《宗教改革五百週年紀念講座:歐洲的宗教改革如何改變台灣與全世界的社會》(印主烈 博士) - 2.對台灣影響最大的改革家是誰?

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第二集《宗教改革五百週年紀念講座:歐洲的宗教改革如何改變台灣與全世界的社會》對台灣影響最大的改革家是誰?(印主烈 博士)
“500th Anniversary Lecture: How the Reformation Influenced Taiwan” ( Part 2: Which Reformers Influenced Taiwan Most? John Calvin, Martin Luther, Catholic vs. Protestant) – Rev. Dr. Joel Linton

And there is another city in Switzerland
named Geneva.
另外一個瑞士的城市叫日內瓦
And probably one of the most influential man
in the Reformation was teaching there:
在宗教改革裡最有影響力的人物之一
當時就在日內瓦教書
John Calvin.
就是約翰加爾文
If you said who was the most influential man
in European history who influenced Taiwan,
you might say that John Calvin was.
如果你問歐洲歷史上最有影響力
同時也影響台灣的人是誰
應該就是加爾文
He introduced the Presbyterian form
of church government.
是他引進長老會的教會治理制度
And that became the basis of
American democracy later on.
長老一起治理教會的模式
之後成為美國民主制度的基礎
Also, he introduced the idea that the church
is independent from the civil government.
他也引進了一個從聖經而來的觀念就是
教會的權柄是獨立於公民政府之外
The church and the civil government
cooperate, but they are separate powers.
教會與政府是互相合作
但各自獨立的權柄
That was the foundation
for the idea of freedom of religion.
所謂宗教自由的概念
也就是從這個觀念發展而來
There a lot of theological points
that John Calvin also taught.
約翰加爾文也教導了許多重要的神學觀念
His teaching most influenced the Netherlands,
in Scotland, and in the United States.
加爾文的神學與教導影響最鉅的是
荷蘭、蘇格蘭和美國
But as far as northern Europe,
the teacher who had the most influence
in northern Europe was Martin Luther.
但是在歐洲北部
產生最大影響力的是馬丁路德
Martin Luther eventually became a teacher
in that little town of Wittenberg in Germany.
馬丁路德之後在德國的威登堡
成為一個神學教授
He started off studying law.
I am going to briefly tell you about
his story.我簡述一下他的故事
他的背景一開始是學法律
One day he was traveling, and
he was almost struck by lighting.
有一次馬丁路德旅行的時候
差一點被雷打中
[Yes, that is a modern style drawing.]
這是現代版的插圖
You can imagine that if you almost get into
a car accident and get really sick and almost die:
the kind of thoughts
that go through your head.
或許你有類似的經歷就是
或許生重病或差點在車禍裡死掉
你可能會開始想一些重要的事情
The lightning strike made Martin Luther think about death,
and eternity and those kinds of things.
差點被雷打到的經驗
讓馬丁路德開始思考死亡和永恆的事
And he decided to commit himself
to the church.
他決定他要更多地投入教會
That made his father very mad because
he wanted his son to be a lawyer.
這讓他爸爸非常生氣
因為他爸爸希望他當律師
A lot of young folks today
feel so healthy and strong that
they do not think about death
or what comes after death
and the state of their eternal destiny.
今天很多年輕人
覺得自己身體很好很強壯
所以從來不想思考死亡和永恆命運
這些問題
They act like they are going to live forever.
他們以為他們可以活到永遠
So they do not ask
the most important questions in life.
所以他們不會問一些人生很重要的問題
But after this happened, Martin Luther
started asking important questions.
馬丁路德在差點被雷打中之後
就開始思考這些重要的問題
His biggest issue? He realized that
he had done bad things in his life.
他知道一件重要的事就是
他一生犯了許多錯
And he is thinking:
how can I deal with my sins?
他在想的是 他如何面對自己的罪
If I die will I be accepted by God?
如果我死了 我會被上帝接納嗎
He started trying to do what most
religions in the world do.
他就開始做世界上宗教都會做的事
As he was a monk,
he tried to do a lot of good things.
當他是修士時,他努力地行善
If you have seen a tang-ki in Taiwan;
在台灣有乩童
sometimes they beat themselves to try to
get their gods to give them a message.
有時他們會自殘
想讓他們的神給他們一些訊息
Martin Luther beat himself
to try to purge out his sins from his life.
馬丁路德鞭打自己
想透過這種方式贖罪
Martin Luther one time had to take a trip
to Rome on business for the church.
有一次馬丁路德因教會公務去羅馬城出差
And he saw: there are all these ways
you can do things to deal with your sins
in the Roman capital.
他看到在羅馬教會有許多方式可以贖罪
He also saw how wealthy
the church in Rome was.
他也看到羅馬教會多麼有錢
So one thing they would do
would be to pray to the saints.
羅馬教會的人會做的其中一件事
就是向聖徒禱告
They would pray to a bone
taken from the saint’s grave.
他們也會向從聖徒墳裡取來的骨頭禱告
This guy is more wealthily dressed
when he is dead than when he was alive.
你可以看到這個死人所穿戴的
比他生前更華麗
這些死人骨骸以最昂貴的飾品來裝飾
If you wanted to get a chance to pray to
that saint, you would have to give money.
你若想向這些聖徒骨骸禱告
你需要付錢
Instead of worshipping God and Jesus,
they would worship Mary.
他們不是敬拜上帝也不是敬拜耶穌
他們敬拜的是馬利亞
So you can see here that
Jesus is portrayed as a little kid
and Mary is portrayed as this big person.
你可以看到 耶穌被描繪成一個小朋友
而馬利亞是一個大人
So they began to
focus their worship on Mary.
所以他們就把崇拜的對象變成馬利亞
It is almost like they think that
“I cannot get close enough to Jesus,
but if I can get Mary on my side, she will
help me with the Judge of the Earth.”
他們覺得 我沒有辦法跟耶穌親近
所以我需要馬利亞來幫我說話
讓我更靠近耶穌這位審判者
And they also used these beads
just like you see Buddhists do.
他們也會使用念珠
就像你看到佛教徒所使用的
They had all these ways of praying
to Mary to help you with your merit.
他們會向馬利亞禱告 累積自己的功德
Maybe you are seeing some
similarities with traditions in Asia, too.
你可能在亞洲一些傳統宗教
看到類似的情形
When he came back,
he started questioning things.
當他從羅馬出差回來之後
他開始質疑
There must be something else;
this does not seem right.
他覺得在羅馬看到這些行為是不對的
一定有其他正確的方式
There must be another way
to deal with your sins.
要處理罪 一定有其他正確的方式
He said that the most important thing
that influenced him
was reading one of the books
in the Bible called Galatians.
他說影響他最大的一件事
就是讀到聖經加拉太書
This is the verse that influenced him.
這就是聖經加拉太書
對他影響最大的一節經文
You can’t be justified
by the works of the law but by faith
你無法透過行善稱義,唯有因信稱義
And so he started studying
this question about justification.
此後他就開始研究稱義的問題
He became a professor at Wittenburg
University at that town there.
他之後就在威登堡大學當教授
And he had a job also as the preacher
at the local church in the town.
他也在當地的教會當牧師
When he moved here
this is when he got into trouble
with the emperor
and the Roman Catholic church.
那個時候他開始跟教廷和政府有衝突
This is how it started.
I’ll tell you how this event started.
我會告訴你事情怎麼發生的
You know what this is right?
你知道這是什麼嗎
Everybody in Gî-lân knows
it started in Gî-lân, right? Koa-á-hì.
你們知道歌仔戲是起源於宜蘭
Every time there’s a village event the group
would come and do a performance, right?
鄉村有活動時 戲團會來表演
Do you know what this is?
這是什麼你知道嗎
This was from the Manilla, Phillippines –
這是從菲律賓馬尼拉來的
from 400 years ago
四百年前
It’s not in Mandarin
這不是華語
It’s Hokkien language.
是福建話
The researcher from about 20 years ago
discovered some texts that
had been collected and realized
this is not Mandarin,
this is like Taiwanese
大概二十多年前有一些
看起來像漢字寫成的文件
其實它不是普通話,而是福建話
用中文字寫成
the plays they were going to perform
the lines of what they were going to say
四百年前他們會印出表演的劇本台詞
I think the black areas means
different people speaking
那些黑色方塊應該是在區分
不同的人講不同的台詞
The same thing was going on in Europe
同樣的事也發生在歐洲
There were traveling people and plays
那時也有不同的巡迴表演的劇團
And they also came through Wittenburg
他們也會經過威登堡
where Martin Luther was
馬丁路德所在的地方
But there was a different topic
for the plays
但是他們表演的內容不一樣
Can you see what’s there?
你能看出照片上的是什麼嗎
There are these devils – these bad guys
舞台上面有魔鬼、壞人
And these people
fighting against them, right?
演員在打擊魔鬼
A lot of them illustrated
what happens to you after you die
這些劇團在表演的是
你死了之後所發生的事
You can actually go down to Kaohsiung
and there’s this
Buddhist Light Mountain Temple
where you can see all the different hells
高雄佛光山也有展示
告訴你地獄是什麼樣子
And particularly
they would use the plays to say
this is what’s happening
to your dead ancestors,
your mother that died or
your grandfather that died right now
他們用這種表演在告訴台下的人說
你的媽媽、你的親人死掉就是這麼悲慘
And they would say
this is what’s going to happen to you
他們也會說 你死了也會是這樣悲慘
Unless –
除非
you give some money
除非你給錢
And we’ll give you this certified note from the Pope
that says when you die you’re not
going to have to go through this
你若付錢 我們就給你教宗簽署的保證函
保證你死了不會下地獄
Like any good pastor
Martin Luther saw that and said
that’s not right,
they’re taking money
from all these poor people
and they’re teaching them false things
就像許多好牧師看到這樣的情景
會覺得不太對
馬丁路德也一樣
他覺得這些人根本就是在詐財
So he posted on October 31, 1517
he posted 95 points
of why the Catholic Church was wrong
in doing these kinds of things
在1517年的10月31日
馬丁路德寫了95條抗辯文
抗議羅馬教會所做的錯事
His concern was
donating money is not enough
to deal with the problems you have,
it doesn’t help you at all
他的重點就是
捐錢絕對不能解決你罪的問題
The Roman Catholic church
at that time their concern was
we need to raise money to build our
beautiful, beautiful buildings in Rome
當時羅馬教會所關心的就是
我們要取得很多錢 來蓋漂亮的教堂
So because of the printing press,
people started printing what Martin Luther
wrote and spreading it around
因為那時出版業開始發達了
他們出版了馬丁路德寫的95條抗議文
印出來廣為傳播
Of course that made the Pope very angry
because he was losing money
當然這使當時的教宗很不高興
因為損失了許多捐獻
Martin Luther got summoned by the emperor
and had to defend himself
馬丁路德被當時的皇帝傳喚
他也要為他自己所說的辯護
So he stood up against the two most
powerful people in Europe,
the Pope and the Emperor
所以他就與當時歐洲
最有權勢的兩個人對立
一個是羅馬皇帝 一個是教宗
So let me take a few minutes to tell you
the answer to a question I often get
我現在要回答一個我常被問到的問題
What is the difference between
Roman Catholic and Protestant
天主教跟基督教到底有什麼不一樣
Taiwanese ask me this all the time
台灣人總是問我這個問題
There are a lot of things
but I’ll give you four main differences
有很多不一樣
但我只跟你提四點主要的差別
The first is the Roman Catholic say
the Pope is the head of the church
第一個是羅馬天主教認為
教宗是教會的最高領袖
Protestants say ‘no,’
he’s just another pastor
基督教認為教宗最多只是另外一個牧師
The second is the Roman Catholics say
Mary has a very special place,
almost like a goddess
第二個是 羅馬天主教認為
馬利亞有一個獨特的地位
幾乎像一個女神
You’ll notice one of the hospitals
in Luodong is named after Mary
羅東有一家醫院就是以馬利亞命名
The Protestants say ‘no,’ Mary was just
another Christian that God used
基督教認為不
馬利亞只是神所使用的一般基督徒
Just gave her special purpose
只是給她一個獨特的使命
Protestants say all Christians are saints,
not just a special few
基督教認為所有的基督徒都是聖徒
不僅限於少數人
Remember we talked about
the Bible being printed
記得我們剛才說到聖經被印刷出來嗎
And before that
people couldn’t read the Bible
在這之前人們無法讀聖經
The Roman Catholic church said that
church teaching and church traditions
were almost more important than the Bible
羅馬天主教認為教會的教導與傳統
可說比聖經更重要
And the Protestants say the Bible is God’s Word
and is more important than any other book
基督教認為聖經是神的話
重要性超過任何一本書
And all of those three things led to probably
the most important disagreement:
以上三點就導致了這最主要的分歧
Justification
第四點 稱義
I don’t know if the Chinese word
makes sense or not
不知道對你來說
中文可以了解這個概念嗎
How can you be saved
from your sins or from hell
這個意思簡單來說就是
你要怎麼從你的罪惡當中得救
你要怎麼從本來會下地獄的
悲慘的結局中得救
I’m going to show you just a few places
that influenced the thinking of the
Reformers in the Reformation
我要介紹那時宗教改革人士
如何發現正確的聖經教導
第一點 用中文來唸
This idea was put into a poem that
some people even sing today: Rock of Ages
人是因為信耶穌而得救
這個概念被寫成一首詩歌:萬古磐石
被傳唱至今
不知道你們有沒有聽過
So nothing that I can bring
I just cling to the cross
I have no clothes to wear I need grace
Jesus has to wash me.
That is the idea.
正如歌詞所說
So in the original picture on our flyer,
it talks about those Latin words,
one of the Latin words is ‘Only By Faith’
在我們的傳單裡面
圍城圈圈的拉丁文 其中一個字是唯獨信心
意思就是我們只能藉著信心來得救
There’s no way you can save yourself
你無法拯救自己
I think this is very different from other religions
and this was clearly taught in the Reformation
這點與其他宗教不同
但卻在宗教改革中清楚教導出來
I’ll tell you one other verse
that influenced the teaching
我告訴你另一個影響此教導的
另一個聖經經文
So they say that when Jesus died on the cross
he traded places and gave other people his righteousness
and took on the sins of other people
and suffered their punishment
當耶穌被釘死在十字架上的時候
祂與罪人交換了地位
原本是罪人該承受的刑罰、咒詛
耶穌代替我們承擔了
而耶穌自己完美無缺、完全聖潔的生命
就歸算在罪人身上
讓我們能被上帝接納
So Martin Luther said
paying money to these traveling people
it doesn’t help you at all
所以馬丁路德認為
捐錢給這些巡迴劇團
根本不能幫助我們
But his teaching started to
change the whole society
但馬丁路德的教導開始改變整個社會
One more thing about Germany
我再說一件關於德國的事情
Do you know who that is
你知道這是誰嗎
After the Reformation in Germany
this composer Bach
在宗教改革之後
這是德國作曲家巴哈
He would write at the bottom of every single piece he
composed,
he would those three Latin words
at the bottom: Soli Deo Gloria
他會在他每一個樂章完成後
寫下這三個拉丁字 Soli Deo Gloria
That is one of the slogans
from the Reformation,
It says “Only To God’s Glory”
這是宗教改革的口號之一
意思是:唯獨榮耀歸給上帝
How did the Roman Catholic Church
respond to these Reformers
那麼當時羅馬天主教
又如何回應這些宗教改革領袖呢
They weren’t happy
他們很不高興
And they had a meeting in A.D. 1545
他們在1545年開了一個會議
And they condemned all this teaching
他們譴責這些宗教改革的教導
And there was a group called the Jesuits
that was started at that time
當時天主教創立一個團體「耶穌會」
And they were responsible for a lot of the
attacking and persecution of the Reformers
他們負責逼迫、處決這些宗教改革人士
But some of the other Jesuit
went as missionaries to China
有一些耶穌會的修士到中國宣教
And Japan and Korea
也去了日本、韓國
There was a movie
recently filmed about that

it was about Japan
but they actually filmed it in Taiwan
最近有一部電影就是在講述這個故事
是發生在日本的故事,但是在台灣拍攝的
So actually the Reformation influenced the Roman Catholic
church, too,
to be more active in this way instead of
only getting money the way they used to
事實上宗教改革也影響了羅馬天主教會
讓他們不再只是聚斂錢財
而是更多宣教
So I want to go on to the countries that were
influenced by the Reformation and influenced Taiwan
我接下來要談被宗教改革影響
也影響台灣的這些國家

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