomb,
that they found the tomb was empty.
And 500 witnesses said
they saw him [alive].
That is why Christians celebrate Easter.
You have heard of that, right?
What is significant about what happened
is something Jesus told his disciples
after he rose from the dead.
He told them this verse.
It is written in the book of Matthew:
He told them
they have to go all over the world
and teach what he has taught them.
This is why Christianity
spread in the Roman Empire.
The Romans did not like this religion.
They told the Christians that t
hey could not talk.
There was no freedom of religion
But the Christians kept talking.
And a lot of them over 200 years
were arrested.And many were executed.
This is a picture of a leopard
attacking a person.
They would put them for everyone to see
and they would send wild animals after them.
I think the reasons they were willing to do
this was because of what they believed.
When they were facing death,
this verse comforted them:
So this was their motivation.
And they were willing to die.
Now after over 300 years,
the persecution finally stopped.
I think one reason is that Christians were
very different from the society around them.
When a plague would hit a city, the
Christians would take care of the sick.
And the people used to leave babies
out to die if they did not want a baby,
and the Christian
would go and adopt the baby.
And they were not afraid to get sick.
And they were not afraid to be killed.
Because they experienced God’s love,
they wanted to love other people.
And these Christians,
they had a hope of eternal life
and that they would one day be
resurrected when Jesus came back.
This was all motivation for them.
Now when the Reformation happened,
there were also persecutions
and the people then had the same kind of hope
that the Christians in the Roman Empire did.
The persecutions in the Roman Empire
were stopped by this man.
He is the Roman Emperor Constantine.
I don’t know if you have heard of him.
They say that he had a dream that
if he used the symbol you see on this flag,
that he would conquer with his armies.
You can even see that he had the symbol
put on his money, too.
The symbol has two Greek letters.
Rho and Chi.
They are the first two letters
that spell the word for Christ.
Rho and Chi
So after he won and conquered
the Roman Empire,
he said he would tolerate Christians
and no one can attack them anymore.
A really strange event, right?
Well, after the Roman Empire
sometimes, that was not a good thing
for the Christians.
Because, over time, the Christians became
very wealthy and particularly the churches;
all these politicians donated money
to the churches.
Because the emperor supported them
so we better support them, too, right?
People are the same all over the world.
Eventually, the Roman Empire fell,
but the church continued to grow.
And people started to look at the head
of the church in the city of Rome
to follow that person.
And the Pope,
began to act like an emperor.
I am not sure which pope this is,
how many crowns this pope has
on his head.
He actually put himself
above any other king.
And they got a lot of money.
And they built this,
which is a very beautiful building
designed by Michelangelo built in Rome.
If you look at the inside, it is even prettier.
All the most expensive things,
gold and all the beautiful things,
were put in there.
You cannot object to it as far as
it being art. It is beautiful art.
The problem was:
where did the money come from?
This was a major reason
the Reformation started.
So people became leaders of the church
not because they knew the Bible well,
or because they loved God,
or cared about the church.
They became leaders because
they wanted money and power.
Even today that is what people run after.
Most people could not even read the Bible
because it was in Latin.
It is like if you were forced to read
Because the language had changed.
So, during the Middle Ages,
people began to try to reform the church.
A lot were killed for it.
Some of the biggest reformations
happened in Switzerland and in Germany.
And then those influenced the reformation
that happened in the Netherlands and in Scotland.
And those two countries, the Netherlands and Scotland,
were the biggest influences on Taiwan.
But I am going to start with Switzerland.
I do not know if you studied history and
geography very well in your schools.
There is a city up above called Strasburg
And then right below
you can see in red is Switzerland.
Switzerland is the same size as Taiwan.
And it is very mountainous
just like Taiwan.
I think most Taiwanese would like to become like Switzerland
and have a neutral, independent country,
We won’t bother anybody
and you just don’t bother us.
One of the things
that really influenced the Reformation
was a new technology at that time.
It started in the city of Strasburg
and then it went to Switzerland.
It is related to books.
In the Middle Ages
this is the kind of book they had.
They had to do everything by hand.
They wrote every page and every picture
Very expensive. Very few people could
have books and very few people could read.
You know what they tried to do in Asia,
They carved one page at a time,
and then they put ink on it and
put a piece of paper and rubbed it.
And then they would put another
piece of paper on it, like that.
The bottom one is from the Tang Dynasty.
The Koreans invented a metal
moveable type [in A.D. 1234].
It is Korean writing, not Chinese,
even though it is using Chinese characters.
It is Koreans publishing, even though
at that time they used Chinese characters.
They figured out a way,
but it still was not very efficient.
There was a man in Strasburg named Gutenberg
and he was a metal smith.
He designed a way to make quickly
and efficiently every little letter
that could be used for printing.
The thing that was really important
was not just the letters.
What the Koreans did not have was a
mechanical machine to print pages.
And Gutenberg came up
with a machine to print.
And because of where Strasburg was,
everyone thinks that he was influenced by this:
Do you know what this is?
I’ll give you a hint.
Strasburg, that whole area,
was in a wine-growing region.
And that was the initial idea for a design
idea for a machine to print pages.
I will give you a picture of
the printing press.
This is a an image of the printing press.
If you see the top, there is a screw
just like on the wine press.
So it just happened: the right man
in the right place at the right time;
One of his most famous things that he
printed was a Bible; this is a Latin Bible.
It was very clear and neat
compared to the handwritten ones.
And you could make a lot of copies.
Everyone thinks that his edition
was very beautiful.
This might not be the best page,
but it is an example.
So by A.D. 1501,
the printing industry had gone south to
that green dot which is the town of Basel.
That is in Switzerland.
There were 70
different printing companies there.
What were they printing?
They had discovered lots of
ancient Greek texts.
And they also collected all the ancient
Greek Bible and Hebrew Bible manuscripts.
And they printed those.
There were only about 10,000 people
in the town of Basel.
How many live in Sanshing
[in Yilan County, Taiwan]?
Probably more than 10,000 people.
But this had a very important university
at the time.
And the students and professors
all studied the ancient texts.
And one of the biggest influences
on the Reformation
was the availability of the Greek and
Hebrew Bible and other texts.
This is an example
of an ancient text they collected.
This is one of the earliest texts from
the book of John in the New Testament.
It is only about 70 years after Jesus died
that this one was written.
Of course, the paper falls apart over time,
but they collected everything they could
find and republished a new edition.
This is an example of the
Hebrew Old Testament.
You can see it is falling apart.
There is a story of in the New Testament
about Jesus reading from the prophet Isaiah.
He probably read
from something like this.
Of course it is a lot more practical
to have a book like this.
This is actually a reprinted Hebrew Bible.
Because of all of that, there was a lot of
learning in Switzerland.
And there is another city in Switzerland
And probably one of the most influential man
in the Reformation was teaching there:
If you said who was the most influential man
in European history who influenced Taiwan,
you might say that John Calvin was.