《宗教改革五百週年紀念講座:歐洲的宗教改革如何改變台灣與全世界的社會》(印主烈 博士) - 1.改革是什麼?

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第一集《宗教改革五百週年紀念講座:歐洲的宗教改革如何改變台灣與全世界的社會》改革是什麼?(印主烈 博士)
“500th Anniversary Lecture: How the Reformation Influenced Taiwan” ( Part 1: What is Reformation? And What Led to the Reformation?) – Rev. Dr. Joel Linton

I am talking about the Reformation
in Europe 500 years ago
and then also how it influenced Taiwan.
我今天要談論的是
五百年前在歐洲的宗教改革
以及如何影響台灣
I thought that I would start by explaining, “What is
reformation?”
一開始我要先定義什麼是「宗教改革」
「改革」是什麼意思
I do not know what kind of connotation
this word has in Mandarin.
我不知道在中文這個字
你們會想到什麼
Sometimes it might sound
like a bad thing like revolution.
有時候「改革」你聽起來會覺得不太好
好像革命
But actually, what it is talking about is
seeing how a society
has changed in bad ways
and then trying to help the society
come back to good ways
in whatever area it needs to be reformed.
其實改革的意思正面來講
就是若一個社會有很多部分是敗壞的
那麼要將這個社會導回正軌
讓它在各方面都能夠越來越好
This is what happened in Europe
five hundred years ago.
這就是五百年前在歐洲發生的事情
And it was a very huge thing.
這是一件大事
You might think that religions are not so important.
In Taiwan there are so many religions.
你可能會覺得宗教
根本不是什麼了不起的事情
因為在台灣有一大堆不同的宗教
But at that time, religious beliefs
caused huge wars in Europe.
當時在歐洲因為宗教的緣故
引發了很大的戰爭
But because there was reformation,
so many good things changed
in society and also in the Christian church.
因為這個改革在當時的社會和教會
都有許多好的改變發生
Now you see in a circle are these letters.
你看到那個圓圈有一些英文字
You might think they are English,
but they are not English.
你可能會以為那是英文,但其實不是英文
It is Latin. 是拉丁文
It is as if you are looking at Chinese Characters,
but you are reading classical Chinese.
就像你看到中文字 但其實那是文言文
But every single one of these phrases
has a very important meaning
for what happened 500 years ago.
它每一個詞彙都代表一個非常重要的意義
而且這個意義
跟五百多年前的宗教改革是有關的
So we will talk about that later.
我們待會會多談這些
Do you know who this person is?
你知道這是誰嗎
Everyone knows him.
Do you know why he was called
Martin Luther King?
你知道他為什麼叫做馬丁路德金恩嗎
He was not born with that name.
他的本名不是那個
His father went to Europe for a meeting
and found out about another man
named Martin Luther.
他爸去歐洲開會的時候
發現另外一個人叫馬丁路德金恩
And he was so impressed with
Martin Luther,
that he changed his own name and the
name of his son to Martin Luther King.
所以他發現這個馬丁路德使他印象深刻
他就把自己的名字和他兒子的名字
都改成馬丁路德
This is Martin Luther. A big chubby man.
就是這個馬丁路德 胖胖的
Martin Luther King, Jr. led a reformation
in American society in the 1960s.
在1960年代 馬丁路德金恩
在美國社會做了很大的改革
Martin Luther also did
a different kind of reformation
這個胖胖的馬丁路德也做了不一樣的改革
five hundred years ago.
在五百年前
There is something he did especially on
October 31 of A.D. 1517 that is celebrated.
他特別在1517年的10月31號
做了一件特別的事
我們基督徒也慶祝他在那一天所做的事
And it represents a social movement that
happened over several hundred years,
but everyone celebrates the social
movement specifically on that day.
那是幾百年前的變革
但是我們特別為著那一天10月31號
他所做的事而慶祝
So I want to give you the background of
why the social movement developed
and then later I will talk about what it was
and how it influenced Taiwan.
我會簡單介紹這個變革到底是什麼
以及這個變革影響歐洲跟台灣
You know what that is, right?
你知道這是什麼
This was 2000 years ago:
這是兩千年前
the Han Dynasty.
漢朝
And Taiwan, you will notice,
was not part of the Han Dynasty.
台灣並不是當時漢朝的一部分
At that time
it had all Austronesian people.
那時都是原住民南島人
And a lot of scholars today
think it was the original homeland
of all the Austronesian people
called Hawai’iki.
很多的學者認為
台灣是許多南島人起源的地方
You know about “Hawaii.”
你知道夏威夷嗎
They have a name for the place they
originally came from called Hawai’iki.
這個名字是從「Hawai’iki」這個字來的
And that’s where the people came from.
So everyone thinks it is Taiwan now.
所以現在很多人都以為
很多人認為台灣就是他們的起源地
At the time of the Han Dynasty
and Hawai’iki in Asia,
there was another empire
in Europe and North Africa.
在漢朝同樣的時期有另外一個王朝
在亞洲還有北非
The Han Dynasty called this empire,
Da-chin.
漢朝稱這個王朝為大秦
We call it the Roman Empire now.
我們現在稱之為羅馬帝國
You see the little green dot there.
你看到綠色的點
Jesus was born in the Roman Empire
around 4 B.C.
耶穌是在大概西元前4年的時候
出生在羅馬帝國
People celebrate the birth of Jesus today
as Christmas.
全世界每一個基督徒
都會在聖誕節慶祝耶穌的誕生
And next month we will have
another talk about Christmas.
下個月我們會有另外一個演講
是在講聖誕節
When Jesus became an adult, he began to
preach in this area of the Roman Empire.
當耶穌成年之後
祂在羅馬帝國那個地區傳道
He did not just preach moral things.
祂不只是講一些道德倫理的法則
He said something that was really
shocking to people at that time:
祂講的一些東西是讓當時的人非常驚訝
He preached that he is God,
祂宣告祂自己是上帝
the One who created the World,
就是創造世界的上帝
that he was the One
who was there before anything existed.
祂在世界還沒有存在以前
祂就已經存在了
And he claimed that he took on
human nature to represent mankind.
祂也說祂成為一個真正的人
來代表全人類
And he claimed that he was going to
take the punishment for the sins of the people
祂也說 祂來是要代替世人承受犯罪的懲罰
so people could have eternal life.
所以人們就能夠因著信耶穌
而有永恆的生命
And he predicted that he would be executed.
祂預言自己會被處決
And then he said that
he was going to rise from the dead.
祂也說祂會從死裡復活
This is what he said.
這就是祂所說的
And he did get arrested.
And the Romans actually took him
and executed him.
祂真的被羅馬人逮捕
羅馬人也把祂處死了
At that time, this was the worst criminal punishment
for anybody to have, was this cross.
They would nail people to the cross
and let them hang their until they died.
It was terrible suffering.
在當時的羅馬帝國
最嚴厲的刑罰就是十字架
將人釘在十字架上讓他慢慢死亡
這是非常痛苦的
But of course you notice,
if you see any Christian church,
they alway put the cross on it,
but that is to represent what happened
如果你留意的話
幾乎每一個基督教教會
都會有個十字架
這個十字架就是記念
當年耶穌被釘在十字架上
After he died he was buried
in tomb of stone, a cave.
祂死了之後
祂就被葬在一個石頭的墓穴裡面
His disciples reported that
after the third day he rose from the tomb,
that they found the tomb was empty.
祂死了三天之後
祂的門徒說祂從死裡復活了 因為墳墓空了
And 500 witnesses said
they saw him [alive].
有五百個見證人說他們看見復活的耶穌
That is why Christians celebrate Easter.
You have heard of that, right?
這也是為什麼基督徒
會慶祝另外一個節日叫作復活節
也許你也聽過
What is significant about what happened
is something Jesus told his disciples
after he rose from the dead.
這件事有一個重要的意義在於
在耶穌復活以後
祂告訴門徒一件重要的事
He told them this verse.
It is written in the book of Matthew:
(Matthew 28:18-20).
耶穌告訴祂的門徒那件事情
就寫在新約聖經馬太福音
He told them
they have to go all over the world
and teach what he has taught them.
耶穌告訴祂的門徒、祂的學生說
你們也要去全世界教導其他的人
我所教導你們的事情
This is why Christianity
spread in the Roman Empire.
這就是為什麼當年基督教會在
整個羅馬帝國裡頭傳開
The Romans did not like this religion.
羅馬人那時候並不喜歡這個宗教
They told the Christians that t
hey could not talk.
他們告訴當時的基督徒說
你不要傳道
There was no freedom of religion
back then.
那時候並沒有宗教自由
But the Christians kept talking.
基督徒卻堅持持續地傳講
And a lot of them over 200 years
were arrested.And many were executed.
This is a picture of a leopard
attacking a person.
They would put them for everyone to see
and they would send wild animals after them.
當時有超過兩百年的時間
基督徒因為他們的信仰的關係
被逮捕、背殺害、被處決
甚至有的人會被推到羅馬競技場裡面
被野獸攻擊
這張圖就是豹在攻擊基督徒
旁邊就有很多觀眾在看基督徒被攻擊
I think the reasons they were willing to do
this was because of what they believed.
當時的基督徒之所以冒著生命危險
也願意去傳他們的信仰
就是因為他們所相信的內容
When they were facing death,
this verse comforted them:
當這些基督徒在面對死亡的時候
這段聖經的經文就安慰了他們
我來唸
So this was their motivation.
這就是他們的動機
And they were willing to die.
他們願意死亡
Now after over 300 years,
the persecution finally stopped.
在受苦三百多年之後 逼迫終於停止了
I think one reason is that Christians were
very different from the society around them.
其中一個原因是當時基督徒
跟他們周圍的社會是非常不一樣的
When a plague would hit a city, the
Christians would take care of the sick.
當瘟疫疾病蔓延城市的時候
基督徒會願意主動照顧那些病人
And the people used to leave babies
out to die if they did not want a baby,
and the Christian
would go and adopt the baby.
當時人們有個不好的傳統就是
如果他們不想要自己的小孩
就讓自己小孩在野外等死
但那時候基督徒
就願意去收留照顧收養這些孩子
And they were not afraid to get sick.
他們不怕因為照顧病人而生命
And they were not afraid to be killed.
他們也不怕死
Because they experienced God’s love,
they wanted to love other people.
因為他們經歷上帝的愛
所以他們也想要愛別人
And these Christians,
they had a hope of eternal life
and that they would one day be
resurrected when Jesus came back.
This was all motivation for them.
他們也知道如果有一天他們死了
當耶穌再來的時候他們會復活
所以他們就有勇氣來面對死亡
Now when the Reformation happened,
there were also persecutions
and the people then had the same kind of hope
that the Christians in the Roman Empire did.
當五百多年前的宗教改革發生的時候
那時的基督徒也因為宗教改革
受到很大的逼迫或喪失生命
他們也同樣擁有永恆的盼望
就是和當時羅馬帝國的基督徒一樣
所以他們願意勇敢
The persecutions in the Roman Empire
were stopped by this man.
當時的逼迫是被這個人所停止的
He is the Roman Emperor Constantine.
I don’t know if you have heard of him.
不知道你有沒有聽過他的名字
他是當時羅馬帝國的皇帝
叫君士坦丁
They say that he had a dream that
if he used the symbol you see on this flag,
that he would conquer with his armies.
有一個傳說是說
君士坦丁夢到
只要他去打仗的時候他旗子上面
掛著右上角那個標誌
他就會打勝仗
You can even see that he had the symbol
put on his money, too.
你會看到他發行的錢幣上也有同樣的記號
The symbol has two Greek letters.
這個記號是兩個希臘文的字母
Rho and Chi.
They are the first two letters
that spell the word for Christ.
Rho and Chi
這是基督這個字的希臘文的頭兩個字母
So after he won and conquered
the Roman Empire,
he said he would tolerate Christians
and no one can attack them anymore.
當他統治整個羅馬帝國之後
他就下了一道命令就是
不准任何人去欺負基督徒
A really strange event, right?
很奇怪對嗎
Well, after the Roman Empire
accepted Christians,
sometimes, that was not a good thing
for the Christians.
羅馬帝國他們之後接納了基督教
但有時候這並不是一件好事
Because, over time, the Christians became
very wealthy and particularly the churches;
all these politicians donated money
to the churches.
因為那時候教會變得越來越有錢
很多政客就會捐錢給教會
Because the emperor supported them
so we better support them, too, right?
因為皇帝支持教會
所以政客當然最好也支持教會
People are the same all over the world.
這現象在全世界都一樣
Eventually, the Roman Empire fell,
but the church continued to grow.
之後羅馬帝國垮台了
但是教會卻持續地增長
And people started to look at the head
of the church in the city of Rome
to follow that person.
當時的人持續地跟隨教會的領袖
他們跟隨在羅馬這個城市的教會最高領袖
And the Pope,
began to act like an emperor.
那個最高領袖就是所謂的教宗、教皇
他開始變得像皇帝一樣
I am not sure which pope this is,
but notice
how many crowns this pope has
on his head.
我不確定這個教宗是誰
但你注意一下他有幾個皇冠
He actually put himself
above any other king.
他實際上把自己看得比任何國王更高一等
And they got a lot of money.
他們拿到很多錢
And they built this,
which is a very beautiful building
designed by Michelangelo built in Rome.
他們在羅馬蓋了一個很漂亮的建築物
是米開朗基羅所設計
If you look at the inside, it is even prettier.
裡面更漂亮
All the most expensive things,
gold and all the beautiful things,
were put in there.
最漂亮、最奢華的東西都在裡面當裝飾品
You cannot object to it as far as
it being art. It is beautiful art.
如果它是一個藝術品的角度而言
你絕對覺得它很棒
The problem was:
where did the money come from?
但問題是 這些錢哪裡來的
This was a major reason
the Reformation started.
這是其中一個重要的原因
為什麼宗教改革會發生
So people became leaders of the church
not because they knew the Bible well,
or because they loved God,
or cared about the church.
有些人開始當上教會的領袖
但並不是因為他們愛上帝、關心教會
或是因為他們熟悉聖經
They became leaders because
they wanted money and power.
他們當教會的領袖
因為他們想要錢、想要權力
Even today that is what people run after.
這也是今天人所追求的
Most people could not even read the Bible
because it was in Latin.
當時大部分的人自己沒有辦法讀聖經
因為當時的聖經都是拉丁文
It is like if you were forced to read
Classical Chinese.
就像你被強迫要讀文言文一樣
Because the language had changed.
因為語言是會改變的
So, during the Middle Ages,
people began to try to reform the church.
在中世紀的時候
許多人就開始想要改革教會
A lot were killed for it.
很多人因為改革教會而被殺
Some of the biggest reformations
happened in Switzerland and in Germany.
宗教改革最大波的幾個運動
發生在瑞士還有德國
And then those influenced the reformation
that happened in the Netherlands and in Scotland.
也同時影響到荷蘭還有蘇格蘭
And those two countries, the Netherlands and Scotland,
were the biggest influences on Taiwan.
荷蘭跟蘇格蘭
是兩個對台灣有最大影響的國家
But I am going to start with Switzerland.
但我要先談瑞士
I do not know if you studied history and
geography very well in your schools.
不知道你們在學校地理歷史讀得怎麼樣
There is a city up above called Strasburg
in France.
And then right below
you can see in red is Switzerland.
在瑞士的上面有一個城市
叫史特勞斯堡在法國
那個紅色的地區就是瑞士
Switzerland is the same size as Taiwan.
瑞士跟台灣一樣大
And it is very mountainous
just like Taiwan.
也跟台灣一樣很多山
I think most Taiwanese would like to become like Switzerland
and have a neutral, independent country,
right?
台灣人可能會期待台灣跟瑞士一樣
成為一個中立的國家
We won’t bother anybody
and you just don’t bother us.
我們不會干涉任何人
你也不要來找我麻煩就好
One of the things
that really influenced the Reformation
was a new technology at that time.
當時很影響宗教改革的是
當時的一個新科技
It started in the city of Strasburg
and then it went to Switzerland.
那個新的科技是從史特勞斯堡開始
然後傳到瑞士
It is related to books.
跟書有關
In the Middle Ages
this is the kind of book they had.
這是中世紀一般你會看到的書
Very beautiful.
很漂亮
They had to do everything by hand.
They wrote every page and every picture
by hand.
每一頁每一個字都要用手寫
Very expensive. Very few people could
have books and very few people could read.
所以非常貴 很少人能夠有機會讀書
You know what they tried to do in Asia,
right?
你知道那時候亞洲人怎麼做書嗎
They carved one page at a time,
and then they put ink on it and
put a piece of paper and rubbed it.
And then they would put another
piece of paper on it, like that.
他們會刻一個模版
那個模版一次就只能印一頁書
把模版塗上墨汁 把紙鋪上去印一頁書
The bottom one is from the Tang Dynasty.
下面那個是唐朝時製作
The Koreans invented a metal
moveable type [in A.D. 1234].
韓國人發明了金屬的活字版
It is Korean writing, not Chinese,
even though it is using Chinese characters.
其實這是韓文而不是中文
雖然它是漢字
It is Koreans publishing, even though
at that time they used Chinese characters.
那是當時韓國人所出版的書
他們那時是使用漢字
They figured out a way,
but it still was not very efficient.
那是一個方法 但是仍不是很有效率
There was a man in Strasburg named Gutenberg
當時的史特勞斯堡有一個人叫谷騰堡
and he was a metal smith.
他是一個金屬工匠
He designed a way to make quickly
and efficiently every little letter
that could be used for printing.
他那時發明了一個很有效率的印刷方法
就是每一個字都是獨立的
The thing that was really important
was not just the letters.
不只是字很重要
What the Koreans did not have was a
mechanical machine to print pages.
當時韓國人的印刷沒有那麼有效率
是因為他們沒有機器
And Gutenberg came up
with a machine to print.
谷騰堡他發明了印刷機
And because of where Strasburg was,
everyone thinks that he was influenced by this:
很多人都認為他是在史特勞斯堡
被這個東西影響
而有這個想法設計印刷機
Do you know what this is?
你知道這是什麼嗎
I’ll give you a hint.
我給你一個提示
Strasburg, that whole area,
was in a wine-growing region.
史特勞斯堡就是一個產葡萄酒的地方
And that was the initial idea for a design
idea for a machine to print pages.
你如果看谷騰堡印刷機的樣子
你就會知道他設計靈感的出處就源於此
I will give you a picture of
the printing press.
This is a an image of the printing press.
這是那個印刷機的照片
If you see the top, there is a screw
just like on the wine press.
你看它上面有一個螺絲
就與壓葡萄酒機上的一樣
So it just happened: the right man
in the right place at the right time;
所以對的人在對的地方
就發明出對的東西
One of his most famous things that he
printed was a Bible; this is a Latin Bible.
他做的最有名的一件事情就是
他印刷了聖經 是拉丁文聖經
It was very clear and neat
compared to the handwritten ones.
它跟手寫的聖經比起來非常地清楚
而且字是非常整齊
And you could make a lot of copies.
而且你可以一次印很多
Everyone thinks that his edition
was very beautiful.
This might not be the best page,
but it is an example.
很多人都認為這個字體是非常優美的
So by A.D. 1501,
在1501年的時候
the printing industry had gone south to
that green dot which is the town of Basel.
到了1501年的時候
這個印刷產業就發展到另外一個城市
叫巴賽爾
That is in Switzerland.
也是在瑞士境內
There were 70
different printing companies there.
當時在巴賽爾就有
What were they printing?
他們印什麼呢
They had discovered lots of
ancient Greek texts.
他們發現了很多古典的希臘文著作
And they also collected all the ancient
Greek Bible and Hebrew Bible manuscripts.
他們也收集到了以前的
希臘文跟希伯來文原文的聖經抄稿
And they printed those.
他們也將抄稿印刷出來了
There were only about 10,000 people
in the town of Basel.
在巴賽爾這個小鎮大概只有一萬人口
How many live in Sanshing
[in Yilan County, Taiwan]?
Probably more than 10,000 people.
宜蘭三星鄉可能比一萬人還多
But this had a very important university
at the time.
當時那裡有一所重要的大學
And the students and professors
all studied the ancient texts.
那裡的教授與學生都讀這些古典的著作
And one of the biggest influences
on the Reformation
was the availability of the Greek and
Hebrew Bible and other texts.
宗教改革其中一個
很重要的基礎原因就是
就是因為當時的人讀了聖經的原文
就是希臘文與希伯來文聖經
This is an example
of an ancient text they collected.
This is one of the earliest texts from
the book of John in the New Testament.
這幾乎可以說是當時所發現最早的
新約聖經的手抄本片段
這是新約聖經的約翰福音
It is only about 70 years after Jesus died
that this one was written.
這個手抄本抄寫的時間
跟耶穌去世的時間非常相近 只有70年
Of course, the paper falls apart over time,
but they collected everything they could
find and republished a new edition.
這些手抄本雖然破損四散
但他們盡量收集並集結重新印刷
This is an example of the
Hebrew Old Testament.
這是希伯來文舊約聖經的手抄本
You can see it is falling apart.
你看已經破損嚴重了
這是一部希伯來文舊約聖經的手抄本
There is a story of in the New Testament
about Jesus reading from the prophet Isaiah.
He probably read
from something like this.
在新約聖經裡面有一段歷史就是
耶穌基督在會堂裡
宣讀舊約聖經的以賽亞書
耶穌所讀的以賽亞書大概就類似這樣子
Of course it is a lot more practical
to have a book like this.
當然有這樣的書是更方便實用
This is actually a reprinted Hebrew Bible.
這其實就是重印出來的希伯來文聖經
Because of all of that, there was a lot of
learning in Switzerland.
因著聖經更加普及
當時瑞士研讀聖經的人很多
And there is another city in Switzerland
named Geneva.
另外一個瑞士的城市叫日內瓦
And probably one of the most influential man
in the Reformation was teaching there:
在宗教改革裡最有影響力的人物之一
當時就在日內瓦教書
John Calvin.
就是約翰加爾文
If you said who was the most influential man
in European history who influenced Taiwan,
you might say that John Calvin was.
如果你問歐洲歷史上最有影響力
同時也影響台灣的人是誰
應該就是加爾文

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