《宗教改革五百週年紀念講座:歐洲的宗教改革如何改變台灣與全世界的社會》(印主烈 博士) - 3.蘇格蘭改敎運動、民主制度、語言保存、台灣宣教

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第三集《宗教改革五百週年紀念講座:歐洲的宗教改革如何改變台灣與全世界的社會》蘇格蘭改敎運動、民主制度、語言保存、台灣宣教(印主烈 博士)
“500th Anniversary Lecture: How the Reformation Influenced Taiwan” ( Part 3: Scottish Reformation, Democracy, Preservation of Languages) – Rev. Dr. Joel Linton

So I want to go on to the countries that were
influenced by the Reformation and influenced Taiwan
我接下來要談被宗教改革影響
也影響台灣的這些國家
First the Scottish Reformation
首先是蘇格蘭的宗教改革
This man John Knox was chased out of
his country and went to Geneva
where John Calvin was
約翰諾克斯被驅逐出境
到了日內瓦 約翰加爾文的所在地
And he studied under John Calvin
他跟著加爾文學習
And he came back to Scotland
之後回到了蘇格蘭
This is a picture of him
preaching to the Scottish queen
這是約翰諾克斯向女王講道的照片
And he was fearless
他是無所畏懼的
And the queen was actually afraid of him
so she didn’t kill him
女王甚至怕他 不敢殺他
But he caused a complete change
in Scottish society
但他引起了蘇格蘭徹底的轉變
And eventually Scotland became a Reformed country
not a Roman Catholic country
最終蘇格蘭成為一個新教國家
脫離了天主教
He introduced public education
to Scotland
and Scotland became the most
literate country in Europe
他把國民教育引進蘇格蘭
使蘇格蘭成為歐洲最自由開放的國家
And the primary reason was to cause every
single person to be able to read the Bible
最重要的是
教育使得每一個人都能夠讀懂聖經
But it also just influenced the whole
society and they became very educated
這也影響了整個社會 人們能夠受教育
So also a lot of writers like Adam Smith
who wrote The Wealth of Nations
was influenced because of John Knox
許多作家如寫《國富論》的亞當史密斯
正是受到約翰諾克斯影響
And they caused the foundation of
democracy
這些作家的思想也成為民主的根基
This guy – he was a pastor –
他是一個牧師
but he also wrote a book about
the relationship between people
and the king or their government
他寫了一本書
關於人民與政府或人民與君王的關係
And this statement was saying
the king is not by himself,
he must also be under the law
這本書的論點是君王不可恣意而為
必須遵行法律
And if the king is abusing the people
the people can throw off the king
若君王惡待百姓
百姓可以起而反之
these were concepts he got
from the Bible
他的這些觀念是從聖經來的
But this particular book
also influenced American democracy
這本書也影響了美國的民主發展
About 40 years later
the king tried to crack down on the
Scottish people because of their thinking
大概四十年之後
蘇格蘭的國王因為百姓的思想觀念
想採取鎮壓方式
And he didn’t just want to say he’s the
authority over everything in the civil society,
he also wanted them to say he’s the
authority over everybody in the church
蘇格蘭國王不僅想位居政府的最高權力
也想身居教會的最高權力
But let me show you the impact of the
Reformation on the local people
我接下來要談
宗教改革對一般人民的影響
This was 40 years later
after Samuel Rutherford’s book
Samuel Rutherford
寫《法律與國王》這本書的四十年之後
This is a painting of a famous story
that happened that time
這幅畫是描繪一個當時發生的著名故事
There was a farmer’s daughter
有一位農夫的女兒
The king said you have to swear that
the king’s in charge of the church
國王說 你要起誓說
你同意國王是教會的領袖
And this farmer’s daughter was
unwilling to swear that
這位農夫的女兒不願意如此起誓
Just think about that:
every single local person was educated
and had their own thinking
so they can’t be controlled
by the government
你想想:當時每一個人都受了教育
有自己的思考能力
所以他們不能被政府掌控思想
And she knew the Bible very well
and she loved God so she refused to do it
她熟讀聖經並且愛上帝
因此她拒絕國王的要求
So she was tied to a stake near the ocean
and when the water came in
she was caused to drown
所以她就被綁在海邊的木樁上
等漲潮時她就會被淹沒
And to the very last she prayed
for the king but she refused to say
the king is the head of the church
臨死之際她為國王禱告
但是仍拒絕承認他是教會領袖
So this happened at every level
and not just some educated people
but at every level in the Scottish society
類似的事情發生
不僅發生在受教育的人身上
而是發生在蘇格蘭社會各階層
Even farmer’s daughters were willing to
stand up against the king
即使是一個農夫的女兒
也願意挺身反對君王錯誤的想法
eventually all these Scottish were persecuted because of
their religious beliefs
and they fled to America
當時有許多蘇格蘭人
因信仰的緣故被逼迫
最後他們逃到了美國
Two of my ancestors fought
in the American Revolution
我有兩個祖先
曾經在美國獨立戰爭中打過仗
And both of them were Scottish immigrants
他們兩位都是蘇格蘭移民
The king in England at the time
basically called the American Revolution
a Presbyterian Revolution
當時英國國王稱美國的獨立戰爭為
長老會革命
So that war for independence was largely
supported by the Presbyterians in America
當時美國的長老教會
非常支持美國獨立革命
Again the idea from that book that
if the king abuses his power the people
have the right to throw him off
這概念同樣來自《法律與君王》一書
如果君王惡待百姓
百姓有權起而推翻君主
You guys know what this is right?
你們知道這是什麼嗎
The Declaration of Independence
美國獨立宣言
Taiwan does not have one yet
台灣目前還沒有
It said that everybody is equal under God
And so a king cannot say
he’s better than another person
美國獨立宣言提到
在上帝面前人人平等
所以即使君王也不比任何人更優越
And all the details in this document
reflect what that book
Samuel Rutherford wrote was saying
美國獨立宣言的各項細節也再再反映出
《法律與君王》一書所提到的觀念
And the biggest motivation was because
of the king trying to control the church
and the Christians said no,
we have to serve God and not the king
最大的動機是反抗國王掌控教會
基督徒認為教會所事奉的是上帝而不是君王
They submitted to the civil government on
certain things but, related to the church,
they would not submit to the civil government
在一些事上基督徒服從政府的權柄
但是在教會的事上基督徒是自主的
So you see the kings in Europe
really liked the Roman Catholic church
because they had a structure of government
just like the king – they had the Pope
因此你會看到
當時歐洲的君王比較偏好天主教
因為天主教的體制如同政府體制
有一個如同君王的最高領袖就是教宗
but as you see the U.S. Constitution was
based on the Presbyterian form of government
但是美國憲法的體制
是採用長老會共同治理的體制
And that’s developed
from a study of the Bible
而這些觀念都是從聖經發展而來
And this is why Taiwan, and Japan, and
Korea today have representative republics
instead of dictatorships or kingdoms
這也是之所以今日台灣、日本、韓國
採用的是代表制的共和國形式
而不是君主獨裁制度
Let me tell you a few more things which
were influenced by the Reformation
我再談一些受到宗教改革影響的事情
Do you know what this is?
你知道這是什麼嗎
Slaves
這是奴隸
It was reformed Christians in England
that spent over 30 years of a social movement
to try to abolish this slave trade
當時英國有許多受宗教改革影響的基督徒
他們致力於社會運動超過三十年
最後廢止黑奴的販賣
They took the Bible; they said everybody was
created by God so we should be equal,
we shouldn’t treat some as slaves
他們觀念源於聖經每個人都是被上帝所造
是平等的 因此不應有人被當作奴隸
And the very first book in the Bible in Genesis in the first
chapter said
every single person was made in God’s
image so we all have value
聖經第一卷書創世記說到
每一個人都是按著神的形像樣式造的
所以每一個人都有價值
So it’s wrong to capture slaves
and treat them as not valuable
因此將人強奪為奴隸並且任意對待
是不對的
There is a book about what happened in that social movement
which my daughter likes
which hopefully one day I’ll get her to give a lecture
about what happened in that social movement
我女兒喜歡的一本書是有關這個社會運動
希望日後有機會請她分享
It’s about abolishing the slave trade
是有關廢除黑奴販賣的這個社會運動
So because of the Reformation,
democracy spread around the world
所以因著宗教改革
民主遍及了全世界
This is an article that was published
in 2012
這是一篇2012年發表的文章
A researcher did a research why some countries had become
democracies
and why other countries
did not become democracies
一位研究者探討
為何一些國家走向民主制度,一些則否
And he did a lot of statistical analysis
but the main issue was
where there were Protestant missionaries
those countries became democracies
他作了很多統計分析
但他的結論就是
有基督教宣教士去到的國家
都會走向民主制度
And of course we see that in Taiwan, too
當然我們在台灣也看見一樣的現象
Let me talk about the two countries
that influenced Taiwan the most:
The Netherlands and Scotland
接著我要談影響台灣最鉅的兩個國家
荷蘭與蘇格蘭
The missionaries
that came from these two countries
從這兩個國家來的宣教士
That’s the Netherlands,
it’s about the same size as Taiwan
這是荷蘭 大約也與台灣一樣大
This is the type of ship
that brought the Dutch to Formosa,
and that’s the symbol of the company,
the East India Company
當時載著荷蘭人到台灣的是這種船
上面掛著荷屬東印度公司的標誌
This is the picture that the Dutch drew
a map of Taiwan
這是當時荷蘭人所畫的台灣地圖
You’ll notice they didn’t explore
the east coast as much
and Yilan is not very clear in the picture
當時他們沒有很多探索台灣東岸
因此宜蘭在這地圖上並不明顯
Their main base was down
to the lower right which was Tainan
他們當時主要的根據地
是地圖右下角的台南
This was a picture of their colony,
their settlement, in Tainan
這是他們在台南的居住地
And I hear that all that water in the back
is now covered in mud and built over now
圖中後方的水域如今已經被泥沙填滿
上面蓋了房子了
They sent missionaries to the
Austronesian people in Taiwan
他們也帶來宣教士
向台灣的原住民宣教
And this gets me to
another influence of the Reformation
這讓我想到宗教改革的另一個影響
Because the Protestant missionaries wanted everybody to be
able to read the Bible in their own language
宣教士希望人們能夠
用自己的語言讀聖經
The missionaries
would learn the local language
因此宣教士學習當地的語言來教導聖經
Many, many languages
never had any written writing
許多語言並沒有文字可供書寫
So the missionaries
invented a writing for the language
因此宣教士還發明了這種語言的書寫法
And they published a translation
of the Bible in that language
如此一來就可以將聖經內容翻譯出版
And then the local people had the writing;
they started writing their own material
to publish in the language
當地人民也開始用這種書寫法
來寫作出版
So it preserved their own language;
it preserved their local identity
因此當地語言與民族認同得以保存
And in order to let the local people
be able to read the Bible,
the missionaries started schools where
there was never public education before
為了要使當地人能夠讀懂聖經
因此宣教士也開辦學校
而在此之前是從未有國民教育的
And as those people got educated, they
began to push for self-rule or democracy
人民受了教育民智漸開
便開始追求自治或民主
This happened all over the world
全世界都發生一樣的事
Now the Dutch were only here for 40 years
and they translated the book of Matthew
into the local Austronesian language
荷蘭宣教士在台灣只有40年
他們將馬太福音翻譯為原住民語
In the Siraya Language
翻譯為西拉雅語
I have a copy of that here and
the other languages of the Bible
which were translated
by missionaries in Taiwan
我有一些不同方言版本的聖經
是當時來台宣教士所翻譯的
But they also used the language for their land contract
so you can see on the left is the writing
of their own language
and on the right is the Chinese characters
So the local people themselves wrote
their own language for a contract
他們也在土地合約上寫上自己的語言
一邊是中文 一邊是母語
So the local people themselves wrote
their own language for a contract
當地人可以用自己的語言寫合約
The other thing the Dutch
influenced Taiwan is that
they imported people from Fujian
to start agriculture in Taiwan
當時荷蘭人把福建人運到台灣
從事開墾農作
So you could say your ancestors
are here because of the Dutch
你或許可以說 你的祖先之所以在台灣
是因為荷蘭人的關係
I’ll talk about the Presbyterians
接下來我要談長老教會
The Presbyterians came in the 1800s
長老教會在十九世紀時來到台灣
Three guys:
George McKay
有三位主要的宣教士 第一位是馬偕
He started a lot of churches in Yilan
他在宜蘭建立了許多教會
He also introduced dentistry
他也引進了牙科醫療
Another man was William Campbell
另一位是甘為霖
He developed a dictionary
for the Taiwanese language
他編寫了台語字典
I have a copy of that dictionary over there;
you can look at it later
那邊有這本台語字典
有興趣可以翻翻看
And also James Maxwell
第三位是馬雅各
He introduced
the first printing press to Taiwan
他引進台灣第一台印刷機
They started publishing a lot of things
in the Taiwanese language
此後他們出版很多台語刊物
And then Thomas Barclay
translated the Bible into Taiwanese
之後巴克禮將聖經翻譯成台語
Have some of you have gone down to Tainan
where you can still see the printing press?
有人去台南看過那第一台印刷機嗎
You might not have noticed
but all the names of those missionaries
are all Scottish names
你們可能沒有注意到
這些宣教士的名字都是蘇格蘭名字
And this printing press
came from Edinburgh, Scotland
這台印刷機是從蘇格蘭愛丁堡來的
在那裡製造而成
They also produced the first nursing textbook
他們也出版了台灣第一本的護理教科書
And it’s in Taiwanese; it’s not in Mandarin
是由台語寫成 不是普通話
Here are some of the books translated from English
into Chinese about the first missionaries
這些書由英文翻譯成中文
講述有關首批來台宣教士的事蹟
Taiwan also developed its own catechism teaching
about what the church believes in Taiwanese
在台灣也用台語來教導要理問答
教導聖經原則
So they imitated what the people
of the Reformation did
他們仿效了宗教改革時期人們所做的
The right one is a catechism from Europe
that was translated,
the left one is one from Taiwan
右邊的要理問答是是歐洲版本翻譯而來
左邊的要理問答是以台語寫成的
This is my own book shelf
這是我的書架
That whole row
are Taiwanese-language books
一整排都是台語的書
Most of them were published from the
Christian Church Presbyterian Press
大部分是由台灣長老教會公報社出版
These are all the different Bible
translations done in Taiwan
into all the local languages of Taiwan
這些是在台灣作成的
翻譯成各種台灣方言的聖經
I want to talk about one of the early Bible
translators from the Reformation
我接著要談宗教改革運動中
最早的聖經翻譯者之一
There is a current organization around
the world that does Bible translation
and they named their organization
after this man –
William Tyndale died in 1536
丁道爾死於536年
He died because he was
translating the Bible into English
他因將聖經翻譯為英文而被處死
But his translation influenced all the future translations
in English,
so if you look at an English Bible,
it was influenced by him
但他的翻譯影響了未來的英文聖經譯本
你所看到的英文版本聖經也受他影響
But he was executed by the Roman
Catholic Church because of this
但他卻因為翻譯英文聖經
而被羅馬天主教處死
Two hundred years later
在他之後的兩百年
There was a missionary from Wales
named Robert Thomas
有一位來自威爾斯的宣教士
名叫崔蘭軒
He’s the guy on the left
就是左邊那位
His name is Robert Thomas
名叫崔蘭軒
And he went into Korea
trying to give out Bibles to the Koreans
他去到韓國 想要發送聖經給韓國人
And the Koreans killed him
韓國人卻殺了他
But he was willing to die
so that people could read the Bible
然而為了人可以讀到聖經
他甘願犧牲自己的生命
Of course you know that Korea, itself, has
transformed and has become a Christian country
and now they remember him and
commemorate him
如今韓國已經成為一個基督教國家
他們現在記念感謝這位宣教士
These guys on the right
are my ancestors in Korea
右邊這位是我的祖先 在韓國的宣教士
My grandfather, my great-grandfather,
my great-great-grandfather
我的祖父、曾祖父、曾曾祖父都是
I’ll just tell you about
my great-great-grandfather
我現在告訴你我曾曾祖父的事
He came to Korea in the year
the Japanese took over Taiwan
他在日本佔領台灣那一年去到韓國
At that time the Japanese were
trying to take over Korea, too
那時日本也想要佔領韓國
So they were trying to kill
the Korean king and queen
因此日本人想把韓國的國王皇后都殺了
He, I have letters of where he was writing
where the king and queen had to trust
the missionaries to prepare their food
and guard them because
they were afraid of assassination
那時韓國國王皇后因怕被暗殺
只信任宣教士來預備食物與護衛
I have a letter where he recorded
where he was doing a night guard in front
of the queen’s bed chamber with a pistol,
my great-great-grandfather where
he was describing guarding the queen
in front of her chamber at night
with a pistol
我有一封曾曾祖父的信中寫道
他曾在夜裡擁槍在皇后房前守衛
And the missionaries would rotate
trying to protect the king and queen
當時的宣教士輪班保護王與皇后
Because the king and queen
couldn’t trust anyone else
因為那時王與皇后無法信任其他人
This is also a major impact:
the missionaries would often identify with the local people
and they would protect the local people
from the foreign invaders
這也造成很大的影響
宣教士常常與當地人認同
保護居民免於外來的威脅
The final thing I want to mention is
maybe a verse that kind of summarizes
what all the Protestants believed
最後我要總結什麼是宗教改革之後
基督教的信仰
This is in Taiwanese; it is not in Mandarin.
這是台語 不是華語
Can you read Taiwanese?
你看得懂台語嗎
Because of the missionaries’ love for all
the people and different nations of the world
they went to share this news with them
宣教士因為愛世界不同國家的人
所以將這好消息傳給人
So I know we talked about a lot of topics
我們講了很多主題
Whether it’s economics
不論是經濟的
Or government structure
政治體制
Or education
教育
Or religion
宗教
Most of what you experience today was influenced
because of what happened 500 years ago
大部分你今日所經歷到的
都受了五百年前發生的宗教改革所影響
All the different civil societies and things
that happened where influenced by that
不同社會中所發生的不同事件
都受此影響
And many of those Reformers died
許多宗教改革人士殉道了
They were killed by the governments
of their time
他們被當時的政府殺害
But it was because of what they
read and believed in the Bible
that they would not be afraid of
even a king.
但因著他們相信在聖經中所讀到的真理
他們甚至連君王也不畏懼
And in a sense that changed the whole
world and that’s why we celebrate it
從某種角度看這改變了全世界
因此我們記念這個宗教改革
我就講到這裡 把你們留下好久了
謝謝大家

it was about Japan
but they actually filmed it in Taiwan
最近有一部電影就是在講述這個故事
是發生在日本的故事,但是在台灣拍攝的
So actually the Reformation influenced the Roman Catholic
church, too,
to be more active in this way instead of
only getting money the way they used to
事實上宗教改革也影響了羅馬天主教會
讓他們不再只是聚斂錢財
而是更多宣教
So I want to go on to the countries that were
influenced by the Reformation and influenced Taiwan
我接下來要談被宗教改革影響
也影響台灣的這些國家

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