《宗教改革五百週年紀念講座:歐洲的宗教改革如何改變台灣與全世界的社會》（印主烈 博士） - 2.對台灣影響最大的改革家是誰？
“500th Anniversary Lecture: How the Reformation Influenced Taiwan” ( Part 2: Which Reformers Influenced Taiwan Most? John Calvin, Martin Luther, Catholic vs. Protestant) – Rev. Dr. Joel Linton
And there is another city in Switzerland
And probably one of the most influential man
in the Reformation was teaching there:
If you said who was the most influential man
in European history who influenced Taiwan,
you might say that John Calvin was.
He introduced the Presbyterian form
of church government.
And that became the basis of
American democracy later on.
Also, he introduced the idea that the church
is independent from the civil government.
The church and the civil government
cooperate, but they are separate powers.
That was the foundation
for the idea of freedom of religion.
There a lot of theological points
that John Calvin also taught.
His teaching most influenced the Netherlands,
in Scotland, and in the United States.
But as far as northern Europe,
the teacher who had the most influence
in northern Europe was Martin Luther.
Martin Luther eventually became a teacher
in that little town of Wittenberg in Germany.
He started off studying law.
I am going to briefly tell you about
One day he was traveling, and
he was almost struck by lighting.
[Yes, that is a modern style drawing.]
You can imagine that if you almost get into
a car accident and get really sick and almost die:
the kind of thoughts
that go through your head.
The lightning strike made Martin Luther think about death,
and eternity and those kinds of things.
And he decided to commit himself
to the church.
That made his father very mad because
he wanted his son to be a lawyer.
A lot of young folks today
feel so healthy and strong that
they do not think about death
or what comes after death
and the state of their eternal destiny.
They act like they are going to live forever.
So they do not ask
the most important questions in life.
But after this happened, Martin Luther
started asking important questions.
His biggest issue? He realized that
he had done bad things in his life.
And he is thinking:
how can I deal with my sins?
If I die will I be accepted by God?
He started trying to do what most
religions in the world do.
As he was a monk,
he tried to do a lot of good things.
If you have seen a tang-ki in Taiwan;
sometimes they beat themselves to try to
get their gods to give them a message.
Martin Luther beat himself
to try to purge out his sins from his life.
Martin Luther one time had to take a trip
to Rome on business for the church.
And he saw: there are all these ways
you can do things to deal with your sins
in the Roman capital.
He also saw how wealthy
the church in Rome was.
So one thing they would do
would be to pray to the saints.
They would pray to a bone
taken from the saint’s grave.
This guy is more wealthily dressed
when he is dead than when he was alive.
If you wanted to get a chance to pray to
that saint, you would have to give money.
Instead of worshipping God and Jesus,
they would worship Mary.
So you can see here that
Jesus is portrayed as a little kid
and Mary is portrayed as this big person.
So they began to
focus their worship on Mary.
It is almost like they think that
“I cannot get close enough to Jesus,
but if I can get Mary on my side, she will
help me with the Judge of the Earth.”
And they also used these beads
just like you see Buddhists do.
They had all these ways of praying
to Mary to help you with your merit.
Maybe you are seeing some
similarities with traditions in Asia, too.
When he came back,
he started questioning things.
There must be something else;
this does not seem right.
There must be another way
to deal with your sins.
He said that the most important thing
that influenced him
was reading one of the books
in the Bible called Galatians.
This is the verse that influenced him.
You can’t be justified
by the works of the law but by faith
And so he started studying
this question about justification.
He became a professor at Wittenburg
University at that town there.
And he had a job also as the preacher
at the local church in the town.
When he moved here
this is when he got into trouble
with the emperor
and the Roman Catholic church.
This is how it started.
I’ll tell you how this event started.
You know what this is right?
Everybody in Gî-lân knows
it started in Gî-lân, right? Koa-á-hì.
Every time there’s a village event the group
would come and do a performance, right?
Do you know what this is?
This was from the Manilla, Phillippines –
from 400 years ago
It’s not in Mandarin
It’s Hokkien language.
The researcher from about 20 years ago
discovered some texts that
had been collected and realized
this is not Mandarin,
this is like Taiwanese
the plays they were going to perform
the lines of what they were going to say
I think the black areas means
different people speaking
The same thing was going on in Europe
There were traveling people and plays
And they also came through Wittenburg
where Martin Luther was
But there was a different topic
for the plays
Can you see what’s there?
There are these devils – these bad guys
And these people
fighting against them, right?
A lot of them illustrated
what happens to you after you die
You can actually go down to Kaohsiung
and there’s this
Buddhist Light Mountain Temple
where you can see all the different hells
they would use the plays to say
this is what’s happening
to your dead ancestors,
your mother that died or
your grandfather that died right now
And they would say
this is what’s going to happen to you
you give some money
And we’ll give you this certified note from the Pope
that says when you die you’re not
going to have to go through this
Like any good pastor
Martin Luther saw that and said
that’s not right,
they’re taking money
from all these poor people
and they’re teaching them false things
So he posted on October 31, 1517
he posted 95 points
of why the Catholic Church was wrong
in doing these kinds of things
His concern was
donating money is not enough
to deal with the problems you have,
it doesn’t help you at all
The Roman Catholic church
at that time their concern was
we need to raise money to build our
beautiful, beautiful buildings in Rome
So because of the printing press,
people started printing what Martin Luther
wrote and spreading it around
Of course that made the Pope very angry
because he was losing money
Martin Luther got summoned by the emperor
and had to defend himself
So he stood up against the two most
powerful people in Europe,
the Pope and the Emperor
So let me take a few minutes to tell you
the answer to a question I often get
What is the difference between
Roman Catholic and Protestant
Taiwanese ask me this all the time
There are a lot of things
but I’ll give you four main differences
The first is the Roman Catholic say
the Pope is the head of the church
Protestants say ‘no,’
he’s just another pastor
The second is the Roman Catholics say
Mary has a very special place,
almost like a goddess
You’ll notice one of the hospitals
in Luodong is named after Mary
The Protestants say ‘no,’ Mary was just
another Christian that God used
Just gave her special purpose
Protestants say all Christians are saints,
not just a special few
Remember we talked about
the Bible being printed
And before that
people couldn’t read the Bible
The Roman Catholic church said that
church teaching and church traditions
were almost more important than the Bible
And the Protestants say the Bible is God’s Word
and is more important than any other book
And all of those three things led to probably
the most important disagreement:
I don’t know if the Chinese word
makes sense or not
How can you be saved
from your sins or from hell
I’m going to show you just a few places
that influenced the thinking of the
Reformers in the Reformation
This idea was put into a poem that
some people even sing today: Rock of Ages
So nothing that I can bring
I just cling to the cross
I have no clothes to wear I need grace
Jesus has to wash me.
That is the idea.
So in the original picture on our flyer,
it talks about those Latin words,
one of the Latin words is ‘Only By Faith’
There’s no way you can save yourself
I think this is very different from other religions
and this was clearly taught in the Reformation
I’ll tell you one other verse
that influenced the teaching
So they say that when Jesus died on the cross
he traded places and gave other people his righteousness
and took on the sins of other people
and suffered their punishment
So Martin Luther said
paying money to these traveling people
it doesn’t help you at all
But his teaching started to
change the whole society
One more thing about Germany
Do you know who that is
After the Reformation in Germany
this composer Bach
He would write at the bottom of every single piece he
he would those three Latin words
at the bottom: Soli Deo Gloria
寫下這三個拉丁字 Soli Deo Gloria
That is one of the slogans
from the Reformation,
It says “Only To God’s Glory”
How did the Roman Catholic Church
respond to these Reformers
They weren’t happy
And they had a meeting in A.D. 1545
And they condemned all this teaching
And there was a group called the Jesuits
that was started at that time
And they were responsible for a lot of the
attacking and persecution of the Reformers
But some of the other Jesuit
went as missionaries to China
And Japan and Korea
There was a movie
recently filmed about that
it was about Japan
but they actually filmed it in Taiwan
So actually the Reformation influenced the Roman Catholic
to be more active in this way instead of
only getting money the way they used to
So I want to go on to the countries that were
influenced by the Reformation and influenced Taiwan